Fa 201 2016 behin aksoy paleolithic old Stone Age

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Old Stone Age

I. Forming of the Continents

A. continents not separated yet: 200 million years ago

B. separation of continents starting: 100 million years ago

C. separation of continents continuing: 50 mil. yrs. ago

D. present day situation of continents: 40 thousand yrs. ago

II. Primates: order of humans, apes, and monkeys

A. common ancestor

1. humans: hand and foot quite diff. fr. each other/brain cap.

a. hominids: human like creatures/a number of branches

b. homos: humans

1) Homo habilis: human who makes things

2) Homo erectus: human who walks upright

3) Homo sapiens: human who knows

(Wise Man)

a) Homo sapiens archaic

b) Homo sapiens Neandertalensis

c) Homo sapiens sapiens (modern man)

2. apes: hand and foot quite similar

a. gibbon

b. orang

c. chimp

d. gorilla

3. monkeys

B. bipedalism in humans: walking upright on two feet

1. shape of foot

a. toes smaller than fingers

b. soles larger and longer

c. 90o of angle between foot and leg

2. hands are free to do things: helps further develop brain

3.brain: horizontal axis also 90o to the body perpendicular,

further development of intelligence

III. Geographical movement of hominids and homos

A. Africa: the area of origin/the Great Rift System

1. Ethiopia: Omo Valley

2. Tanzania: Olduvai Gorge

3. Transvaal, South Afr.: Swartkarans

B. spreading of homos

1.to the East

a. Near East

b. Middle East (Pakistan, Siwalik Hills)

c. Far East (China, Chokoutien Cave near Beijing: first indication of use of fire)

d. Pacific

1) Indonesia

2) Australia

2. to the North

a. Near East

b. Anatolia

c. East Europe

3. to the West

a. North Africa

b. Spain

c. France

IV. Some important points about homos

A. Homo habilis: man who makes things

B. Homo erectus: man who walks upright

1. Choukoutien Cave: near Beijing, China

a. Beijing man: Australopithecus pekinensis

1) original skeletal remains lost during shipping by train

2) good casts of the skeletal remains preserved

3) later excavations produced other skeletal remains

b. first indications of use of fire

2. Terra Amata, Italy: traces of a hut by the sea

3. Africa

a. Site 50, near Lake Turkana, Kenya

b. Olorgesailie, near Nairobi, Kenya

C. Homo sapiens: man who knows

1. Homo sapiens archaic: Yarımburgaz, İstanbul, Turkey

2. Homo sapiens Neandertal: possibility of complicated speech, hyoid in the larynx

a. original skeletal remains from Neander River Valley, North Germany

b. Mugharet-es-Skhul: Mount Carmel, Israel

c. Shanidar Cave, Northern Iraq

d. La Chapelle aux Saints, France

e. La Ferrasie, France

V. Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic (Epipal/short lived Mesol. of the Near E.)

A. phases (of Pal.)

1. Lower

2. Middle

3. Upper (modern man)

B. economy: hunting and gathering

C. fauna

1. carnivores

2. hoofed animals

3. some exotic animals as far up north as Italy (during interstadials)

4. smaller animals especially in Epipaleolithic

D. dwellings

1. natural caves

2. simple huts (made with branches)

3. tents (made with wood and skins)

E. tools

1. early: handaxes of flint and chert

2. later

a. specialized tools of flint

1) much variety

2) groups and subgroups

3) some really small in size: microliths

b. bone and antler tools: harpoons, needles, spatulae, etc.
F. expression of art: corresponds to modern man

1. on tools: harpoons, etc.

2. on natural material used: pebbles, etc.

3. cave walls: some elaborate examples in France a. Spain

4. on rock façades

5. female figurines: “Paleolithic Venuses” (pregnant women)

VI. Type sites in Turkey

A. Yarımburgaz Cave: near Küçükçekmece Lake, İstanbul

1. shape of the cave

a. upper cave: Byzantine church, later prehistoric periods

b. lower cave: Paleolithic

1) near the entrance: trenches

2) long gallery forking at the end (made by a river flowing towards the


2. excavations (1988, 89, 90)

a. trenches: mostly inside the entrance, one outside

plans and correlated profile drawings

b. finds

1) skeletal

a) Ursus deningeri: bear, now extinct

b) carnivores

c) hoofed animals

d) microfauna

e) one human tooth

2) artifactual

a) cobbles

b) flaked pebbles

c) choppers

d) discoids

e) flakes (majority of the tools): flake industry

f) scrapers

g) backed blades

h) denticulated tools

i) beaked tools

3. date: 350 000 BP/Lower Paleolithic / H.sapiens arch.

B. Karain Cave: Antalya

1. excavated some years back, being re-excavated today

2. tools

a. scrapers

b. blades

c. burins

3. date: 100.000 – 50.000 BP /Middle a. Upper Pal./Homo s. Neandertal a. sapiens

C. Şehremuz: open site / near Samsat, Adıyaman

1. trenches on the terraces of hills / correlated profiles

2. tools

a. handaxes from cores

b. made from flakes: all sizes

3. date: 150.000 BP/Middle Pal./Homo s. archaic a. Neandertal


New Stone Age

I. Anatolia in postglacial: 20.000 BP

A. final Pleistocene/Quaternary Era (geological)

B. pluvial lakes and last glaciations (on top of mountains)

II. Neolithic Revolution: first domestication of plants and animals

A. fertile crescent: Near East, 10.000 BP

1. Israel

2. Lebanon

3. North Syria

4. Southeast Turkey

5. North Iraq

6. Zagros flanks (Iraq and Iran)

B. first domesticated species

1. plant: harvesting the wild forms first

a. wheat

b. barley

2. animal: herding the wild types first

a. sheep /

b. goat / about the same time

c. dog /

d. pig

e. cattle

C. first farming communities / first villages: basic aspects

1. man made dwellings: generally stone and mudbrick in the N.East

a. round and simple first

b. rectangular and more complex later

c. simple features (platforms along the walls)

d. beginnings of fortification in the South (Jericho)

2. special function buildings or rooms: shrines

a. separate buildings: Çayönü, Nevali Çori (Turkey)

b. special room within house complex: Çatalhüyük (Turkey)

3. tool kit

a. chipped stone: sophisticated flaking techniques

1) flint

2) obsidian: linear (simple) trade for it

a) limited obs. sources in the Near East

1- Melos (Aegean)

2- Çiftlik (Central Anatolia) Hasandağ eruption depicted on a Çatalhüyük

wall painting

3- Van (East Anatolia)

b. ground stone

1) grinding stones for processing the grain

2) polished stones, esp. celts for diverse activities

4. female figurines

a. pregnant women symbolizing continuation of life and species

b. prototypes of the Mother Goddess

5. cults

a. mother goddess/already in early phase

b. bull cult: later phase

D. Phases and Type Sites

1. Aceramic Neolithic (Neol. without pottery or Prepottery Neol.)

a. Çayönü: Ergani, Diyarbakır, SE Turkey

1) separate houses

a) stone foundations and mudbrick walls

b) types of houses: round, grill, a. cell buildings

2) cult buildings

a) shrine w. terrazzo floor: pinkish pebbles stuck together

parallel white lines

b) skull building: w. deliberately burnt human and animal skulls

3) objects

a) flint a. obs. tools: arrowheads, burins a. drills, scrapers, sickle blades

b) ground stone grinders

c) polished stone tools

d) polishing stones

e) stone vessel fragments

f) stone bracelet fragments and beads

g) figurines: animal and human (mostly clay)

h) bone implements: counting bones and other

i) Cu objects: insignificant tidbits

b. Cafer Hüyük: Malatya, E Turkey

1) simple architecture

2) objects

a) flint a. obs. tools: cores, circular a. semi-circular scrapers, oval points,

arrowheads, microliths, sickle blades

b) ground stone: grinding stones a. polishing tools

c) polished stone vessels

d) stone bracelets and beads

e) various figurines

c. Aşıklı Hüyük: Aksaray, Central Anatolia

1) rectangular buildings

2) monumental structure w. rounded walls

3) objects

a) flint a. obs. tools: arrowheads, scrapers, sickle blades

b) various stone a. bone objects

c) Cu bead

2. Ceramic Neolithic (Neol. w. pottery): Çatalhüyük / Konya Plain, Central Anat.

a. architecture: house complexes stuck together (much surplus to protect)

1) rooms for daily life w. wall paintings

2) special function rooms / shrines / w. special wall paintings

a) special paintings

b) high reliefs: bulls’heads, leopards, etc.

c) altars: some w. real bulls’horns at the sides

b. burials

1) within settlement (intramuralis)

2) w. burial gifts
c. figurines

1) esp. mother goddesses (the earliest eg. w. lions)

2) sacred couple

3) mother and child

d. chipped stone industry: extremely sophisticated (flint dagger w. bone handle in

the form of snake)

e. ground stone

f. beads, bracelets, maceheads

g. clay seals

h. wooden vessels (burnt remains)

i. textile remains (plant fibers used)

j. mat impressions

k. pottery vessels

1) natural colours

2) highly polished

3) few simple forms


Metal a. Stone Age
I. Dates and Phases: 5000 – 3000 BC

II. General aspects:

A. architecture: more developed w. more features, first fortification walls in Anatolia

B. agriculture: more developed

C. trade

1. complicated

2. centers accumulating material

a. raw and/or

b. finished products

3. “interregional”

D. real metallurgy (esp. in the last phase)

1. enriching of the ore (esp. Cu)

2. smelting

3. use of moulds

4. hammering and hardening of the obj.

III. Type sites

A. fr. Anatolia

1. Hacılar : Burdur, Lake District, West Anatolia

a. painted pottery Chalcolithic culture

b. architecture

1) fortified village (esp. the last two phases)

2) rectangular house complexes

3) increase of architectural features (hearths, ovens, shelves, work benches,


c. village shrine

d. burials: within the settlement (also a cemetary outside the settlement)

e. objects

1) stone vessels (some marble)

2) pottery: much developed compared w. Neolithic

a) many forms: great variety, special forms

b) some monochrome

c) mostly paint decorated: geometric motifs

1- stylized human a. animal forms

2- stylized plant motifs

3- basket motifs, etc.

4- pure geometric motifs

3) statuettes : female in abundence (same idea of pregnant woman continuing)

a) naturalistic

b) highly stylised

4) flint a. obs. tools )

5) bone a. antler artifacts ) composite tools (sickles)

6) ground stone

7) polished stone (axes, celts, a. chisels)

8) polishing stones

9) maceheads

10) beads, buttons, etc.

11) moulds (esp. baked clay)
2. Beycesultan: Denizli, W Anatolia

a. first twenty levels (XL-XX) Chalc.

b. architecture

1) rectangular

2) “megaron” type house: ante walls in front, long rectangular room

c. pottery: dark polished pottery culture

1) much variety in shapes

2) connections mostly w. the rest of Western Anatolia and the Aegean

B. Halaf: a foreign Chalc. culture in Anatolia

1. result of obsidian trade (later metal)

2. geography

a. homeland: North Syria, North Iraq, SE Turkey

b. area spread to: Middle Mesopotamia, Lebanon a. Bekaa, Cilicia,

Elazığ a. Malatya

c. outposts: East Anatolia (Van-Tilkitepe)

Azerbaijan (Nachjivan – Kültepe)

3. characteristics

a. architecture

1) round house w. dromos (tholos)

2) rectangular houses

a) later

b) esp. outside homeland

b. flexed burials w. gifts

c. pottery: typical shapes, typical motifs

1) some monochrome

2) ptd. pottery (in the later phase even polichromy)

a) geometric motifs

b) naturalistic motifs

c) stylised naturalistic motifs

d. esp. stylised figurines

e. some important Halaf sites

1) Arpachiyah: North Iraq (homeland)

2) Tell Hassan: Central Iraq, Hamrin (spreading area)

3) Tülintepe: East Turkey, Elâzığ (boundary area)

4) Tilkitepe: East Turkey, Van (outpost)


I. Dates: 3000 – 2000 BC

II. General aspects

A. first states in the Eastern Mediterranean a. the Near East

1. real kingdoms

a. Southern Mesopotamia

b. Egypt

2. city kingdoms

a. Anatolia

b. Aegean

B. aspects of society

1. royalty (ruling dynasties)

a. royal palaces

b. royal treasures (use of valuable metals like Au a. Ag)

c. royal tombs/burials

2. religion

a. temples

b. beginnings of priesthood

3. specialization (potters, miners, metalworkers, tradesmen, artisans)

4. warfare (more institutionalised)

C. economy

1. agriculture a. husbandry – much wool production (lots of spindle whorls)

2. metallurgy

3. trade: long distance, seafaring included

III. Cultural areas and type sites

A. East Anatolia: Khirbet Kerak Culture

1. origins

a. Caucasia (Kuro – Araxes)

b. Northeast Anatolia (Karaz – Pulur)

c. Azerbaijan

2. area of spreading

a. East Anatolia

b. Southeast Turkey

c. Syria

d. as far down south as Israel

3. general aspects

a. rectangular and round architecture

b. public buildings

c. horseshoe altars in house shrines

d. pottery

1) dark polished

2) imitating bronze vessels

a) shapes

b) shiny surfaces

c) decorations (fluting, grooving, etc.)

B. West Anatolia: the Troad Culture

1. Troy I-V

a. architecture

1) rectangular, “megaron”

2) apsidal house

3) fortification wall

4) monumental city gate and ramp (Troy II)

b. burials: infants in pots

c. pottery: grey, tan, reddish brown polished

1) shapes: variety (depas amphikypellon, face lids, plates, etc.)

2) decorations: faces on the rims (Tr. I), incised and filled w. white plaster;

relief decorations

d. treasures: stylistically different from other EB treasures of Anatolia

e. highly stylized idols (violin idols) of Western Anatolia a. Cycladic Islands

f. spindle whorls: lots of them, indicating much spinning a. weaving activity

(woollens), large herds of animals

2. other sites in Western Anatolia (fr. N to S)

a. Dorak (tomb and treasures)

b. Yortan

c. Beycesultan

d. Karataş Semayük

C. Central Anatolia

1. Alacahüyük: Pontic Culture

a. not much known about settlement plan and architecture (destroyed by 2nd

millennium Hittite construction activity)

b. royal tombs

1) large graves

2) not so impressive in appearance

3) a number of burials in the same tomb successively

4) burial gifts: royal treasures of Alaca

c. melting point of E and W Anatolia plus its own characteristics

2. other sites in Central Anatolia

a. Oymaağaç

b. Horoztepe

c. Karaoğlan

d. Kültepe

e. Göltepe: an EB Age mining village in Niğde

1) the mining gallery Kestel nearby (tin)

2) architecture

a) simple working areas cut into bedrock, round

b) later more regular rectangular rooms

c) surrounding wall around the settlement

3) pottery

a) more in the tradition of the southern parts of Central Anatolia

b) burnished tradition (varying tones and shades)

c) metal imitation (imitating the texture)

4) crucible fragments: thousands of them

5) ground stone tools


I. Chronology

A. first phase / 2050 – 2000 BC / Karum Kanesh II

B. second phase / 1940 – 1755 BC / Karum Kanesh Ib

II. Main routes of the tradesmen

A. the land and river routes

1. Assur – Meliddu (Malatya) – Kanesh (Kayseri) cont. to

a. (Alishar) – Hattush (Çorum) – (Alacahüyük) – Zalpa (Samsun)

b. Purushanda (Aksaray)

2. Assur – Nihriya – (Cilicia) – (Cilician Gates) – Kanesh (Kayseri) – (Alishar) –

Durhumit – Zalpa (Samsun)

B. main land and river routes reaching the coastal areas and making connections

with sea routes

III. Writing

A. hieroglyphic writing: scanty evidence of it among the Indo-European speaking

people who came to Anatolia towards the end of the 3rd Millenium

B. Assyrian cuneiform: used by the Assyrian merchants from Northern Mesopotamia

1. cuneiform writing invented by Sumerians in Southern Mesopotamia at the

beginning of the 3rd Mill. (Asiatic language)

2. adapted by Akkadians and Assyrians (Semitic languages)

3. tablets: of clay

a. no regular size

b. some kept in envelopes, also of clay

c. most related to trade

1) contracts

2) transactions

3) accounts

4) debt accounts

5) verdicts

d. some letters

IV. Caravans: donkey

V. Merchandise

A. Assyrians bringing

1. textiles

2. luxury objects

3. tin (acquired from the East)

B. Anatolia providing

1. gold

2. silver

3. wool

VI. Pottery and other objects

A. pottery

1. polished: various colours and shades

2. some extremely interesting forms and decorations

a. animal spouts

b. cup representing a sanctuary

3. “Cappadocian” painted ware: paint decoration in panels

VII. Meaning of Karum: “market”, originally pier on the river, where also the market was


Middle a. Late

Bronze Age

I. Hittite origins

A. Indo-European speaking people: three main groups

1. Palesgians: West Black Sea area (later Paphlagonia)

2. Luwians: Southwest Anatolia/Lukka Land (later Lycia)

3. Hittites: Central Anatolia/Hatti

B. all have come from the Balkans and are related tribes

II. Hittite geography

A. West

1. Seha-River Land: Northwest Aegean (including Lazpas: Lesbos)

2. Arzawa : Ionia (including Apasa/Ephesus and Millawanda/Miletus)

3. Lukka Land: Soutwest Anatolia

4. Hapalla: Kabalia / Lake District

5. Pitassa: Pisidia / “ “

B. North

1. Pala Land: West Black Sea (Paphlagonia)

2. Kashka Land: East Black Sea (Pontus)

C. East

1. Azzi Hayasa: Erzurum Area

2. Upper Land: Erzincan Area (incl. Samuha and Kussara)

3. Ishuwa: Malatya and Elâzığ Area (incl. Miltid/Malatya)

4. Mitanni: Mardin, Bitlis, Van, Hakkâri Area

5. Urshu: Gaziantep and Maraş Area

D. South: Kizzuwatna/Cilicia and the mountainous area to the north of it

(incl. Adaniya/Adana)

E. Central

1. Lower Land: Aksaray, Niğde (ancient Nahitta) and Bor (ancient Tyana) Area

2. HATTI: homeland within the Halys River

a. Kanesh (Nesha): Kültepe near Kayseri

b. Alishar: Yozgat

c. Alacahüyük: Sungurlu, Çorum

d. Hattusha: Boğazköy in Sungurlu, Çorum

e. Tapikka: Maşat Hüyük in Tokat

f. Zalpa: Bafra in Samsun

III. Hittite king list and chronology: 18th c. BC – 13th c. BC

A. pre-Hittite rulers

1. Pithana: early 18th century BC

2. Anitta (son of Pithana): mid-18th century BC

B. Old Hittite Kingdom

1. Labarna: 1680 - 1650

2. Hattushili I: 1650 - 1620

3. Murshili I: 1620 – 1590

4. Hantili: 1590 – 1560

5. Zidanta I: 1560 – 1550

6. Ammuna: 1550 – 1530

7. Huzziya I: 1530 – 1525

8. Telepinu: 1525 – 1500

9. Tahurwaili /

10. Alluwamna /

11. Hantili II / 1500 – 1450

12. Zidanta II /

13. Huzziya II /

14. Muwatalli I /

C. Middle Hittite Kingdom: some scholars do not include such a division and add this

part also to the Old Kingdom

1. Tudhaliya II: 1450 – 1420

2. Arnuwanda I: 1420 – 1400

3. Tudhaliya III: 1400 – 1380

4. Tudhaliya the Younger: 1380 ?

D. Hittite Empire Period

1. Shuppiluliuma I: 1380 – 1340

2. Arnuwanda II: 1340 – 1339

3. Murshili II: 1339 – 1306

4. Muwatalli II: 1306 – 1282

5. Murshili III (Urhi Teshub): 1282 – 1275

6. Hattushili III: 1275 – 1250

7. Tudhaliya IV: 1250 – 1220

8. Karunta: ?

9. Arnuwanda III: 1220 – 1215

10. Shuppiluliuma II: 1215 – 1200

IV. Hittite Art and Architecture

A. Hittite Old Kingdom

1. Architecture and sculpture: end of Old Kingdom beginning of Empire,

ALACAHÜYÜK/Sacred City of the Hittites

a. monumental gate: w. two sphinxes (creature w. human head a. lion’s body)

1) facial feature: chubby cheeks/reflecting Anatolia

2) head-dress: Egyptian style

b. relief orthostats: West bastion

1) lower line

a) unfinished bull relief

b) musicians

c) acrobats and jugglers

d) procession of priests

e) priest leading sacrificial animals (two rams, one bull, one goat)

f) ritual scene w. king in front of altar and the queen behind him

g) altar w. bull

2) upper line

a) wild animal

b) wild boar hunt w. grazing stag

- w. a hunter knelt, ready to shoot the boar with an arrow

- possibly another hunter in the same position to shoot the stag

c) lion’s head from front

d) lion’s body from the side

3) place unknown: lion hunt scene

a) two dogs attacking a lion

-one on the lion’s back

-the other charging at the neck

b) hunter attacking the lion at the neck with a spear

2. pottery

a. low relief decorated vessels

1) İnandık Vase fr. İnandıktepe near Ankara

a) sacred marriage/”hieros gamos”

b) different stages of the wedding and marriage depicted in registers going

around the vase

2) Bitik Vase fr. Bitik near Ankara

a)only a large fragment: two registers partly seen plus the top part of a

third register

b)similar to İnandık Vase: sacred couple sitting opposite each other (hieros


b. red polished Hittite ware: variety of shapes

1) beak spouted

2) ring shaped

c. rhyta (rhytons): animal shaped vessels, there are also metal ones as well

(eg. silver stag from N. Schimmel Collection, New York)

1) ram

2) lion

3) bull: usually two/HURRI and SHERRI

3. statuettes : especially metal and of gods

B. Hittite Empire

1. City Planning and architecture with associated reliefs as seen from Hattusha,

the capital

a. Büyükkale/citadel

1) fortification: double wall ins. and outs, transverse walls of irr. worked

stone, rubble in betw.; towers at regular intervals; mon.gates

2) guard rooms

3) administration buildings

4) throne hall

5) state archive building

6) residence halls of the king and the royal family

7) gardens

8) pools, etc.

b. lower city

1) Karum Hattush (of the old city)

2) the Great Temple: the biggest temple in the whole of the Hittite World

a) Hittite temple plan

- entrance w. guard rooms on either side

- courtyard

- rooms around the courtyard

- adyton or cella (sacred room where the image of the deity is): opposite

the entrance but not in axis, there can be two cellas (sometimes a

temple is dedicated to two deities)

b) storage rooms around w. some large pithoi (pithos: jar) in situ

(in original place)

3) residential areas

4) Büyükkaya: to the north of the citadel, w. traces of wooden bridge

5) fortification w. towers, gates, posterns (tunnels) all around

c. upper city: in the south, added in the Empire Period

1) fortification: in better shape, esp. in the south where there is a

processional way behind it

2) monumental gates: in good condition

a) Lion’s Gate: in the west, lions in situ

b) Sphinx Gate (Yerkapı): in the south

- the sphinxes

- one sphinx in Ist. Arch. Museums

- the other sphinx in Berlin

- oblique wall: quite impressive, entrance for official guests, side stairs

- postern: corbel technique used to achieve such a tunnel

c) King’s Gate: original figure in Ankara Mus. (actually a warrior god)

3) burgs

a) Yenicekale

b) Sarıkale

c) Nişantepe

4) temples: more than thirty of them, concentr. esp. in the south

5) sacred basin and symbolic tomb chambers

6) residential and other functional buildings

2. Open-air Temple of Yazılıkaya: outside Hattusha

a. natural rock sanctuary: two natural galleries

1) Gallery A (main gallery): depicting the Hittite pantheon in relief

a) left side: male deities (last twelve minor mountain gods)

b) central scene: Teshub, Hepad, Sharruma (sacred family) plus

important deities and their attributes

c) right side: female deities

2) Gallery B: dedicated to Tudhaliya IV

a) genie at entrance, outside (relief)

b) base of a stutue

c) figure of King Tudhaliya IV (relief)

d) sword god (relief)

e) figure of King Tud. IV embraced by Sharrume (relief)

f) 12 minor mountain gods (rel., opp. wall)

b. temple building in front: usual temple plan, only foundation walls remaining

3. rock reliefs outside cities

a. what they signify

1)Hittite territory

2) water sources

b. the important rock reliefs, domination areas incl.

1) Gâvur Kalesi: Ankara – Haymana Road

2) Eflâtunpınar / near Lake Beyşehir

3) Fasıllar / “ “

4) Sirkeli / Cilicia

5) Hemite / “

6) Fraktin: Kayseri

7) Karabel: Kemalpaşa, İzmir

4. pottery: same tradition continues as in the Old Kingdom, some changes in detail,

arm shaped libation vessel

5. writing system and objects w. writing on them

a. writing system: there are two systems used

1) Hittite Hieroglyphics: poss. a Luwian invention

2) Hittite cuneiform

a) adapted from Assyrian cuneiform

b) version of Babylonian Akkadian: probably came into use after the conquest

of Babylonia briefly by the Hittites

b. objects

1) seals

a) earlier versions

-stamp and cylinder both together

-drawings and pictograms

b) later versions

-stamp seal

-cuneiform writing around the edges

-hierglyphic writing at the center

-some signet rings

2) bullae: pieces of clay w. seal impressions, used for sealing

3) tablets

a) official ones kept in the archive: regular size, two columns, kept tidily on

wooden shelves w. call nos. on wooden


b) other sizes: of local kings, etc.

