36. The Republic of Uzbekistan was formed on 31 August 1991 on the territory of the former Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, which had been part of the USSR. Uzbekistan is a unitary State with a presidential form of government. Its gaining State sovereignty was the beginning of radical reforms and political adjustments.
37. The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, which was adopted on 8 December 1992, reflects the will, spirit, public awareness and culture of the people. Above all, one should note its adherence to universal human values and to the universally recognized norms and rules of international law. It does not contain the insularity of a single political ideology, class confrontation, or any dictate of parties. Nor is there any oppressive domination of the citizenry by the State.
38. The Constitution established the principle of separation of powers of the legislative, executive and judicial branches..
39. (a) Legislative branch. Legislative power is exercised by the Oliy Majlis, which is the Parliament of the Republic and the highest State representative body. After a referendum was conducted in the country, a two-chamber parliament was formed in 2005, consisting of the upper chamber, or Senate, and the lower chamber, or Legislative Chamber, of the Oliy Majlis. The formation of a two-chamber parliament strengthened the nationhood of Uzbekistan considerably. First, the Constitutional powers of the parliament were expanded, and the mechanism of checks and balances among the legislative, executive and judicial branches of power was vastly improved. Second, the democratic representation of all regions in the power was expanded. Third, the quality of the legislative process improved considerably. Fourth, the transition was made to a professional parliament.
40. The formation procedure and legal status of the Parliament of the Republic of Uzbekistan were set by the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan (articles 76-88), the Constitutional laws on the Senate and on the Legislative Chamber, and the laws on elections to the Oliy Majlis and on the status of a Legislative Chamber deputy and a member of the Senate.
41. The term of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate is five years. The Legislative Chamber consists of 120 deputies elected from geographical electoral districts in multiparty elections. Its work is based on the professional, ongoing activities of all the deputies of the chamber.
42. Structurally, the Legislative Chamber consists of committees and commissions. Under the Rules of the Legislative Chamber, the following 10 committees were formed: Committee on the Budget and Economic Reforms; Committee on Legislation and Judicial Matters; Committee on Labour and Social Issues; Committee on Matters of Defense and Security; Committee on International Affairs and Interparliamentary Relations; Committee on Agrarian and Water Management Issues and Ecology; Committee on Matters of Industry, Construction and Commerce; Committee on Matters of Science, Education, Culture and Sports; Committee on Democratic Institutions, Non-Governmental Organizations and Citizens Self-Government Bodies; and Committee on Matters of Information and Communication Technologies.
43. The commissions of the Legislative Chamber are created from among chamber deputies to perform specific tasks.
Number of deputies of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan18