SaqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro Sida qarTlis saero universiteti ciuri nozaZe, zurab TeTruaSvili, soso nozaZe kompiuteruli qselebi interneti kompiuteruli usafrTxoeba Tbilisi



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internetis ZiriTadi cnebebi.


zogadad, interneti aris qselebis gaerTianeba. magram, bolo xans am sityvam ufro farTo azri SeiZina - saerTaSoriso kompiuteruli qseli. interneti fizikuri gagebiT SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc yvela SesaZlo kavSiris arxebiT erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli milionobiT kompiuteri, magram internetis aseTi `fizikuri~ xedva Zalze viwroa, umjobesia ganvixiloT igi rogorc raime informaciuli sivrce.

interneti ar aris kompiuterebs Soris pirdapiri SeerTebebis erToblioba. magaliTad, Tu sxvadasxva kontinentze ganlagebuli ori kompiuteri cvlian monacemebs internetSi sulac ar niSnavs, rom maT Soris arsebobs erTi pirdapiri SeerTeba. monacemebi, romlebsac isini ugzavnian erTmaneTs iyofa calkeul paketebaT da ufro metic, erTi Setyobinebis sxvadasxva paketebma kavSiris erTi seansis dros SeiZleba gaiaron sxvadasxva marSuti. ra marSutiTac ar unda imoZraon monacemTa paketebma, miaRweven ra isini daniSnulebis adgils gaerTiandebian mTlian dokumentad. amasTan, gvian gagzavnili monacemTa paketebi SeiZleba mivides ufro adre, magram es xels ar SeuSlis sworad aikinZos dokumenti, radganac TviToeul pakets aqvs Tavisi specialuri niSani (markeri).

amgvarad, interneti warmoadgens TiTqos `sivrces~, romlis SigniTac xorcieldeba monacemebis uwyveti cirkulacia. am gagebiT igi SeiZleba SevadaroT tele da radio eTers, Tumca aris arsebiTi gansxvaveba, romelic mdgomareobs imaSi, rom eTerSi araviTari informacia ar SeiZleba Seinaxos, xolo internetSi informacia gadaadgildeba qselis kvanZebis Semadgenel kompiuterebs Soris da inaxeba maT xist diskebze mocemuli drois ganmavlobaSi.

TCPIP protokolebis steki. TCPIP protokolma mniSvnelovani roli daimkvidra internetis CamoyalibebaSi. TCPIP protokoli teqnikuri gagebiT aris ara erTi qseluri protokoli, aramed ori sxvadasxva doneze myofi protokoli (e.w. protoko­lebis steki). protokoli TCP-satransporto donis protokolia, is marTavs monacemebis gadacemis process. protokoli IP - samisamarToa. is miekuTvneba qselur dones da gansazRvravs Tu sad xdeba gadagzavna.

protokoli TCP. TCP protokolis Tanaxmad gadasagzavni monacemebi `iWreba~ mcire paketebad, TviToeuli paketi moiniSneba iseTnairad, rom masSi iyos mimRebis kompiuterze dokumentis swori awyobisaTvis saWiro monacemebi.

erTi fizikuri SeerTebiT dakavSirebul or kompiuters SeuZlia erTdroulad ramodenime TCP-SeerTebis momsaxureba. ase magaliTad, or Sualedur qselur servers erTdroulad SeuZlia erTi kavSiris arxiT, gadasces erTmaneTs orive mimarTulebiT mravali TCP- paketebi mravalricxovani klientebisagan.

rodesac vmuSaobT internetSi, erTaderTi satelefono xaziT SegviZlia erTdroulad miviRoT dokumentebi amerikidan, avstraliidan da evropidan. TviToeuli dokumentis paketebi miiReba calcalke, droSi ganawilebuli da miRebisTanave erTiandebian sxvadasxva dokumentebSi.

