Professional Qualification Lawyer



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UNIVERSITY OF LATVIA

Program of Academicand Professional Education

Science of Laws
Jurista augstâkâs profesionâlâs kvalifikâcijas

Professional Qualification - Lawyer


Berufliche Qualification - Jurist

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Qualificatio professionalis - jurista

Qualification professionalle - juriste

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Director of the Program

Kalvis Torgâns

Dr. habil. iur. , Professor
APPROVED APPROVED

at the Meeting of the Council at the Meeting of the Dome of

of the program of the Science the Faculty of Law on

of Laws on 12 March, 1997. 12 March, 1997.

Minutes Nr. 1 Minutes Nr. 34

Dr. habil. iur., Professor J. Vèbers Head of the Dome Dr.

Dr. habil. iur., Professor


  1. Strautmanis

____________________ ______________________

(signature) (signature)
APPROVED APPROVED

AT THE Meeting of the Academic at the Meeting of the Senate

Council of the University of the University of Latvia

of Latvia

___.___._____ ___.____._____

Resolution Nr. _________ Resolution Nr. ___________


Vice Rector Head of the Senate
____________________ ______________________

(signature) (signature)

To the Department of Higher

Education and Science of the

Ministry of Education of the

Republic of Latvia


To the Contre of Quality

Estimation of Higher Education


Application to Accreditation

of the Program

in the Science of Laws of the Faculty of Law

of the University of Latvia

Address of the Faculty of Law

of the University of Latvia

Raiða bulv. 19, Rìga LV - 1586

phone: 7224721

FAX:7223996

Responsible for the preparation

of the materials to accreditation

Assistant Kaspars Balodis

Application to accreditation of the Program

in the Science of Laws is approved by the

Dean of the Faculty of Law of the

University of Latvia Dr. habil. iur.,

Professor Kalvis Torgâns



Contents

of the Application to Accreditation of the Program in the Science of Laws of the Faculty of Law of University of Latvia
Summary.

PART

I.


  1. Self - estimation report of the Program of Law Studies p.1.

  1. The origins of the Faculty of Law

  2. Development, substantiation and periods of studies

3) Content of the Law studies program and its estimation p.2.

  1. Academic and professional Qualification program p.3.

  2. Master’s Studies Program p.4.

  3. Program of Doctor’ Degree Studies

4) Structure of the Faculty p.5.

5) Research Activities p.6.

6) International relations and agreements for co - operation p.8.

7) Financial, methodical and material maintenance of the

program p.9.



  1. Comparison of legal studies in Latvia and EU

Universities p.10.

  1. Prospects of the development of the faculty p.11.

  2. I. The program of Law studies p.13.

  3. II. General Characterization of the studies program p.14.

  1. Duration of studies

-Law studies of broad character p.15.

-The Conception of Law Studies Development p.16.

-Evaluation of the program from point of view LU

and Latvian state.

-Comparison of the program with other Law

studies programs in Latvia and foreign countries p.17.

-Scientific research connected with Law studies

program and its level.

-Co - operation of LU faculties for realisation

of the program.

- International relations and agreements for p.18.

co - operations

- Development plan of the program.

13). III. Entrance Provisions p.18.

14). IV. Provisions and procedure for testing knowledge p.19.


  1. Program of Higher Professional Education in the Sciences

of Law, A - Mandatory Courses p.20.

  1. Program of Higher Professional Education in the Sciences

of Law, B - Elective Courses p.21.

  1. Program of Higher Professional Education in the Sciences

of Law Curriculum. P.22.

  1. List of the Faculty of Law the University of Latvia p.24.

  2. Department of Civil Law p.26.

  3. Department of Criminal Law p.51.

  4. Department of International and Maritime Law p.72.

  5. Department of State Law p.87.

  6. Department of the Theory of Law and Political p.102.

  7. Summary of the Program p.123.

12.Research work and its level connected with the

program. p.177.



  1. Themes of Dissertation for the Doctor and

Habilitated Doctor Degrees p.180.

