SaqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro Sida qarTlis saero universiteti ciuri nozaZe, zurab TeTruaSvili, soso nozaZe kompiuteruli qselebi interneti kompiuteruli usafrTxoeba Tbilisi



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failebis miReba internetidan


Webgverdze arsebuli hipermimarTvebi SeiZleba miuTiTebdnen sxvadasxva tipis dokumentebze. Tu brauzers ar SeuZlia asaxos gansazRvruli tipis failebi (magali-Tad, programis failebi gafarToebiT .Exe, arqivebi .Zip da sxva) inicirdeba mocemuli failis kompiuterSi CatvirTvis procesi.

programa Internet Exproler uSvebs failis CatvirTvis ostats (Wizard), romlis muSaobis pirvel etepze saWiroa mieTiTos unda giaxsnas faili Tu Seinaxos diskze. failis `gaxsna~-Si igulisxmeba misi Senaxva droebiTi failebis katalogSi da dauyoneblivi gaSveba (Tu es programis failia) an gaxsna im programis saSualebiT, romelic gankuTvnilia am tipis failebTan samuSaod. aseTi midgoba gzas uxsnis kompiuterze safrTxis Semcvel informacias. ufro saimedoa failis Senaxva diskze. am SemTxvevaSi saWiroa im saqaRaldis amorCeva, romelSic Seinaxeba faili da failze saxelis darqmeva.

f
ailis CatvirTvis msvleloba aisaxeba specialur fanjaraSi (suraTi 3).

suraTi 3. FTP -kvanZidan failis CatvirTva.

muSaobis msvlelobis procesi gamoCndeba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac CatvirTvis marTvis ostats SeuZlia miiRos informacia failis srul moculobaze, es ki SesaZ-lebelia mxolod maSin Tu faili itvirTeba uSualod WebkvenZidan.

failis FTP kvenZidan CatvirTvis msvlelobas SeiZleba Tvali vadevnoT fanjris saTauris striqoniT, an Tu fanjara daxurulia an dafaruli sxva fanjrebiT maSin amocanebis panelze Rilakis warweriT. failis CatvirTvis procesi xels ar uSlis paralelurad Webgverdis daTvalierebas an internetis sxva operaciebis Sesrulebas. CatvirTvis Semdeg fanjara avtomaturad ixureba Tu dayenebulia alami  "daxure dialoguri fanjara Cat-virTvis damTavrebis Semdeg". winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, CatvirTvis damTavrebis Semdeg gaaqtiurdeba Rilakebi gaxsna an saqaRaldis gaxsna, romlebic saSualebas gvaZle-ven, Sesabamisad gavxsnaT axlaxan CatvirTvuli faili an am fails Semcveli folderi.

failebis CatvirTva nebismier dros SeiZleba Sewydes RilakiT Cansel. momxmareblis mier CatvirTvis an kavSiris gawyvetiT es operacia saWiroa Tavidan daiwyos. Windows operaciul sistemas ara aqvs raime mizeziT Sewyvetili CatvirTvis ganaxlebis saSualebebi. es SesaZlebelia mxolod specialuri programebis gamoyenebiT.

failebi, romlebic misawvdomia CasatvirTad nebis-mieri momxmare­blisaTvis, umeteswilad inaxebian FTP kvan-Zebze. FTP kvanZze SesaRwevad saWiroa misamarTis velSi misi URL misamarTis miTiTeba. gaCumebiT (Default) brauzeri (Internet Exproler) uzrunvelyofs FTP - kvanZTan anonimur mierTebas, romlis drosac daSvebulia mxolid folderebis daTvaliereba da failebis CatvirTva, Tu anonimuri SeRweva nebadarTuli ar aris, ekranze gamoCndeba dialoguri fan-jara saxelisa da parolis moTxovniT. FTP-kvanZis fanjara iseve gamoiyureba, rogorc Cveulebrivi saqaRaldis fanja-ra, magram daSorebuli saqaRaldis niSnis gamoyenebiT. failis CasatvirTvad saWiroa mis niSanze mausis marjvena Rilakis dawkapuneba da konteqstur meniuSi aslis gadata-nis brZanebis (Cory Folder) amorCeva. Tu FTP protokolis mocemuli saqaRaldisaTvis daSvebulia yvela failuri operaciebi, maSin maTTan SeiZleba iseve muSaoba, rogorc saqaRaldis fanjarasTan. SeuZlebelia mxolod erTi kvanZidan meoreze failebis pirdapiri gadatana. aseTi operaciebis Sesasruleblad saWiroa failis gadatana jer kompiuteris lokalur saqaRaldeSi, xolo Semdeg failis gagzavna aqedan sxva FTP - kvanZze an igive FTP kvanZis sxva saqaRaldeSi. vinaidan Setyobinebebi Semodian da igzavnebian serveris saSualebiT, programaSi moiTxoveba serveris Sesa-xeb informaciis miTiTeba. es informacia inaxeba saaRricxvo Canaweris saxiT.