IP-protokoli. IP (Internet Protokol) samisamarTo protokolia da misi arsi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom saerTaSoriso qselis TviToeul monawiles unda qondes Tavisi unikaluri misamararTi (IP-misamarTi). amis gareSe SeuZlebelia TCP - paketebis zustad daniSnulebis adgilze mitana. es misamarTi martivad oTxi baitiT gamoixateba, magaliTad: 195384611. IP - misamarTi organizebulia ise, rom TviToeul kompiuters, romlis gavliTac gadaecema romelime TCP - paketi, SeuZlia am oTxi ricxviT gansazRvros romel uaxloes `mezobels~ unda gadaegzavnos paketi, rom is moxvdes `axlos~ mimRebTan bolo gadagzavnis Semdeg TCP - paketi aRwevs adresatamde.

sityva `axlo~-Si ar igulisxmeba geografiuli `axlo~. mxedvelobaSia kavSiris pirobebi da xazis gamtarunarianoba. sxvadasxva kontinentze ganTavsebuli, maRal­mwarmoebluri kosmosuri kavSiris arxiT dakavSi-rebuli ori kompiuteri iTvleba ufro `axlo~ erTmaneTTan, vidre ubralo telefonis xaziT dakavSirebuli ori mezobeli dasaxlebis kompiuterebi. sakiTxs ra CaiTvalos `axlo~ da ra `Sors~ wyvets specialuri saSualeba-marSutizatori. qselSi marSutizatoris rols Cveuleb-rivad asrulebs specializirebuli kompiuteri an kvanZis serverebSi momuSave specialuri programebi. vinaidan erTi baiti moicavs 256 sxvadasxva mniSvnelobas, Teoriulad oTxi baitiT SeiZleba gamovsaxoT oTx miliardze meti unikaluri IP-misamarTi. (2564 - ramodenime sasamsaxuro misamarTis gamoklebiT). praqtikaSi, zogierTi tipis lokaluri qselebis Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT SesaZlo misamarTebis raodenoba or miliards Seadgens. es sakmaod didi ricxvia, magram misi SemosazRvruloba sul ufro SesamCnevi xdeba. rogorc ki internetSi farTod Semova kavSiris mobilur saSualebebTan (fiWuri radio-telefo-nebiT) urTierTqme­debis samsaxurebi, Tavs iCens IP-samisa-marTo velebis simcire.


    1. internetis samsaxurebi.


internetSi muSaobaze an internetis gamoyenabaze saubrisas laparakia ara mTlianobaSi internetze aramed misi mravalricxovani samsaxurebidan erTerTze. konkretuli miznebisa da amocanebidan gamomdinare qselis klientebi iyeneben im samsaxurebs, romlebic maTTvisaa aucilebeli.

martivi gagebiT samsaxuri aris programebis wyvili, romlebic erTmaneTTan urTierTqmedeben gansazRvruli wesebiT-protokolebiT. am wyvilis erT-erT programas ewodeba serveri, xolo meores-klienti. Sesabamisad rodesac saubroben internetis samsaxurebis muSaobaze, saqme exeba serveruli mowyobilobebisa da programuli uzrunvelyofis urTierTqmedebas klientis mowyobilobasa da programul uzrunvelyofasTan.

sxvadasxva samsaxurebs sxvadasxva protokolebi aqvT. internetis samsaxurebis protokolebs danarT protokolebs uwodeben. maTi dacva da momsaxureba xorcieldeba specialuri programebis muSaobiT. maSasadame, imisaTvis rom visargebloT internetis romelime samsaxuriT, aucilebelia davayenoT kompiuterze klientis programa, romelic uzrunvelyofs mocemuli samsaxuris protokoliT muSaobas da davukavSiroT igi serveris programas. magaliTad, failebis gadasacemad internetSi gamoiyeneba specialuri protokoli FTP (File Transler Protocol). Sesabamisad internetidan failis misaRebad aucilebelia:


  • gvqondes kompiuterze programa, romelic warmoadgens FTP-is klients (FTP-klienti);

  • davamyaroT kavSiri serverTan, romelic uzrunvelyofs FTP-is momsaxurebas (FTP-serveri).

eleqtronuli fostiT sargeblobisaTvis ki, aucilebelia Setyobinebebis miRebisa da gagzavnis protokolis dacva. amisaTvis unda gvqondes programa (fostis klienti) da ganvaxorcieloT kavSiri safosto serverTan. aseve myardeba kavSiri sxva samsaxurebTanac.

