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Referati mavzu Badiiy gimnastika mashg‘ulotlarini tashkil qilis, onun ustuvorligi fuarolik zhamiyatin, 4-mavzu, 02. GLOSSARIY, 01 MARUZA MATNI 763c0d098935187e80a0a1cf77c41178, [Muhin YU.N., Gabushin V.N., Unegova T.A.] Geometr(BookFi), Аттестация Баённома феврал 2022 йил, YUPITER SAYYORASI, TARIX ALISHER NAMOZOV, Xalqaro tijorat arbitraji, Xalqaro tijorat arbitraji, Xalqaro tijorat arbitraji, 3032100793, akmaljon
TYPOLOGY 
Typology is a 
classification of 
structural types 
across languages 
Typology is the 
study of patterns 
that occur 
systematically 
across languages 
Typology represents an 
approach or theoretical 
framework to the study of 
language that contrasts with 
prior approaches 



mathematical or economic typology as well. General and solitary differences and 
similarities are typical to all sciences. Some branches isolate systemic comparison 
into an independent sub-branch within the 
frames of a more general science: e.g. 
comparative psychology
first mentioned in the 
works of Aristotle who described psychological 
similarities between animals and human beings. 
One the most well-known representatives 
of 
Comparative Psychology
was Charles Darwin. 
Comparative Pedagogy 
deals with general 
and distinctive features, development trends and 
prospective of theory, applied instruction and 
upbringing methods, reveals their economic, 
social political and philosophic backgrounds. 
Historical typology 
analyses historic facts 
and produces comparative inventory based on 
the history of each nation/ethnicity to reveal 
general trends, differences, and similarities. E.g. 
based on French revolution of 1848 the major signs of revolutionary situation 
were revealed. 
Literary criticism
ot rapid development in the second half of XIX century 
simultaneously with thedevelopment of comparative linguistics. In Russia, the 
representatives of comparative linguistics were P.M. Samarin, V.M. Jirmunskiy, 
M.P. Alekseev, N.I. Conrad, I.G. Neupokoeva, etc. 
The two sciences — ComparativeTypology and Literary criticism have a 
number of similarities: 

linguistic comparison deals with identifying universal principles of 
thecomparative description of the systems of national languages. 
Literary criticism establishes general principles of typological 
description of national literature;

both sciences deal with identifying systemic features and discover 
typological isomorphism which can be conditioned structurally, 
genetically and geographically, etc. 
Comparative typology is one of the branches of General Linguistics, which 
studies the systems of languages comparatively, also finds common laws of 
languages and establishes differences and similarities between them.Moreover, due 
to David Crystal‘s book ―Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics‖, Comparative 
Typology is explained in this way: ―A branch of linguistics which studies 
thestructural similarities between languages, regardlessof their history, as part of 
an attempt to establisha satisfactory classification or typology oflanguages. 
Typological comparison is thus distinguishedfrom the historical comparison 
oflanguages […] and its groupings may not coincidewith those set up by the 
historical method‖.



The most popular definition of the subject matter seems to be 
―ComparativeTypology‖ is a branch of General Linguistics, field of astudy aiming 
at identifying such similarities and distinctive features of languages that do not 
depend on genetic origin or influence of languages to one another. Typology 
strives to identify and look at the most significant features that affect other spheres 
of language systems, e.g. the way of thejunction of meaningful parts of the word or 
the so-called structure of the sentence in the language". Typological studies base 
on materials of representative sampling from many world languages so that the 
findings and conclusions made on the results of such analysis can be applied to the 
entire majority of languages (in cases of language universals). 
Comparative typology shows special interest in the so-called exotic or non-
studied languages, e.g. languages of ethnicities of South-East Asia, Africa, Ocean 
side or American Indian tribes. Still, the data of well-known, expanded and well-
studied languages the similar extent become the subject matter of a typological 
study. 
Comparative typology not only systemizes, generalizes and classifies the 
facts of language isomorphism and allomorphism but also explains them. 
The majority of prestigious linguistic theories have their own typological 
agenda aimed at theoretical analysis of structurally different languages, their 
location, and genetic origin. 
Nowadays many terms are used for defining this very type of science, such 
as 
Linguistic Typology

Comparative Typology

and Contrastive Linguistucs, 
Charaxterology 
and so on. However, with the help of analyzing historical 
background, we will be able to realize the main notion of this branch of 
Linguistics. 

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