    1. informaciis Zebna internetSi.


internets sami funqcia aqvs: sakomunikacio, sainformacio da marTviTi. sxvadasxva samsaxurebs SeuZliaT uzrunvelyon sxvadasxva funqciebi. Tumca WWW samsaxuris farglebSi arian servisebi, romlebic asruleben sakomuni-kacio da marTvis funqciebs, magram am samsaxuris ZiriTadi daniSnuleba sainformacioa. rodesac gvinda raime cnobebis moZieba, monacemebisaTvis pirvel rigSi vakiTxavT Web sainformacio sivrces.

es sivrce gamoirCeva giganturi zomebiT, masSi warmodgenilia uamravi Webdokumenti. movnaxoT maT Soris saWiro gverdi gansakuTrebuli, arc Tu martivi amocanaa. ra Tqma unda, SeiZleba visargebloT nacnobebis rCeviT, ma-siuri informaciis saSualebebSi gamoqveynebuli URLmisa-marTebiT, magram WWWsamsaxu­risaTvis aucilebelia Tavisi saZiebo servisebi, da isini arseboben kidec. es servisebi ufasod muSaoben. maTi saqmianobis ekonomikur safuZvels uzrunvelyofs klientebis Zalze maRali ukugebis koefi-cienti.

saZiebo sistema warmoadgens specializirebul WebkvanZs. momxmarebeli saZiebo sistemas atyobinebs mona-cemebs saZebni Webgverdis Sinaarsze, xolo sistema wa-rudgens mas im gverdebis hipermimarTvebis sias, romlebic Sesabamebian moiTxovnas. arsebobs ramodenime modeli, ro-melzedac damyarebulia saZiebo sistemebis muSaoba, magram istoriulad meti popularoba orma modelma moipova. esenia: saZiebo katalogebi da Ziebis mimTiTeblebi.

saZiebo katalogebi. saZiebo katalogebi awyobilia igve principze, rogorc msxvili biblioTekebis Tematuri katalogebi. saZiebo katalogebze mimarTvisas, mis ZiriTad gverdze vnaxulobT msxili Tematuri kategoriebis sias, magaliTad iseTi, rogoricaa ekonomika da mewarmeoba (Busines Economika), romelic naCvenebia saZiebo katalogebis yahoo! magaliTze (sur. 5).

katalogebis siis TviToeuli Canaweri hipermi-marTvaa. masze dawkapunebiT ixsneba saZiebo katalogis Sem-degi gverdi, romelzec dawvrilebiTaa warmodgenili moce-muli Tema, magaliTad, Temebze: samewarmeo samarTali, mom-xmareblis uflebebis dacva,





sur. 5 saZiebo katalogebis yahoo! mTavari gverdi

ekonomikuri maCvebeblebi da bazris indikatorebi, reklama da marketingi, eleqtronuli komercia da sxva mravali. Temis dasaxelebaze dawkapunebiT (mag. eleqtronuli komer-cia) ixsneba axali gverdi ganyofilebebis siiT - eleqtronuli sagadasaxado sistemebi, internet-maRaziebi, eleqtronuli komerciis sawarmoebis dabegvra, programuli uzrunvelyofa da sxva. TemaSi CaRrmavebis gagrZelebiT, SeiZleba mivaRwioT konkretuli Webgvedebis siasTan da amovirCioT is resursebi, romelic ukeT Seesabameba amo-canis gadawyvetas. saZiebo sistemebTan muSaoba intuiciurad martivia. maTSi informaciis Zieba cota Tu bevrad praqtiku-lad yovelTvis nayofierad mTavrdeba. Tumca am simartivis miRma katalogebis Seqmnisa da warmoebis metismeti sirTule imaleba. maRalkvakificiuri redaqtorebi piradad aTvalie-reben WWW sainformaciio sivrces, arCeven imas, rac maTi TvalsazrisiT sazogadoebis interess warmoadgens da SeaqvT misamarTebi katalogSi. msoflios umsxvilesi saZiebo katalogia Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com). mas emsaxureba daaxloebiT 150 redaqtori, amis miuxedavad katalogizire-buli Web resursebis saerTo moculoba Seadgens milion Webgverdze mets, rac mTeli WWW resursebis 10%ze naklebia.