Appendix: prospectus of the Faculty of Law



  1. Evaluation of the Law Studies Program

(Prof Dr. Dietrih A. Loeber)
PART

II
15.Statute of the Institute of Human Rights of the University

of Latvia, Faculty of Law.



  1. General Provisions p.181.

  2. Objectives and Activities

  3. Institute’s Funds and their Allocation p. 182.

  4. Provisions governing the institutions

  5. Supporters of the Institute p. 183.

  6. The Termination of the Institute

  7. The procedure of Amending the Statute

16. Basic Human Rights Course. p.185.

17. Advanced Human Rights Course. p.192.

18. Latvian Human Rights Institute p.202.

19. Curricula Vitae of the Academic Staff

of the Faculty of Law p. 215.

Appendix: prospectus of the Human Rights Institute;

the Latvian Human Rights Quarterly

FACULTY OF LAW. UNIVERSITY OF LATVIA

SELF-ESTIMATION REPORT OF THE PROGRAM OF LAW STUDIES

1. The origins of the Faculty of Law

University of Latvia offers Studies of Law since 1919, the year the University was founded, when the Department of Law was established at the joint Faculty of National Economy and Law that existed until 1940. A Great importance in the foundation of the Faculty belongs to the first president of the Republic of Latvia Prof. Jânis Àakste. The first Dean of the Faculty was Prof. Dr. h. c. August Loeber. In further years the Faculty survived different political powers and was a part of other faculties, but since 1970 it was renewed as an independent Faculty of Law. The present Dean of the Faculty is Full Member of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Professor, Dr.habil.iur. Jânis Vèbers.

The Faculty of Law is a part of the University of Latvia that provides the preparation of specialists in Law sciences, development and implementation of higher professional qualification in law and also Master’s academic programs for acquiring lawyers qualification, secures scientific research works and provides for necessary materials for that, ensures programs for obtaining Doctor’s degree in all branches of law, as well as provides for the required conditions for carrying out pedagogical and scientific work in all departments in accordance with the program of Law studies. Lecturers of the Faculty are forming the only Habilitation Council in Law sciences in Latvia.


  1. Development, substantiation and periods of studies of the Law studies program

Along with the restoration of independence of Latvia in the 1990-ties fundamental reforms of Law studies were started. Necessity to change plans and especially programs of studies and the system of education at the Faculty to make them in accordance with study programs and requirements of Western universities was advanced by transition to market economy and changes of the legislation, state administration and the democratic and cultural life of the nation. Already in 1989 the new concept of legal education was drafted, taking advantages of the experience of faculties of law at universities in Germany, Sweden and other countries. In further years the program of studies was supplemented taking into account recommendations and experts reports of the faculties of law of European universities. For example, in 1994 furthen changes in studies program were made in accordance with the experts reports of universities of Münster (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität (Germany) and Arhus (Denmark), the EuroFaculty and other Western universities (see Appendix #1). Experts had given a positive estimation to the Law studies program of the University of Latvia (LU) and activities of lecturers of the LU at international conferences and seminars (see: Latvian Research, An International Evaluation, The Danish Research Councils, Copenhagen, 1992, Denmark, 3.19.5.3.).

The program of studies at the Faculty of Law is built up so as to give possibility to students to obtain academic and professional education simultaneously, as it is at the universities in Germany, France, Sweden and other countries in Europe. Taking into account the recommendations of the EuroFaculty (Prof. T. Miljan), the University of Sorbonne of Paris to participate in the realisation process of the Law studies program at the LU, and as well as the integration process to European Union, it was useful to include and teach European Community Law, Human Rights and other courses into the program in addition to Latvian national law courses. The duration of studies is to be determined according to the period of studies at the universities of European Union countries (such as France, Germany, Sweden).

The program of Law studies at the Faculty prescribes two stages of studies:

The first stage includes academic and higher professional studies of Law that, after passing state exams, result in acquiring professional qualification ‘’ lawyer’’.

The second period is Master’s or specialisation studies that result in acquiring Master’s academic degree in Law (L.L.M.).

In the first period of studies students must obtain 200 credits. It is possible in addition to mandatory courses (group A) to choose other Law courses (group B) and any other course from the offered courses at the Faculty of Law, other faculties of the University of Latvia, as well as EuroFaculty and other universities in Latvia or abroad (group C) (see Appendix #2: Law studies program)

In the second period - Master’s studies (so far these are possible only as extra-mural courses) students must obtain 80 credits. It is possible to specialise in 5 branches of Law studies: Civil Law, Criminal Law, State Law, International Law as well as Theory and History of Law. The content of studies is disclosed in the Master’s studies program (see: Appendix #3). It is planned to start full time studies in all 5 branches.

In addition there is the third period of studies - for a Doctor’s degree. That ends with presentation of doctor’s dissertation and obtaining of Doctor’s degree in Law (Dr.iur.).

The only Habilitation and Doctorate Council in Law Sciences in Latvia is situated at the Faculty of Law of the University of Latvia. The Council is allowed to award the habilitated doctor’s degree (Dr.habil.iur.) and the Doctor’s academic degree in Law (Dr.iur.) (see Appendix # 4).


  1. Content of the Law studies program and its estimation

The Law studies program of the Faculty of Law discloses the content of studies and its realisation, including all requirements and academic, professional and financial resources. The program is approved by the Senate of the University of Latvia. The organisation of studies and plans of studies are made in accordance with the Constitution of the University of Latvia, Higher Educational Institutions Act, Regulations of Studies adopted by the Senate of LU and other regulations. There is one Law Studies Program with several stages at the Faculty of Law that gives possibility to acquire two academic degrees - higher professional qualification “Lawyer”and Master’s - and Doctor’s degree in Law as a result of research work.

The public opinion pool has shown that the program is positively estimated by students, graduates of the Faculty, employers and foreign experts. There have been good references also from the foreign universities of the USA and Europe, because of the high qualification of our graduates who entered these universities for Master’s studies. The number of students who want to study Law is increasing with every year. This is confirmed by high competition for entering the Law studies program approximately 1600 applications a year. Still the number of qualified lawyers in Latvia on the number of population is approximately 4 times lower than in the EU countries. Popularity of lawyers and demand for lawyers in labour market is high. Regardless of the fact that there are approximately 250 graduates of the Faculty a year, it is still impossible to provide all institutions with the necessary number of lawyers (prosecution offices, courts, state and local government institutions). Partly it is due to the fact that many graduates take positions at the commercial institutions where the fee paid to a lawyer is higher than in state institutions.

The estimation of the program was also given by several state and legal defence institutions including the Prosecution Office of Latvia, Supreme Court, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (see Appendix # 5).


  1. Academic and Professional Qualification Program.

The program is characterised as academic and professional education program as it is in many European Union universities. 55% of the offered courses are academic courses. At present the 5 years program gives possibility to students to obtain the necessary legal education and practical experience for work at state and local government institutions, legal defence institutions, attorney’s and notary’s offices and other organisations. Thus the program offers broad character of legal studies instead of narrow specialisation.

Information about the program, possibilities of studies, the duration of studies, offered courses (groups A,B,C), Departments of the Faculty, lecturers and research work, as well as newly invented courses offered by Western universities is included in the informative booklet - The Faculty of Law -Riga, 1997 (see Appendix # 6).

Percentage of A, B, and C group courses of the program is 55-30-15. The program provides for 19 weeks of practical work for students at administrative institutions, courts and prosecution offices. Results of the practical work are presented to commissions of the corresponding department of the faculty.

At the end of the program students have to pass 3 state exams and present their graduation paper. The commission for the state exams consists mainly of specialists from courts, prosecution offices and administrative institutions (judges, prosecutors, leaders of departments, etc.). Students’ knowledge of the courses is estimated in two ways: a) quality - showed by grades; b) quantity - obtained credits. Description of courses can be found in the catalogue of the University of Latvia (see Appendix # 7). Percentage of lectures and seminars during the time of studies is 60:40, although it may differ in some subjects.