terminalis reJimi. istoriulad erT-erT yvelaze adreul samsaxurs warmoadgens kompiuteris daSorebuli marTva Telnet. mivuerTdebiT ra daSorebul kompiuters am samsaxuris protokoliT, SesaZlebelia misi muSaobis marTva. aseT marTvas agreTve terminalurs uwodeben. warsulSi am samsaxurs farTod iyenebdnen daSorebul gamoTvliT centrebSi rTuli gamoTvlebis Casatareblad. Tu rTuli gamo­TvlebisaTvis personaluri kompiuteris erTi kviris ganuwyveteli muSaoba iyo saWiro, xolo daSorebul super kompiuterebze sul ramodenime wuTi, maSin personalur kompiuters iyenebdnen mxolod daSorebul kompiuterebSi monacemebis Sesatanad da gamoTvlebis Sedegebis misaRebad.

amJamad, personaluri kompiuterebis simZlavreebis swrafi zrdis gamo, msgavs momsaxurebaze moTxovna Semcirda, Tumca Telnet samsaxuri agrZelbs internetSi Tavis arsebobas. xSirad Telnet protokolebs iyeneben daSorebuli teqnikuri obieqtebis samarTavad, magaliTad: teleskopebi, videokamerebi, sawarmoo robotebi, avtomatizirebuli sawyobebi, agreTve savaWro avtomatebic.

yoveli serveri, romelic asrulebs Telnet-samsaxurs, Cveulebrivad Tavazobs Tavis klient-danarTs. is unda miiRoT qseliT (magaliTad FTP-protokoliT), daayenoT Tqvens kompiuterze, daukavSirdeT servers da imuSaoT daSorebuli mowyobilobiT. umartivesi klienti-Telnet Sedis operaciuli sistemis Windows -is SemadgenlobaSi (faili Telnet.exe).

eleqtronuli fosta (E-Mail). es samsaxuric erT-erT adreul samsaxurs warmoadgens. internetSi mas uzrunvelyofs specialuri safosto serveri da ara specialuri gamoyofili kompiuteri. aq da SemdegSic serveris qveS SeiZleba igulisxmebodes programuli uzrunvelyofa. amgvarad, internetis erTi sakvanZo kompiuteri SeiZleba asrulebdes ramodenime serveris funqciebs da uzrunvelyofdes sxvadasxva samsaxurebis samuSaos, amasTanave igi rCebodes universalur kompiuterad, romelzedac SeiZleba Sesruldes gamoTvliTi teqnikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sxva amocanebi.

safosto serverebi Setyobinebebs iReben klien-tebisagan da gadascemen maT adresatebis safosto ser-verebs, sadac es Setyobinebebi grovdeba. adresatisa da misi safosto serveris dakavSirebis Semdeg Semosuli Setyo-binebebi avtomaturad gadaecema adresatis kompiuters.

safosto samsaxuri damyarebulia ori protokoli-danarTis gamoyene­baze: SMTP da POP3. pirveli protokoliT xdeba korespondenciebis gagzavna kompiuteridan serverze, xolo meoreTi - Semosuli Setyobinebebis miReba. arsebobs klientis mravali programa, magaliTad Microsoft Outlook Express, romelic Sedis operaculi sistemis Windows-is standartul kompleqtSi. ufro mZlavri programaa Microsoft Outlook 2000, 2003, romelic Windows 2000, 2003-is standartuli danarTia. maTSi garda eleqtruli fostisa integrirebulia saqmeTwarmoebis sxva saSualebebi. specializirebuli safosto programebidan kargi popularoba aqvT programebs The Bat!, Eudora, Pegasus mail.

dagzavnis siebi (Mailing List). Cveulebrivi eleq-tronuli fosta gulisxmobs mimoweraSi ori partnioris arsebobas. Tu partniorebi ar arian, maSin Cvens misamarTze informaciis sakmarisad didi nakadi SeiZleba vuzrun-velyoT dagzavnis siebze xelmoweriT. es specialuri Tematuri serverebia, romlebic agroveben informacias gansazRvrul Temebze da gadagzavnian xelmomweris kompiuterze eleqtronuli fostis Setyobinebebis saxiT.

dagzavnis siebis Tema SeiZleba nebismieri iyos, magaliTad, ucxo enebis Seswavlis sakiTxebi, komerciuli da finansuri mimoxilvebi, gamoTvliTi teqnikis axali programuli da aparatuli saSualebebis prezentacia da sxva. mravali telekompaniebi qmnian Tavis kvanZebze dagzavnis siebs, romlis saSualebiTac ugzavnian klientebs teleprogramebis anotirebul mimoxilvas. dagzavnis siebi saSualebas iZlevian efeqturad gadavwyvitoT monacemebis regularuli miwodebis sakiTxebi.