miuxedavad aseTi dabali koeficientisa saZiebo katalogebi didi popularobiT sargebloban. miRebulia maTi gamoyeneba mocemul Temaze informaciis pirveladi, referatuli ZebnisaTvis. Tu Tema momxmare­blisaTvis axalia da gamoukvlevi, maSin is albaT ar saWiroebs Zebnis farTo Sedegebs. umetesad is saWiroebs cotad Tu bevrad Sinaarsiani resursebis mimTiTeblebs, rasac uzrunvelyofen swored saZiebo katalogebi. gamomdinare iqidan, rom kata-logis Sedgenaze muSaoben adamianebi da ara programebi uzrunve­lyofs TviToeul Temaze ufro mniSvnelovani resursebis SerCevas.

saZiebo katalogebis ricxvi msoflioSi SedarebiT mcirea. rac dakavSirebulia maTi Senaxvisa da momsaxurebis maRal SromatevadobasTan da kvalificiuri redaqtorebis simciresTan. msoflios umsxvilesi saZiebo katalogi ukve davasaxeleT, ruseTis udidesi saZiebo katalogia Atrus-i (atrus.aport.ru). zogierTi Tanamedrove saZiebo katalogebis sia motanilia wignis boloSi.



saZiebo mimTiTeblebi. saZiebo katalogebis ZiriTad problemas WWWresursebis mocvis dabali koeficienti warmoadgens. Tumca referatuli ZebnisaTvis igi kritiku-lad ar gamoiyureba, magram mainc arseboben aqtualur, unikalur, specialur informaciaze moTxovnebi, romelsac ar moicavs da arc SeiZleba moicavdes saZiebo katalogebi.

imisaTvis, rom mravaljer gaizardos Webresur-sebis mocvis koeficienti, saZiebo sistemis manacemTa bazis Sevsebis procesidan aucilebelia adamianis faqtoris gamoricxva, samuSao unda iyos avtomatizirebuli, amasTan erTad mniSvnelovnad ecema sistemis mier Ziebis Sedegad mowodebuli mimarTvebis xarisxi, magram imavdroulad izrdeba maTi raodenoba. Webresursebis avtomatur kata-logizacias da klientebis moTxovnebis dakmayofilebas axorcieleben e.w. saZiebo mimTiTeblebi.

saZiebo mimTiTeblebis muSaobis principi Webre-sursebis `gasaRebi sityviT~ ZebnaSi mdgomareobs. momxma-rebeli aRwers saZebn resurs "gasaRebi sityvis" saSua-lebebiT da aZlevs Zebnis davalebas. saZiebo sistema aanalizebs Tavis bazaSi Senaxul monacemebs da gascems moTxovnis Sesabamis Webgverdebis sias. hipermimarTvebTan erTad gaicema mokle cnobebi mopovebul resursebze, ris safuZvelzec momxmarebels SeuZlia SearCios misTvis saWi-ro resursebi.

dRes msoflioSi arsebobs daaxloebiT 10 aTasi saZiebo mimTiTeblebi. siis TavSi adgils ikavebs ori aTe-uli sazRvargareTuli sistemebi: Alta Vista (WWW. altavista.com); Excite (WWW.excite .com) da sxva.

ruseTSic arsebobs ramodenime Zebnis maCveneblebi, romelTa Soris udidesi da popularulia www.aport.ru, www. yandex.ru da www.rambler.ru, amJamad saqarTveloSi popularulia saZiebo sistema google.com.

sxvadasxva saZiebo mimTiTeblebma momxmarebelTa moTxovnebis damuSavebisaTvis SeiZleba gamoiyenon sxvada-sxva informaciuli teqnologiebi. efeqturad rom Sevasru-loT WWWSi informaciis Zieba, unda warmovidginoT TviToeuli sistemis Rirsebebi da nakli da zogadad mainc CavwvdeT maTi muSaobis princips.



saZiebo mimTiTeblebis muSaobis sami etapi. saZiebo mimTiTeblis muSaoba SeiZleba sam etapad davyoT. maT Soris ori etapi mosamzadebelia da SeumCnevelia klientisaTvis, mxolod mesame etapze xdeba momxmarebelTan urTierToba, magram TviToeul am etapzea damokidebuli saZiebo sistemis funqcionaluri Tvisebebi da masTan muSaobis efeqturoba.

pirveladi monacemTa bazis Segroveba. pirvel etapze saZiebo sistema axdens WWW informaciuli sivrcis skanirebas. am mizniT iyeneben specialur agentur programebs - `Wiayela~. saZiebo sistemis agentebi ar unda avurioT qselis kompiuteruli virusebis saxesxvaobaSi, romlebsac agreTve `Wiayelebi~ hqviaT. saZiebo sistemis `Wiayelebi~ sruliad uvnebelia serverebisa da klientebisaTvis. Tavisi SinaarsiT is Zalian efeqturi, mcire zomis brauzeria. maTi amocanaa mxolod moZebnon avtomaturad qselSi Webresursebi hipermimarTvebis Tanmim-devrobiT, da darwmundebian ra, rom es resursi sis-temisaTvis ucnobia, gaakeTon asli monacemTa bazaSi. aseve xdeba adre miRebuli dokumentebis ganaxleba, romlebmac ganicades cvlilebebi winamdebare aslis gadaRebis Semdeg.

samZebro `Wiayelas~ muSaobis efeqturobaze bev-radaa damokidebuli saZiebo mimTiTeblis Sinaarsobrivi nawili. TviToeuli sistema iyenebs sakuTar saZiebo programas da konkurentebisagan saidumlod inaxavs misi muSaobis algoriTms.



monacemTa bazis indeqsacia. qselis Webresursebi-sagan Sekrebili monacemTa baza kargi, magram saZiebo sistemis funqcionirebisaTvis arasakmarisi safuZvelia. misi saSualebiT SeiZleba ukve movemsaxuroT klientebis moT-xovnebs, magram SeuZlebelia amis swrafad gakeTeba. mom-xmareblis mier miTiTebuli gasaRebi sityvis Zebna farTo monacemTa bazaSi metad xangrZlivi operaciaa. arasasur-velia klientis dayovneba wamis nawilze meti xaniT. amitom Sekrebili monacemTa baza gadis winaswar damuSavebas, e.w. indeqsacias. indeqsaciis etapze iqmnebian specializirebuli dokumentebi - saZiebo mimTiTeblebi. umartives mimTiTebels vicnobT saswavlo saxelmZrvanelosTan muSaobidan. ara iSviaTad wignis boloSi moyvanilia sagnobrivi mimTiTe-beli, romlis saSualebiTac, terminis mixedviT, swrafad SeiZleba moiZebnos gverdi, romlebzec es terminia ganmar-tebuli. analogiuradaa mowyobili saZiebo mimTiTeblebi. saZiebo mimTiTeblis umartives tips `uku fails~ uwodeben. es ubralod sityvaria, romlebSiac Sedian Webresursis daTvalierebis dros Sexvedrili yvela sityva. TviToeuli sityvis gaswvriv miTiTebulia mimarTvaTa sia, romlebic uCveneben monacemTa bazaSi Sesabamisi resursis adgils.

momxmareblisagan gasaRebi sityvebis miRebisas saZiebo mimTiTeblebis gadaTvaliereba Zalian swrafad xdeba, radgan is winaswaraa anbanis mixedviT mowesrigebuli. Sedegad klienti sakmarisad swrafad iRebs miTiTebaTa sias misTvis saintereso WebserverebiT.



saSedego siis rafinireba. es mesame etapia, romlis drosac xorcieldeba momxmarebelTan urTierTqmedeba. am etapze iqmneba miTiTebaTa sia, romelic gadaecema momxmare-bels saSedego siis saxiT. momxmareblis warmodgena saZi-ebo sistemis muSaobis xarisxze pirdapiraa damokidebuli am etapze gamoyenebul saZiebo teqnologiebze.

saSedego siis rafinireba mdgomareobs Zebnis Sedegebis gafiltvrasa da ranJirebaSi. gafiltvraSi igu-lisxmeba im miTiTebebisagan gacxrilva, romlis miwodeba momxmareblisaTvis mizanSewonili araa, uwinares yovlisa mowmdeba aslebis arseboba. Tu sistema erT siaSi erTi da igive Web resursebze mraval miTiTebas Seicavs, es miuTiTebs imaze, rom misma saSualebebma keTilsindisierad imuSaves, pirvel or etapze, magram araferi gaakeTes mesame etapze. ganmeorebadi mimTiTebebiT gadatvirTvuli saSedego siebi, arTuleben namdvilad sasargeblo resursebis SerCevas.

raJinireba mdgomareobs saSedego siis warmodgenis specialuri wesrigis SeqmnaSi, romlis drosac ufro metad `sasargeblo~ (saZiebo sistemis TvalsazrisiT) miTiTebebi gadaitaneba siis TavSi, xolo naklebad sasargeblo siis boloSi. ama Tu im miTiTebebis `sargeblianobis~ krite-riumis gageba klientisaTvis SeiZleba sruliad sxvadasxvagvari iyos. swored amitom, erT bazasTan momuSave sxvadasxva saZiebo sistemebi iZlevian Zebnis sxvadasxva Sedegs. upirvelesad, raJinirebisas gaiTvaliswineba Web dokumentSi gasaRebi sityvis gamoCenis raodenoba. principi `rac metia-miT ukeTesia~ sakmaod naTelia magram ara mTlad koreqtuli. namdvilad kargia, roca saZebni sityva sakmarisad xSirad dokumentis pirvel 5-10 abzacSi gvxvdeba, xolo dokumentis danarCeni nawilebi naklebad gaiTvalis-wineba. Zalian kargia, rodesac gasaRebi sityva gvxvdeba dokumentis saTaurSi an naxatis qveSa warwerebSi.

inteleqtualur sistemebs SeuZlia agreTve Tan-mdevi sityvebis arsebobis Semowmeba. ase magaliTad, mravali Webgverdis Sinaarsis analizis Sedegad, romelic jer kidev indeqsaciis etapze Sesruldnen, SeiZleba dadgindes, rom sityvebs `eleqtronuli komercia~ Zalian xSirad Tan sdevs sityvebi` cifruli xelmowera~ da `sagadasaxado sistemebi~. Tu saZiebo sistemam amis Sesaxeb icis, maSin miiRebs ra klientisagan sityvebiT-`eleqtronuli komercia~ Zebnis davalebas, igi siis TavSi ganaTavsebs im Webgverdebsac, romlebSic agreTve moixsenieba cifruli xelmowera da sagadasaxado sistema. yvelgan, sadac SeiZleba, avtomaturi sistemebi iswrafian daeyrdnon `adamianur faqtors~. avtomaturi sistemisTvis amis gakeTeba martivi araa, magram arseboben specialuri teqnologiebi. ase magaliTad, jer kidev indeqsaciis etapze maRali reitingi SeiZleba miiRon im gverdebma, romlebzedac meti miTiTebebia sxva Webgverdebidan. ramdenadac hipermimarT-vebs adamianebi qmnian, da ara manqanebi, es faqti SeiZleba gamoviyenoT rogorc subieqturi Sefaseba im dokumentebis `sargeblianobaze~, romlebic xSiradaa citirebuli.

am wignis farglebSi ar SegviZlia movicvaT yvela is meTodebi, romlebsac iyebeben saZiebo sistemebi mim-TiTebeli siis formirebisaTvis, magram am etapis roli Znelad Sesafasebelia. moSinjeT ramodenime saZiebo sistemasTan muSaoba SeafaseT Tu rogoraa aqvT maT Sedegebis filtraciis da raJinirebis saqme. Tqven, namdvilad, SeamCnevT, rom gulmodgine filtracia da gonivruli raJinireba aRiTqmeba momxmareblis mier, rogorc sistemis muSaobis xarisxis maCvenebeli.



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