According to unesco, there are now more than 5,600 languages ​​in the world. These languages ​​have different levels of development and place in society, as well as the number of speakers



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According to UNESCO, there are now more than 5,600 languages ​​in the world. These languages ​​have different levels of development and place in society, as well as the number of speakers. The language of a tribe of 100-200 people, as well as the language spoken by hundreds of millions of people, is a separate language. When a person with abstract thinking hears or learns different languages, they have two main aspects: material similarity (net, not, nicht, nest or brother, brother, Bruder, brat) and the grammatical structure of words, the formation of the foundation, certainly feels that there are similarities in the way words are connected to each other in a sentence. Serious work on these issues began in the 19th century. When it comes to classifying languages, emphasis is placed on genetic, morphological, and structural classifications. The division of languages ​​into types is also called the typology of languages. This is one of the biggest problems in linguistics. Along with foreign scholars, Uzbek linguists are also contributing to its solution.
It is well known that any typology requires comparison. According to J. Boronov, there are general-typological and historical-comparative methods in the comparative study of language systems. The general-typological method serves to create a linguistic typology. Linguistic typology, in turn, includes the universality of structural typology, the typological (morphological) classification of languages, specific typological theory, and the definition of reference language. The general-typological method is "a method of generalizing and comparing different language systems." Structural typology, which is the basis of modern linguistic typology, systematizes and inventories the structural features of different languages ​​based on the structural linguistic methods of language. Structural typology on the basis of specific methods determines the differential features, typological features of the language layer and compiles their typological classification. Structural typology studies each structure of a language as a common linguistic participant. Language universals are language features specific to all languages. Since all languages ​​have the same functions, it is natural for languages ​​to have some similarities. This phenomenon of similarity in the structure of languages ​​is called general similarity or universality in language.
Language universals are a general linguistic category specific to all language systems. Linguistic universals or universalism studies the general categories of language and uses descriptive and other methods to determine the typological similarity with the general laws of language. Universalism means the generalization of the laws of language.
While structuralism works by the deductive method, universalism works by the inductive method, that is, it applies a certain generality to all language systems. For example:
- if the language has only suffixes, the poslelog is inevitable;
- if the language has only a prefix, there is a preposition;
- if the language has a rod category, it also has a number category;
-if the rod category in the language is specific to horses, yam rod in rhymes
category.
Morphological typology "deals with the division of languages ​​into taxonomic groups according to their grammatical structure." We will discuss this typology in more detail below.
Special typological theory. “The main task of special typological theory is the creation of special rules and methods of typological application of language systems. In creating a special typological theory, the system of world languages ​​is the object of structural typology. He creates general typological methods using the descriptive method, which studies a particular language system separately, and the genetic method, which studies a group of sister language systems.
Typological theory must be able to determine the universality of all language systems. Typological theory represents ways of describing universals, choosing specific terms for typology.
Metatyl (standard language). “One of the main tasks of typology is to create a specific system that serves as a criterion for classifying different language systems. Such a system is called a metalanguage or reference language. The reference language is a general universal language, and all specific languages ​​are its invariants. The system of other languages ​​is determined by comparing the ready mediator determined by the deductive method with the reference language. A specific language or system can also be taken as a reference language. The main function of the reference language is to act as a unit of measurement in the representation of the language system. The theory states that the standard language can be a well-developed concrete language, known phonological, morphological, syntactic, model and other systems, a system of symbolic language, consisting of general artificial language rules.
Morphs and morphemes should not be confused with syllables. First, morph and morphemes are studied by the morphological layer of the language. Second, morphs and morphemes do not always correspond to syllables, and not all syllables correspond to morphs and morphemes. For example, the word street in Uzbek consists of two syllables, but one morpheme, and the word father consists of two syllables and two morphemes, but their boundaries are intertwined. qri does not come. If we divide the phonetically into syllables, then the word is divided into: o-tam, morphologically the smallest parts of meaning, the parent-m. In some cases, the morphs may coincide with the syllable. For example: textbooks, workers, etc.
The classification of things in the world into groups based on the most basic, most important features of natural or social phenomena is called classification.
All the languages ​​of the world are divided into several groups according to the most important features. There are more than two and a half thousand languages ​​on earth. Taking into account the dialects of these languages, their number exceeds five thousand. Given the most basic, most important features of these languages ​​on earth, the question of classifying them is extremely complex and important. There are two similar ways in which linguistics classifies languages:
a) genealogical method;
b) morphological method.

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