telekomferenciebis samsaxuri (Usnet). es samsaxuri eleqtronuli fostis cirkularuli dagzavnis msgavsia, romlis drosac erTi Setyobineba gaegzavneba ara erT aramed korespondentebis mraval jgufs (aseT jgufebs telekomferenciebs an siaxleebis jgufs uwodeben).

eleqtronuli fostis Cveulebrivi Setyobineba gamgzavnidan mimRebs daegzavneba serverebis viwro wrediT. amasTan Sualed serverebze misi Senaxva ar ivaraudeba. siaxleTa jgufis serverze mimarTuli Setyobineba gaigzavneba masTan dakavSirebul yvela serverze Tu mocemuli Setyobineba maTze jer kidev ar aris miRebuli. SemdegSi procesi meordeba.

TviToeul serverze misuli Setyobineba inaxeba SezRuduli drois ganmavlobaSi (Cveulebrivad kvira) da yvela msurvels SeuZlia gaecnos mas am drois ganmavlobaSi. vrceldeba ra yovel mxares Setyobineba dRe-Rameze nakleb droSi moivlis mTel dedamiwas. Semdeg gavrceleba neldeba, vinaidan serverze, romelsac miRebuli aqvs mocemuli Setyobineba ganmeorebiT gadagzavna aRar xdeba.

yoveldRiurad msoflioSi milionibiT Setyobineba iqmneba siaxleTa jgufisaTvis. namdvilad sasrgeblo informaciis amorCeva am masivSi praqtikulad SeuZlebelia. amitom telekomferenciebis mTeli sistema dayofilia Tematur jgufebad. dRes msoflioSi 50 000-mde siaxleebis Tematur jgufs iTvlian. isini moicaven masebisaTvis metnaklebad saintereso Temebs. gansakuTrebuli popula-robiT sargeblobs gamoTvliTi teqnikis siaxleTa jgufi.

siaxleTa jgufis gamoyenebis ZiriTadi wesi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom mivmarTavT ra mTel msoflios davsvaT CvenTvis mniSvnelovani sakiTxi da miviRoT pasuxi an rCeva maTgan vinc ukve gaerkva am sakiTxSi. amasTan mniSvnelovania Tvalyuri vadevnoT, rom sakiTxis Sinaarsi Seesabamebodes mocemuli telekomferenciis Temas. msoflios mravali kvalificiuri specialistebi (mecnierebi, eqimebi, pedagogebi, iuristebi, mwerlebi, ekonomistebi, programistebi da sxva) regularulad aTvaliereben telekomferencis Setyobinebebs maTi saqmianobis sferos Sesabamis jgufebidan. aseT daTvalierebas informaciis monitorings uwodeben. informaciis regularuli monitoringi saSualebas aZlevs specialistebs zustad icodnen Tu ra siaxleebia msoflioSi maTi specialo­biT, ra problemebi awuxebs adamianebis did jgufs da raze gaamaxvilon Tavis saqmianobaSi yuradReba.

Setyobinebis gagzavnisas telekomferenciaSi miRebulia adresatis eleqtronuli fostis misamarTis miTiTeba pasuxis misaRebad. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac aris eleqtronuli `fostis yuTis~ korespondenciebiT gadavsebis saSiSroeba, romelic uSualod sawarmoo saqmianobas ar miekuTvneba, saqmiani mimowerisaTvis gankuTvnili ZiriTadi misamarTis nacvlad miuTiTeben damatebiT misamarTs. rogorc wesi, aseT misamarTs qiraoben erTerT ufaso anonimuri safosto samsaxuris serverze. magaliTad: www.hotmail.com.

didi moculobis Setyobinebebi siaxleTa jgufSi mniSvnelovnad aZnelebs maT mizanmimarTul monitorings, amitom zogierT jgufSi winaswar xdeba im usargeblo informaciis `gacxrilva~, romelic ar exeba konferenciis Temas. aseT komferenciebs moderirebuls uwoedben. moderatoriis funqcias SeiZleba asrulebdes ara mxolod adamiani, aramed programac, romelic filtravs Setyobinebebs gasaRebi sityvis mixedviT. am SemTxvevaSi saubroben avtomatur moderaciaze.