6. metal tools and weapons (mostly of bronze)

a. tools, esp. agricultural and carpentery

1) chisel

2) hoe

3) trowel

4) hammer, etc.

b. weapons

1) axes

a) ceremonial

b) functional

2) arrowheads

3) spearheads

4) swords

5) daggers

6) knives

7. relationships w. neighboring areas and countries

a. Syria: most of the time under Hittite control

b. Kingdom of Mitanni: mostly on friendly terms

c. Egypt

1) contact always at a high level

2) not much contact between the common people, because no common

3) nature of relationship

a) sometimes friendly (envoys, royal marriages)

b) sometimes inimical/eg. Kadesh battle and treaty

- in Syria around 1286 BC

- battle between Muwatalli II and Rameses II

- neither side wins but Syria remains under Hittite control

- treaty

-between Hattushili III and Rameses II

-in 1269 BC

-one of the clay tablet copies in Ist. Arch. Mus., the oldest known

treaty in the world

-written in three languages (copies): Hittite, Egyptian, Akkadian

(diplomatic language of the time)

d. Trojan – Mycenaean

1) Trojan king asking the protection of the Hittite king against Myc. assault:

we know through a Hittite table

2) through legend

a) Iliad of Homer: certain amount of truth

b) mythology: Argonauts, Jason and the golden fleece

8. end of the Hittite Empire

a. vulnerable: because of many years of drought, having gotten out of hand

as an Emp.

b. movement of the so called “barbaric tribes” or “the Sea people”: around 1200 BC

main group-



Iron Age

I. the situation in Anatolia after the movement of the barbaric tribes

A. fall of the Hittite Empire

B. emergence of new states

1. Neo-Hittite Principalities

2. Urartian Kingdom

3. Phrygian Kingdom

4. Lydian Kingdom

C. Hellenic colonization of coastal areas

II. the Neo-Hittite/Late Hittite Principalities/Kingdoms

A. the geography and the Neo-Hittite States

1. the geography

a. Hittites leave their homeland a. move South and Southeast

1) also part of their earlier empire

2) other ethnic groups more in number

b. nomadic tribes roaming around

1) Gashgans: who were also roaming around in Empire Period

2) Phrygians and others who came w. them

c. Neo-Assyrian Kingdom: in N. Mesopotamia, powerful a. aggressive

2. the Neo-Hittite States

a. Tabal

b. Que

c. Gurgum

d. Melitene

e. Kummuhu

f. Carchemish

g. Samal

B. the Neo-Hittite art and architecture

1. general aspect

a. Melitene: most Hittite in character

b. the others were more influenced by Assyria and different ethnic groups

within the kingdom

2. architecture

a. house plan: “bit Hilani”/esp. in the South

1) Syrian origin

2) plan

a) forecourt w. wooden columns on stone bases

b) long rectangular room

c) staircase opposite entrance leading upstairs

b. palaces: complexes of hilani and other basic types

c. temple: Hittite regular plan no longer exists

d. fortification: sophisticated like the Hittite system

1) towers at regular intervals

2) monumental gates

3) best examples

a) Carchemish

b) Samal (fortification of the outer city complete circle)

3. sculpture and reliefs

a. sculpture in the round

1) human formed

a) colossal in size (kings and deities)

b) standing or sitting

c) pedestals: usually two animals, sometimes a hero figure

between the animal

2) portal animals

b. reliefs

1) on natural rock façades: İvriz relief in Konya Ereğlisi

a) God Tarhunza: holding a bunch of grapes and wheat

b) King Warpalawas: wearing beautiful garment of decorated or

embroidered fabric, Phrygian fibula

2) on orthostats

a) Karatepe summer palace: inferior workmanship

b) Sakçagözü summer palace: more Hurrian-Urartian in style

c) Samal: sometimes Neo-Hittite sometimes Aramaean in style

d) Carchemish: mostly best examples of Neo-Hittite style

3) on stele: esp. from Maraş and Til Barsip, style depending on conditions

4. not much pottery: because most Neo-Hittite sites were excavated in earlier years

C. Neo-Hittite writing system

1. on the whole: Luwian/Hittite hieroglyphics only (cuneiform writing given up)

a. on orthostats and stele

b. tablets

2. Aramaic writing also seen, esp. in Samal

1. duration of existence: 1200 – 700 BC

2. ended by the Neo-Assyrian Kingdom one after the other, because of control

of trade routes leading to the sea


Iron Age

I. Urartian origins: mixture of Asiatic groups

A. main group: descendents of Hurrians of the Kingdom of Mitanni

1. similarities in language

2. similarities in the religion and the pantheon

3. Kingdom of Urartu includes the territory of the Kingdom of Mitanni

B. other ethnic groups speaking Asiatic languages, who have possibly come from

further East

II. Urartian land and geography

A. territory

1. mostly in East Turkey

2. Armenia

3. Azerbaijan (former Soviet and Iranian)

B. three important lakes

1. Lake Van (Turkey): “Upper Sea of Nairi”

a. most important angle – heartland of the Land of Urartu

b. all the Urartian capitals near this lake

1) Arzashkun: exact provenance unknown, North of the lake

2) Tushpa: most important and long lasting capital, natural rock fortress near

the lake and Medieval Van

3) Rusahinili: the last capital, summer residence of Rusa II

c. esp. important for transportation in winter when the roads are blocked

(pier remains: eg. Deliçay Pier north of the lake)