The program provides students for writing research papers in subjects stated by the Deans Office. Number of papers in one semester may vary from 3 to 5. Students of Evening and Extra-Mural courses Department are writing year paper and some research papers in some courses.

There are certain requirements as to the estimation of students knowledge for acquiring lawyers’ higher academic and professional qualification that are revised and discussed every year in methodical conferences. It seems that the requirements are high because there are approximately 12-15 students of 200 (6-7%) who do not pass the state exams. The good quality of graduates is acknowledged by employers in Latvia and abroad.



  1. Master’s Studies Program

Until now the Master’s studies were possible in 5 branches of Law studies in accordance with the Master’s Studies Program (see Appendix # 3). They are taking place in the form of extra-mural courses and the length of studies is 4 semesters. There are several ways of enactment of Masters studies prescribed by the program:

  1. lectures (2 lectures once a week; mainly in the evenings);

  2. theoretical seminars;

  3. oral examination in seminars;

  4. unaided work of students in studies of legal sources and special literature;

  5. work on research essays;

  6. competition of Master’s research work and its presentation.

Lectures and seminars are held in courses that are mandatory (group A) for all students and in specialisation courses (group B). Students must pass all provided tests, write research essays and complete research work, as well as obtain 80 credits during the time of studies.

The number of Master’s students and candidates has increased with every year. For example, in 1992 (the year of foundation) here were 58 students; in 1993 - 74 students and in 1996 already 121 student. At present there is 351 student. The Master’s degree has been acquired by 55 students. Master’s research works are about pressing problems of modern law. It is anticipated that Master’s studies will take a full-time form starting on from 1998. The length of studies will be 2 semesters as it is in Germany, Belgium, Sweden.



  1. Program of Doctor’s Degree Studies

There are highly qualified and experienced scientists working on preparation of candidates for Doctor’s degree (Prof. J.Vèbers, Prof. K.Torgâns, Prof. E.Meîæisis, Prof. U.Krastiðø and others). Statutes of the Habilitation and Doctorate council of the University of Latvia has been drafted and affirmed by the Science Council of LU. The statutes regulate the composition of the Council, principles of work, awarding of scientific degrees (see Appendix # 4). At present there are 17 candidates for Doctor’s Degree: 6 in State Law, 5 in Theory of Law and Political Science, 2 in Civil Law, 4 in International and Maritime Law. Affirmed subjects of research works are on pressing problems and pursuant to the public interest and requirements (Appendix # 8). One habilitation dissertation has been presented in last 2 years by Prof. U.Krastiðø (Studies on Content of Crime). In 1997 the presentation of dissertation on International Law prepared at the University of Cambridge by Ineta Ziemele is anticipated.

STRUCTURE OF THE FACULTY

Academic personnel, qualification and professionalism.

There are 5 departments and 1 institute at the Faculty of Law:

* Department of State Law (Head of Department Assoc. Prof.. Dr.phil. Z.Mikainis);

* Department of Legal Theory and Political Science (Head of Dep. Prof. Dr.habil.iur. E.Meîæisis);

* Department of Civil Law (Head of Dep. Prof. Dr.habil.iur. K.Torgâns);

* Department of Criminal Law (Head of Dep. Prof. Dr.habil.iur. U.Krastiðø);

* Department of International and Maritime Law (Head of Dep. Assoc. Prof. Dr.iur. A.Fogels);

* Human Rights Institute (Head of the Inst., Lecturer, I.Ziemele, L.L.M.), that was established in co-operation with the EU PHARE program. The Institute is issuing its own magazine ‘’Cilvèktiesìbu ýurnâls’’ (‘’Human Rights Magazine’’).

On January 1, 1997 the academic personnel of the faculty was composed of :

7 Prof. Dr.habil.iur;

16 Assoc. Prof. . Dr.iur;

12 Lecturers, including 6 L.L.M;

7 Assistants, including 4 L.L.M.

Such number of personnel against the number of students approximately corresponds to the structure of the Faculty of Law at the University of Stockholm.

Of all the lecturers Prof. Dr.habil.iur. JânisVèbers is a Full Member of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Prof. Dr.habil.iur. Kalvis Torgâns is a Corresponding Member of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, 10 lecturers have acquired Master’s degree in Law. In addition there are many lecturers who have highly qualified positions at legal institutions: Assoc. Prof. Aivars Niedre - Chief of the Attorney’s Board; Juris Kaksìtis - former Chief of the Legal Commission in the Saeima of the Republic of Latvia, now Adviser of the President of Ministers; Romans Apsìtis - Member of the Satversme Court (Constitutional Court); Gunârs Kútris- Director of the Financial Police Department of the State Income Service; Gunârs Kusiðø - Head of the Saeima’s Legal Commission; Eduards Ikvilds - Deputy Chief of the State Office, etc. Information about the structure of the Faculty, academic personnel of the Faculty, their curriculum vitae and qualification can be found in the booklet - The Faculty of Law, R. 1996, pages 7-8 (see Appendix # 6). At present there is achieved such a level of teaching personnel where 71% has some kind of degree (Dr.habil.iur., Dr.iur, L.L.M.). Many of the teachers have studied in Western universities during the previous years (see Appendix # 9). Attention has been paid to preparation and qualification of new teachers (see Appendix # 6). During the previous years there have been rather important changes in the composition of the academic personnel due to the fact that many lecturers have taken important positions at the state institutions: Prof. I.Biøers, Assoc. Prof. R.Apsìtis, Assoc. Prof. A.Endziðø, Assoc. Prof. I.Àepâne, Assoc. Prof. V.Birkavs, Prof. A.Plotnieks and others. Four of the lecturers are elected Justices of the Satversme Court. This certainly influences academic and scientific work of the Faculty. But at the same time we are proud of their achievements.

Already for several years the Faculty uses the practice of recruiting graduates of other faculties (economists, teachers, historians) who are working at law enforcement institutions.



5. Research Activities.

Research work at the Faculty is carried out in two ways:



  1. students research and

  2. lecturers research.

There are 2 forms of students’ research:

  • research essays written in the process of the studies on the compulsory subjects;

  • research essays that are not compulsory, but are carried out for deepening the subject of the compulsory essay or writing essays on individual subject and for competitions

. Students are granted some scholarships for best works.

100% of students take part in writing research essays during the studies, but 15% do that also on voluntary basis. Every year students take part in different competitions and many of them are awarded special prizes. In 1996 there were 8 students of the Faculty who were awarded such prizes. The graduation papers are estimated by a special commission and this commission advises which ones should be used at the lawyers practice.

Lecturers of the Faculty are carrying out research work that practically always is meant to improve and deepen the Law studies program. This is due to the fact that Faculty is preparing lawyers of a broad scope able to work at any branch of the law.

As well they are taking part in the realisation of the program ‘’Increase of the importance of Public Law in increase of public security and formation of Legal State of Latvia.’’ (manager of the project: Prof. U.Krastiðø). Two research groups (project managers: Prof. K.Torgans and Prof. J.Vèbers) are working within the research projects granted by the Latvian Research Council (Latvijas Zinâtnes Padome, LZP).

LZP has financed such research work carried out in the faculty:

1991-1993:



  1. Grant No 90.948 ‘’Legal Provisions on Commercial Activities, Their Effectiveness and Further Development’’; project manager: member of Latvian Academy of Science (LZA), Prof. Dr.habil.iur. J.Vèbers;

  2. Grant No 90.944 ‘’Comparative Research of Latvian and Foreign Legislation on Contractual Obligations and their Development’’; project manager: Prof. Dr.iur. K.Torgâns;

1994.-1996:

  1. Grant on ‘’Development of Legislation on Commercial Relations in the Republic of Latvia’’; project manager: Prof. Dr.iur. J.Vèbers;

  2. Grant on ‘’Comparative research of Latvian and Foreign Legislation on Trade, Transport and Construction’’; project manager: Prof. Dr.iur. K.Torgâns.

The affirmative documents about the research work done under these projects are presented to the LZP at the end of the each year and for the period of 3 years. Information about the research work is published in the informative issues of LZP ‘’Review of the research work in 1991-1993’’, R.,1994, pages 53-54. The results of the 1994 - 1996 research will be published in the next issue of LZP. Committee of Experts in Economic and Legal Sciences of the LZP has positively estimated results of the grants No 742 and 744 directed by Prof. J.Vèbers and K.Torgâns, as well as the grant of Prof. U.Krastiðø group about the consolidation of public security. Both research groups has been awarded another grant for further research in 1997. Results of legal research are not subjects for Patent Law. Their implementation is carried out as amendments in legal norms, as well as recommendations for improvement of practical work. During last 3 years lecturers of the faculty have taken part in preparation of more than 60 projects of laws, including Criminal Code, Civil Procedural Code, Labour Code, Commercial Law etc., and preparation of regulations of Supreme Court.

In co-operation with the PHARE program of EU in 1995 the Latvian Human Rights Institute was founded at the faculty. So far it is the only human rights institute at the Baltic state universities (see ‘’The Faculty of Law’’ page 10). Unofficially there are some more programs where our lecturers are doing research, e.g. Prof. K.Torgâns is working for the Consumer Institutions and Consumer Policy Programme with the Centre de Droit de la Consommation. He has also prepared the National Report on Latvia and has had 3 publications abroad. One habilitation dissertation has been presented in last 2 years by Prof. U.Krastiðø and at present there are 17 candidates for doctor’s degree, mostly younger generation. In August, 1990 an international conference on ‘’Ecology and Law in the Baltic sea’’ was organised where scientists from Germany, Denmark, France, USA, Sweden, Lithuania, Estonia and other countries were taking part, thus drawing attention also to political activities in Baltic countries.

The results of research are published in texbooks, newspapers and magazines, commentaries, monographs. The most important monographs are mentioned in the booklet The Faculty of Law, pages 13-14.

The level of research at the Faculty is high. Firstly, because on the ground of research works our lecturers could take part in the formation of new system of legislation. Their opinion is highly estimated and introduced into real life: in laws and thus in commercial activities, courts, human rights protection and other spheres. Secondly, research work cannot be estimated only by the number of publications in legal magazines or newspapers. The number of legal issues in the world is huge, mainly representing individual countries with their own authors, thus it is hard to determine the main ones. In Latvia we have only 2 magazines: ‘’Juristu Ýurnâls’’ (Lawyers Magazine) and ‘’Cilvèktiesìbu ýurnals’’ (Human Rights Magazine), both edited in Latvian and therefore rarely cited in other countries. But still, lecturers of the faculty have had foreign publications in magazines, materials for the conferences. They are invited to different conferences and seminars. There has been a regular co-operation between Baltic countries and the Norwegian Academy of Sciences in arranging conferences.Four conferences have been held in Oslo, Riga, Oslo, Tallinn and the presented papers have been published in English. These, for example, have been: Property Rights: Constitutional Protection and Regulation. Oslo, 1994.; Constitution as a legal base for a system and function of organs of the state, Tallinn, 1996. In 1996 Assoc. Prof. J.Rozenbergs presented his paper at the symposium in Bremen, concerning arbitration questions and is preparing a part of a book for publication in Germany.

Assoc. Prof. Z.Mikainis has had presentations in Switzerland and Hungary, Assoc. Prof. V.Dubure in Holland, Utrecht, 1996.


  1. International relations and agreements for co-operation

For many years there has already been a successful co-operation with the Universities of Tartu and Vilnius. In 1990ties the co-operation with Western universities and other research institutions was started. The Faculty has established a successful co-operation with some universities in Germany. The Faculty of Law of the University of Münster has helped to set up a library at the Faculty of Law of LU, and has started a program of preparation of new lecturers for the LU. Assistant Kaspars Balodis has obtained Master’s degree in Law at he University of Münster and is preparing his doctor’ s dissertation, that will be presented there. Lecturer S.Osipova has obtained higher qualification at the same university and is preparing her doctor’s dissertation.

In the sphere of Criminal Law there has been an exchange of students between The University of Latvia and Humbolt University in Berlin. And in 1996, Prof. J.Vèbers has read lectures while attending a seminar at the German Judges Academy.

In accordance with the agreement for co-operation with the University of Rostock the exchange of students and lecturers has taken place, and the work is carried out in the co-operation of research sphere generalising information on legal sources and preparing translations of literature for studies.

Since 1993 the LU has established contacts with the Faculty of Law of the Potiers University in France, where Assoc. Prof. V. Øulcs delivered a report at the International Francophone Law conference. Lecturers of the LU have visited France to acquaint with the organisation of studies and research work at universities in France, as well as taken part in several conferences. Professors of the Sorbonne University of Paris have come to Riga to read lectures to our students already for two years. In 1995/96 74 first year students started to study French at the Faculty of Law as their second foreign language, but in 1996/97 this number increased to 115 students. French is taught by lecturers from France. The interest of student in the French language is due to the fact that the original legal materials of the European Union is in French. Prof. J.Vèbers has been to the Sorbonne University to explore how the Law studies are organised there.

Since 1995, Ineta Ziemele, the Lecturer of the Faculty of Law of LU and Acting Director of the Human Rights Institute is preparing her doctor’s dissertation at the University of Cambridge.

Prof. J.Vèbers and Assoc. Prof. V.Øulcs have read lectures at several Swedish Universities (Stockholm, Uppsala, Lund) as well as students have attended summer courses or studied for one or more semesters. Dean’s Assistant K.Balodis has visited the University of Stockholm to acquaint with the organisation of studies at the Faculty of Law. Similarly, our students have studied in Norway, Denmark, Holland, Finland Germany, England and the USA.

For several years there is already a possibility for our students to attend lectures at the EuroFaculty in Riga. The lectures are held in English and some of them in German and lecturers from Western universities are invited to work here. Students can prepare for these lectures at the EuroFaculty library, where they have approximately 5000 books in English, German and French.

Rather often there have been different lectures of guest lecturers.

The cooperation with the Utrecht University in Holland has been carried out in the sphere of Private Law and Intellectual Property with help of Prof. Dr. F.W.Grosheide.

The University of Greifswald is represented by Prof. Dr. E.V.Heyen and the main co-operation is directed to mutual guest lectures and translation of legal literature. The translation of comparative Law materials is carried out.

7.Financial, methodical and material maintenance of the program.

Taking in account increasing demands for highly qualified lawyers in different state institutions, local governments, legal defence institutions and commercial structures, the Faculty has increased the number of vacancies in full-time, evening and extra-mural departments. In 1996/97 there are more than 600 students in full-time department, 500 in evening department and approximately 700 in extra-mural department. In 1996/97 there were 200, 130 and 200 students enrolled in to the first year of Law studies in full-time, evening and extra-mural departments correspondingly.

Financing of the program is state funded, individual and legal persons instalments, but it does not cover the real costs of training of law students. The faculty highly appreciates financial and material aid of some sponsors. Lack of rooms, especially large ones (approximately 200 seats) may result in a heavy schedule for the lecturers who are reading the same lecture several times for different groups of students. As to the costs of training of a law student, it has to be pointed out that the Ministry of Education of Latvia has stated the lowest costs index - 1.1, that means that training of law students is the cheapest one. This may result in the allocation of lower financial funds leading to the decrease of the number of lecturers that is already on the minimum level. Modern training of Law students is impossible without computers, new literature, legal sources, other study materials and foreign law journals. But the costs of providing all required materials are very high. The costs index 1.1 could be determined so low only if the offer of lawyers at the labour market were to exceed the demand (that is not in reality), and this fact shows an inadequate knowledge of civil servants at the ministry about real costs of law students training. According to the calculations of the Faculty, the costs index should be fixed at the level 2.1-2.2.

The Resource Centre of the Faculty with its approximately 4000 units of foreign and Latvian literature is to great assistance to students in their studies. The Resource Centre has become more like information and methodical centre where it is possible to find all legislative acts, law magazines (mainly issued in Western countries), Latvian newspapers and study programs in all provided courses. Students can make copies of the necessary materials and receive all information about legislative acts adopted in Latvia. In addition it is possible to use the Library of the Faculty of Law (about 13.000 units), Library of the EuroFaculty (mainly foreign literature), U.S. Information Resource Center in Riga, Latvian National Library, as well as the Library of the Goethe Institute for working on their research essays.

At present there is a modern computer class at the Faculty with 15 computers connected to the Internet. The Deans Office and all 5 departments are provided with computers that are used not only for office work but also by lecturers preparing their research works. Obtaining of the mentioned equipment and renovation of auditoriums and departments was possible because of student instalments and endowment capital.

Further on it is necessary to find possibilities for composition and publishing of legal literature for students on Latvian Law and translations of modern foreign literature on Law. The faculty has tried to receive financial aid from the TEMPUS programme for translation of modern legal literature, but no results are achieved yet due to the fact, that the promised aid from the Volkswagen-Stiftung has not been received. Still, a successful co-operation has been achieved with the Soros Foundation in preparation and further publishing of legal literature. These books are on Legal History of Latvia, Problems of Legal Theory, translation of the textbook ‘’Allgemeine Staatslehre’’ and Dictionary of Legal Terminology.



8. Comparison of legal studies in Latvia and EU universities

The process of studies at the Faculty is organised similarly to many EU and other foreign universities. Some of these universities have affirmed this fact in their reports (see Appendix No 1). In contrast to the lecturers in Europe and other universities our lecturers are more like informants not as co-ordinators for students. This is due to the fact that the changes of legislation are very fast and there is lack of new literature and other materials for studies.

Systems of valuation of students knowledge are similar. Positive invention at the Faculty is the written form of exams at many main and additional courses. This helps the students to be creative and not to overload the memory as it is at the oral examinations.

The use of computers is becoming more common as in European universities, but still it is far from the necessary quantity.



9. Prospects of the development of the Faculty

The possibilities and model of development of the Faculty was adopted at the Faculties Council’s meeting on December 5, 1996. Student and employers representatives and lecturers studying abroad were present at the meeting as well. The main points of development were declared in the resolution of the meeting:

1) annual changes of the law studies program, mainly in planning specialised courses (group B);

2) establishment of full-time Masters the studies. The work on one year Masters program similar to programs in Germany - the University of Muenster, Sweden -the University of Stockholm, Belgium - the University of Brussels is carried out;

3) intensified training of law students of evening and extra-mural departments who are working at prosecution offices, in the system of Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Justice, for legal defence institutions, proposing to the Ministry of Education that approximately 200 students could be financed by the state budget providing that they sign a contract for mandatory work at these institutions some years after the studies. Such Proposal was submitted to the Cabinet of Ministers in 1996 on the initiative of the General Prosecution Office;

4) publication of literature and other study materials with help of the Soros foundation and foreign universities;

5) training of candidates for doctor’s degree, mainly younger generation;

6) in accordance with experience of European universities (France, Sweden, Germany etc.) training of Law students should mainly take place at state universities; so it should be concentrated at the Faculty of Law of the LU, decreasing or liquidating other private universities where a legal education can be obtained. The latter could be allowed for training of Law students for commercial structures;

7) control and increase of the quality of studies making public pools of students and taking into account their opinion on quality of lectures and lecturers;

8) credit possibilities for new lecturers taking into account their needs during research work;

9) mastering of European Law, especially in adoption and interpretation of legislative norms;

10) increase of material provision for the work of the Faculty.



List of the Faculty of Law of the University of Latvia
Dr. habil. iur., Professor Biøers Ilmârs

Dr. habil. iur., Professor Reinhards Dombrovskis

Dr. habil. iur., Professor Uldis Krastiðø



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