telekomferenciebis samsaxurebTan samuSaod arseboben klientis specialuri programebi. magaliTad danarTi Microsoft Outlook Express, romelic garda fostisa telekomferenciebis samsaxurTan muSaobis saSualebasac iZleva. dasawyisSi aucilebelia programis gamarTva siaxleTa jgufis serverTan samuSaod, kerZod formdeba `xelmowera~ garkveul jgufebze da periodulad miiRebT Setyobinebebs am jgufis Temebis Sesaxeb. sityva `xelSekruleba~ klientis mxridan ar iTvaliswinebs araviTar valdebulebebs an gadasaxads. es mxolod Setyobinebaa serverisaTvis, rom miTiTebul Temaze Setyobinebebi unda gaugzavnos miTiTebul klients da ara sxvas. xelmoweris gauqmeba an Temis Secvla SesaZlebelia nebismier dros.



World Wide Web (WWW) samsaxuri. WWW samsaxuri yvelaze popularulia Tanamedrove internetSi. mas xSirad aigiveben internetTan, Tumca is internetis erTerTi samsaxuria.

World Wide Web aris urTierTdakavSirebuli eleqtronuli dokume­ntebisagan Semdgari erTiani informaciuli sivrce, romelic inaxeba Web-serverze. Web-sivrcis Semadgenel calkeul dokumentebs Web-gverdebs uwodeben. am droisaTvis unikaluri Web-gverdebis raodenoba or miliardze metia, amasTan zrdis tempi iseTia, rom es monacemebi Zalze swrafad Zveldeba.

Tematurad gaerTianebul Web-gverdebs Web-kvanZebs uwodeben. erTi fizikuri Web-serveri SeiZleba Seicavdes sakmarisad bevr Web-kvanZebs, romelTagan TviToeuls, rogorc wesi, gamoyofili aqvs calke katalogi serveris xist diskze. Web-gverdi Cveulebrivi teqsturi dokumentebisagan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom isini gaformebulia romelime konkretul matarebelze damoukideblad. magaliTad, qaRaldze dabeWdili dokumentis gaformeba damokidebulia sabeWdi qaRaldis parametrebze, romelsac aqvs gansazRvruli sigane, simaRle da velebis zomebi. eleqtronuli Web-dokumentebi ki gankuTvnilia kompiuteris ekranze dasaTvaliereblad, amasTan winaswar araa cnobili romel kompiuterze, ucnobia ekranis zomebi, ferisa da grafikuli gamtarianobis parametrebi, ucnobia agreTve klientis kompiuterze dayenebuli operaciuli sistema. amitom, Web-dokuments ar SeiZleba qondes `xisti~ daformateba. dokumentis gaformeba klientis kompiuterze uSualod misi gamotanisas xdeba im programis Sesabamisad romelic asrulebs daTvalierebis operacias.

Web-gverdebis dasaTvalierebel programebs brauzerebs uwodeben. literaturaSi SeiZleba SevxvdeT agreTve ar Semdgar termins `mimomxi­lveli~. yvela SemTxvevaSi saubaria Web-dokumentis daTvalierebis raime saSualebaze (programaze).

brauzeri asrulebs dokumentis ekranze gamosaxvas im brZanebebis mixedviT romelic dokumentis avtorma Cado teqstSi, (Tu avtori iyenebs Web-dokumentis gaformebis avtomatur saSualebebs, aucilebeli brZanebebi avtomaturad ideba teqstSi). aseT brZanebebs `tegebs~ (niSnulebs) uwodeben. Cveulebrivi teqstisagan isini imiT gansxvavdebian, rom moTavsebulia kuTxur frCxilebSi. tegebis umravlesoba wyvilad gamoiyenebian: gamRebi tegi da damxuravi tegi. damxuravi tegi iwyeba `~ simboloTi.

mag:

es teqsti ganTavsdeba ekranis centrSi <CENTER>


es teqsti ganTavsdeba ekranis marcxena sazRvarze <P>.


es teqsti ganTavsdeba ekranis marjvena sazRvarze <P>.