2. Lake Urmia (Iran): “Lower Sea of Nairi”

3. Lake Sevan (Armenia): smallest of the three, but still a large lake

C. important Urartian settlements

1.Tushpa (Van)

2. Sardurihinili / Çavuştepe (Van)

3. Rusahinili / Toprakkale (Van)

4. Adilcevaz (Bitlis)

5. Kefkalesi (Bitlis)

6. Patnos (Ağrı)

7. Aznavurtepe (Ağrı)

8. Kayalıdere (Muş)

9. Altıntepe (Erzincan)

10. Erebuni/Arin-Berd (Erevan)

11. Teishebaina/Karmir-Blur (Erevan)

D. Mount Ararat: the name Urartu is derived from the name of the mountain by the


1. Uruatri: means mountainous territory

2. Bianni (Vianni): what the heartland was called by the Urartians

a. Biannili: man of Bianni (what the Urartians called themselves)

b. modern Van is derived from Bianni/Vianni

E. network of mountain roads; some of which can be traced today

F. doors carved on natural rocks: symbolic doors leading to the underworld

III. Urartian city planning, art and architecture

A. settlement type: generally citadel fortress

B. city plan

1. citadel fortress

a. fortification system

1) native rock used as part of the fortress

2) irregularly worked stone at the bottom (iron tools)

3) mudbrick on top

b. palace: complex of some basic plans

c. storage rooms

1) basic necessity because of constant Assyrian campaigns

2) large pithoi (jars) always found

d. temple

1) closed

a) square with bastions at the corners, large Urartian cauldrons in

appropriate places

b) square with gabled roof, without bastions, lancehead at the top of the roof,


2) open-air with a number of tall stele

2. lower city: again with fortification

3. environs

a. villages or farmsteads

b. agricultural works/canals

c. vineyards and orchards

C. tombs

1. carved into fortress rocks: eg. Tushpa

2. constructed tomb chambers

a. number of chambers: not particular plan

b. body resting on a kline (bed)

c. burial gifts

D. “apadana” : throne hall

1. large space closed by a roof

2. to hold the roof: many rows of columns eg. Altıntepe (only bases are remaining)

3. fragmentary wall paintings (also in association with palaces)

a. possibly in the form of friezes

b. arrangements of friezes

1) bands

a) palmettes

b) pomegranate motifs, etc.

2) compartments

a) genii

b) trees of life

c) deities

d) animals: esp. attributes of gods

- lion (Haldi)

- bull (Teisheba)

- stag (Shivini)

IV. Urartian economy

A. agriculture

1. fields

2. orchards

3. vineyards: wine making is perhaps an innovation of the Urartians (earliest

alcoholic drink is beer and probably goes back to late Neolithic and


B. animal breeding: esp. cattle

C. handicrafts and trade

1. metalworking: for their own use and trade

a. iron and bronze

1) tools

2) weapons

3) armours (esp. shields and helmets/pointed)

4) chariot and harness parts (horse bits, decoration pieces, etc.)

5) vessels: esp. bowls and cauldrons with attachments

6) boxes, etc.

7) plaques for plating

8) belts

b. precious metals: used also as part of bronze objects

2. wood working and carving: beautiful furniture depicted in paintings and reliefs

a. plating: with metal

b. inlay: with ivory and semi-precious stones

3. ivory carving

a. as inlay

b. figurines: esp. attribute animals

4. textiles: no remaining examples, but seen in paintings and reliefs

a. decorated

b. embroidered

V. Urartian pottery

A. red polished plain pottery

1. shapes

a. determined by the fast turning wheel

1) round bodies

2) long necks

3) trefoil mouths

b. some hand made shapes as well

2. shade of the red: different from the Hittite red polished

B. painted: esp. boot shaped vessels

VI. Urartian religion: as seen esp. in paintings and reliefs

A. many deities and genii/tree of life: important motif

B. three important gods

1. Haldi: attribute animal/lion

2. Teisheba: attribute animal/bull

3. Shivini: attribute animal/stag

VII. Urartian chronology: 900 – 580 BC

A. many Assyrian campaigns (imp. Shalmaneser III; Sargon II, 714 BC – 8th camp.)

B. ended by Medians (weakened by Cimmerians)


Iron Age and

Archaic Period

I. Phrygian origins: Indo-European speaking people

A. original homeland: Balkans

B. original name: Bryg

C. movements

1. to different parts of Europe in all directions

2. to Anatolia: via Thrace

a. Bryg (Phryg): main group

b. Moesians

1) also related to the Phrygians

2) part of the movement in the same direction

3) possibly whom the Assyrians call “Mushki” (Assyrians mention a “Mita

of the Mushki” – “Midas of the Phrygians”)