rTul tegebs garda gasaRebi sityvisa aqvT damatebiTi parametrebi da atributebi, romlebic azusteben maTi gamoyenebis wesebs. tegebis Caweris wesebi Setanilia daprogramebis enebis msgavs, gansakuTrebuli moniSvnis enis specifikaciaSi. am enas hiperteqstis moniSvnis enas HTML (Hiper Text Markup Language) uwodeben da igi gankuTvnilia hiperteqsturi dokumentebis mosamzadeblad. maSasadame Web-dokumenti warmoadgens Cveulebriv teqstur dokuments, romelic moniSnulia HTML tegebiT. aseT dokumentebs HTML-dokumentebs an dokumentebs HTML formatSi uwodeben.

brauzeris saSualebiT HTML-dokumentis ekranze gamosaxvisas ekranze tegebi ar Canan, vxedavT mxolod dokumentis Semadgenel teqsts. magram am teqstis gaformeba (ganTavseba, feri, zomebi, Sriftis moxazuloba da sxva) sruldeba teqstSi Cadebuli tegebis Sesabamisad.

arseboben teqstSi grafikuli da multimediis obeqtebis ganTavsebis (musika, xmebi, videoklipebi) specialuri tegebi. Sexvdeba ra brauzeri aseT tegs, tegTan dakavSirebul failis misaRebad miakiTxavs servers da warmoadgens mas tegis mocemuli parametrebisa da atri-butebis Sesabamisad, ris Sedegadac vxedavT ilustraciebs an vismenT xmebs.

bolo wlebSi, Web-dokumentebSi farTo gamoyeneba moipoves egreT wodebulma aqtiurma komponentebma. es igive dokumentebia, magram isini Seicaveen ara marto teqsts, an grafikul da multimediur monacemebs, aramed programul kodebsac da SeuZliaT ara ubralod aisaxon klientis kompiuteris ekranze, aramed Seasrulon programaSi Cadebuli samuSao.



HTML-is tegebis saSualebiT teqstSi grafikuli an sxva obieqtebis CarTvis SesaZlebloba yvelaze efeqturia Web-gverdebis gaformebis TvalsazrisiT, magram ara yvelaze mniSvnelovani TviTon World Wide Web ideis TvalsazrisiT. HTML-is tegebis saSualebiT ganxorcielebuli Web-gverdebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani Tviseba hiperteqsturi mimarTvebia. teqstis nebismier fragmentTan an magaliTad suraTTan tegebis saSualebiT SeiZleba davuka­vSiroT sxva Web-dokumenti, anu davamyaroT hipermimarTva. am SemTxvevaSi im teqstze an suraTze, romelic hipermimarTvas warmoadgens, mausis marcxena Rilakis dawkapunebiT igzavneba axali dokumentis miRebis moTxovna Sesabamis serverze. am dokuments ki Tavis mxriv, SeiZleba qondes hipermimarTva sxva dokumentze da a.S..

amrigad, WWW serverze Senaxuli didi raodenobis hiperteqsturi eleqtronuli dokumentebis erToblioba warmoqmnian dokumentebis Tavisebur hipersivrces, romelTa Soris SesaZlebelia gadaadgileba. Web-sivrcis dokumentebs Soris Tavisuflal gadaadgilebas gacnobiTi xasiaTis daTvalierebis mizniT Web-serfings uwodeben, xolo miznobriv gadaadgilebas informaciis moZebnis mizniT Web-navigacias uwodeben.

internetis fizikur serverebze Senaxul miliar-dobiT dokumentebs Soris hiperteqsturi kavSiri warmo-adgens World Wide Web-is logikuri sivrcis arsebobis safuZvels. magram aseTi kavSiri ver iarsebebda Tu am sivrcis yovel dokuments ar eqneboda unikaluri misamarTi. nebismieri failis saxeli saerTaSoriso qselis masStabiT ganisazRvreba resursis unificirebuli maCvenebliT - URL (Iniform Resourse Lokator).

URL misamarTi Sedgeba sami nawilisagan.



  1. samsaxuris miTiTeba, romelic axorcielebs mocemul resursTan miRwevas (mocemuli samsaxuris Sesabamisi gamoyenebiTi protokolis saxeli). magaliTad www samsaxurisaTvis gamoyenebiTs warmoadgens HTTP (Hyper Text Transler Protokol - hiperteqstis gadacemis protokoli). protokolis saxelis Semdeg ismeba ori wertili (:) da ori niSani `~ (daxrili xazi):

http: . . .

  1. kompiuteris (serveris) domenuri saxelis miTiTeba, romelzec inaxeba mocemuli resursi. http:www.pcworld.com ...

  2. mocemul kompiuterze failTan SeRwevis sruli gzis miTiTeba. gamyof niSnad gamoiyeneba simbolo `/~ (daxrili xazi)

http:www.psworld.com/software_lib/index.html

URL misamarTis Cawerisas mniSvnelovania simboloebis registrebis zusti dacva. MS DOS-Si da Windows-Si muSaobis wesebisagan gansxvavebiT, internetSi xelnaweri da beWduri asoebi sxvadasxvad iTvlebian.

swored URL formiT ukavSireben resursis misamarTs hiperteqstur mimarTvebTan Web-gverdebze. hipermimarTvaze mausis dawkapunebiT brauzeri servers ugzavnis moTxovnas im resursis moZebnisa da gadmogzavnis Sesaxeb, romelic miTiTebulia mimarTvaSi. Tu raime mizezis gamo resursi ver moiZebna, gaicema Setyobineba imaze, rom resursi miuRwevelia (SesaZlebelia rom serveria gaTiSuli an Secvlilia resursis misamarTi).



domenebis (DNS) saxelebis samsaxuri. rodesac vsaubrobdiT internetis protokolebze, avRniSneT, rom, nebismieri kompiuteris an lokaluri qselis misamarTi internetSi SeiZleba aRiniSnos oTxi baitiT, magaliTad ase: 1952813297

aseve ganvacxadeT, rom TviToeul kompiuters aqvs unikaluri domenuri saxeli, magaliTad aseTi www.pcworld.com

xom ar aris aq winaaRmdegoba? araviTari winaaRmdegoba aq ar aris, radganac es qselis erTi da igive kompiuteris misamarTis Caweris ori sxvadasxva formaa. adamianisaTvis mouxerxebulia ricxviT warmodgenil IP-misamarTTan muSaoba, samagierod domenuri saxeli advilad dasamaxsovrebelia, gansakuTrebiT Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT rom, rogorc wesi es saxeli Sinaarsis matarebelia. magaliTad, Microsoft kompaniis Web-serveris saxelia www.microsoft.com, xolo www.internet.ge domeni ge miuTiTebs imaze, rom serveri ekuTvnis internetis saqarTvelos seqtors.

meore mxriv, qselis serverebis avtomaturi muSoaba organizebulia oTxniSna ricxviTi misamarTis gamoyenebiT. misi saSualebiT Sualeduri serverebi asruleben saTanado mimarTulebiT moTxovnebisa da pasuxebis gadagzavnas ise, rom ucnobia Tu sad imyofoba konkretulad gamgzavni an mimRebi. amitom aucilebelia domenuri saxelebis gadayvana maTTan dakavSirebul IP-misamarTebSi. am saqmes emsaxurebian serveris domenis saxelebis samsaxurebi DNS. Cveni moTxovna www.pcworld.com gverdis miRebaze jer damuSavdeba DNS-serverSi, xolo Semdeg is miemarTeba IP-misamarTiT da ara domenis saxeliT.



failebis gadacemis samsaxuri (FTP). failebis miReba da gadacema internetis sxva samsaxurebTan SedarebiT mniSvnelovan procents Seadgens. failis gadacemis aucilebloba warmoiSoba magaliTad programis failebis miRebisas, didi moculobis dokumentebis gadagzavnisas, agreTve arqivebis gadacemisas, romlebSic didi moculobis informaciaa Tavmoyrili.

FTP - samsaxurs (File Translate Protocol-failebis gadagzavnis protokoli) aqvs Tavisi serverebi saerTaSorisi qselSi, romlebSic inaxeba monacemebis arqivi. klientis mxridan FTP-serverTan samuSaod SeiZleba dayenebuli iyos specialuri programuli uzrunvelyofa, Tumca umetes SemTvxexaSi www brauzerebs aqvT CarTuli saSualebebi, romlebic asruleben FTP-protokolis umartives operaciebs, magaliTad failebis CatvirTvas serverebidan.

FTP protokoli muSaobs erTdroulad or TCP-SeerTebasTan serversa da klients Soris. erTi SeerTebiT xdeba monacemebis gadacema, xolo meore SeerTeba gamoiyeneba, rogorc mmarTveli. FTP protokoli aseve warudgens servers im klientis identifikaciis saSualebebs, romelmac servers mimarTa. amiT xSirad sargebloben komerciuli serverebi da SezRuduli SeRwevis serverebi, romlebic informacias mxolod registrirebul klientebs awvdian, isini moiTxoven momxmareblis saxelisa da masTan dakavSirebuli parolis miTiTebas. magram, amas garda, arseboben aTi aTasobiT FTP-serverebi yvela msurve-lisaTvis anonimuri mimarTviT. am SemTxvevaSi momxmareblis saxe­lis magier uTiTeben sityvas anonymous, xolo parolis nacvlad eleqtro­nuli fostis misamarTs. umetes SemTxvevaSi FTP-is programa-klientebi amas avtomaturad akeTeben.

IRC - samsaxuri. samsaxuri IRC (Internet Relay Chat) gankuTvnilia ramodenime adamianis pirdapiri dakavSirebi-saTvis realur droSi. zogjer IRC-samsaxurs Cat-komferenciebs an ubralod Cats (layboba) uwodeben. telekomferenciis sistemebisagan gansxvavebiT, romelSic monawileebs Soris kavSiri Temis ganxilvisas Riaa mTeli samyarosaTvis, IRC-sistemaSi kavSiri sruldeba mxolod erT arxSi, romlis muSaobaSi mxolod ramodenime adamiani iRebs monawleobas. TviToeul momxmarebels SeuZlia Seqmnas sakuTari arxi da moiwvios masSi `saubris~ monawileebi an SeuerTdes mocemul momentSi erTerT romelime Ria arxs.

arseboben ramodenime popularuli programa-klientebi im serverebsa da qselebTan samuSaod, romlebic Tavazoben IRC-samsaxurs. aseT erT erT popularul programas warmoadgens Mirc.exe



ICQ - samsaxuri. es samsaxuri gankuTvnilia im adamianis IP misamarTis mosaZebnad, romelic mocemul momentSi mierTebulia internetTan. msgavsi samsaxuris arsebobis aucilebloba dakavSirebulia imasTan, rom mraval momxmarebels ara aqvT mudmivi IP-misamarTi. samsaxuris dasaxeleba aris gamoTqmis I seek you-me Sen geZeb akronimi. am samsaxuriT sargeblobisaTvis saWiroa daregistrireba mis centralur serverze (http://www.icq.com) da personaluri saidentifikacio nomeris UIN (Universal Internet Number) miReba. es nomeri SeiZleba acnoboT Tqvens partniorebs kavSirSi da maSin ICQ samsaxuri iZens internet-peijeris xasiaTs. iciT ra partnioris UIN nomeri, magram ar iciT misi mimdinare IP-misamarTi, SesaZlebelia ICQ samsaxuris centraluri serveris saSualebiT gaugzavnoT mas Setyobineba dakavSirebis winadadebiT.

rogorc zemoT iyo naTqvami internetTan mierTebul TviToeul kompiuters unda qondes oTxniSna IP-misamarTi. es misamarTi SeiZleba iyos mudmivi an dinamiuri (droebiTi). is kompiuterebi, romlebic mierTebulia qselSi mudmivad aqvT mudmivi IP-misamarTi. mravali momxmarebeli ki mierTebulia internetTan seansis ganmavlobaSi. maT eZlevaT dinamiuri IP-misamarTi, romelic ZalaSia mxolod seansis ganmavlobaSi. am misamarTs iZleva is serveri, romlis saSualebiTac xdeba dakavSireba. sxvadasxva seansebis dros dinamiuri IP-misamarTi SeiZleba iyos gansxvavebuli, amasTan igi winaswar ucnobia.

internetTan yoveli mierTebis dros Tqvens kompiuterze dayenebuli ICQ-programa gansazRvravs IP-misamarTs da acnobebs centralur samsaxurs, romelic, Tavis mxriv acnobebs mas Tqvens sakontaqto partniorebs, Semdeg Tqven partniorebs (Tu isinic arian agreTve mocemuli samsaxuris klientebi) SeuZliaT daamyaron pirdapiri kavSiri TqvenTan. programa iZleva reJimis amorCevis saSualebas (`mzada var kontaqtisaTvis~, gTxovT ar SemawuxoT, magram mzad var miviRo saswrafo Setyobineba~ da a.S). kontaqtis damyarebis Semdeg kavSiri sruldeba IRC serveris analogiur reJimSi.



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