II. Phrygian Land and geography

A. heartland

1. territory between Ankara and Eskişehir

2. highlands of Phrygia: triangle between

a. Eskişehir

b. Kütahya

c. Afyon

B. periphery

1. Cappadocia

a. within Halys

b. territory south of Halys: part of Tabal (Neo-Hittite) or Lower Land (Hittite)

2. Interior part of Western Anatolia: south of Phr. Highlands, esp. Lycia

3. vassal kingdom: Lydia, between the rivers Hermos and Meander

C. control area: Hellenic colonies in coastal Western Anatolia

III. Phrygian Art and Architecture

A. city planning and architecture: as seen in Gordion, the capital, named after first

Phr. King Gordios, although the city goes back to

Hittite times

1. fortification

a. city walls

1) worked stone blocks

2) mudbrick

b. monumental gate

1) inner corridor after the entrance: last chance for assault on the enemy

entering the city

2) compares well with Troy VI and VII: levels where you have apparent

Western Aegean and Balkan presence

in the city

2. construction techniques and building plans: basic plan “megaron”

a. houses: mostly megaron plan

b. palaces: number of megara and other type of additions made into large


1) material used

a) stone

b) mudbrick

c) timber

- part of stone and mudbrick houses

- poss. also complete wooden structures

- features such as panels, screens, etc.

2) decorative elements

a) wall paintings: poss. in the form of “friezes” (word der. fr. Phrygia)

made of painted terracotta plaques

b) mosaic floors: pebble mosaic, earliest example in Gordion

c) wood: carved and inlaid as part of architecture, beautiful furniture

c. tombs: “tumuli”/East European burial type

1) tomb chamber: not exactly at the center of the tumulus

a) made of timber

b) gabled roof

2) stone wall all around the tomb chamber

3) stone filling

a) between the chamber walls and stone walls

b) around the stone wall

4) earth piled all around and on top

5) tomb chamber contents

a) kline/bed: made of wood, on which the body rests

b) cloth: covering the bodies (about 20 layers on Midas in the Great

Tumulus, called Tum. MM)

c) wooden furniture: beautifully inlaid

- screens

- tables

- chairs

d) bronze objects (no gold and silver was found in Gordion tumuli,

because of the Cimmerian sacking) (Elmalı tombs of

Antalya have gold and silver objects)

- vessels

- fibulae: more than hundred in a cloth sack in Midas’ tomb

e) pottery: plain and painted/the basic Phr. shapes

f) toys: in the child’s tomb, Tum. PP

- quadriga (chariot pulled by four horses of bronze)

- animal shaped pottery

d. temple: poss. of megaron plan, wooden, gabled roof (as wood perishes, we

make deductions from reliefs)

B. Art

1. rock monuments: mostly of the 6th cent. BC, continues as a tradition into

the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, as rock tombs

a. cult monuments

1) façades carved onto natural rock

a) imitating possibly wooden temples, eg. Yazılıkaya, the so called

“Midas Monument” carved geometric motifs reminiscent

of wood carving and gabled roofs

b) niches: in which the Mother Goddess Cybele was set during rituals

2) façades carved onto natural rocks with niches and flanking lions risen on

hind legs

b. rock-cut thrones: where seated Cybele was set during rituals

c. rock-cut monuments with the goddess carved into a niche

2. sculpture : esp. of the Goddess Cybele

a. material used

1) stone

2) ivory

3) poss. also wood

b. basic type illustrated (of the goddess)

1) “archaic smile” (corners of the mouth up-turned)

2) high headdress (polos)

3) torso: dressed or naked, with the hands holding the breasts

4) dress: esp. the skirt in rich folds, pleats and drapery

5) sometimes two small figures at either side of her (dwarfs)

eg. lyre and double flute players of the Hattusha statuette

c. types of sculpture

1) relief

a) stele (eg. Ankara Bahçelievler goddess in a niche)

b) rock monuments

2) round : mostly small statuettes

3. pottery

a. plain pottery

1) dark grey, highly polished, imitating metal

2) basic shapes: bowls, jugs, teapots, jars, rhyta

3) decoration: mostly imitating metal dec., like fluting, etc.

b. painted pottery

1) usually light paste, sometimes reddish/dark paint decoration

2) basic shapes: plates and bowls, jugs, teapots (sieve spouts), jars, rhyta

3) decoration: geometric, figure motifs usually in panels and friezes

4. metal objects

a. vessels

1) basic shapes of the pottery, esp. typical small cauldrons and ladles that

go with them

2) mostly bronze also silver

b. fibulae (fibula: safety pin)/ Phr. invention

1) two basic types

a) w. single pin

b) w. double pin, also shielded

2) of bronze, silver and gold

c. tools and weapons, parts of wooden furniture and chariots

1) chariot parts, horse trappings and bits (bits made of iron, others can be

of var. metal, also precious)

2) weapons such as daggers, spearheads and arrowheads

d. various shaped plaques used as appliques, esp. Ag

e. belts, esp. Ag (silver)

5. other

a. ivory objects: statuettes, inlay pieces, combs, etc.

b. fabric: fragments in the Gordion tumuli

IV. Phrygian economy: agriculture and trade, esp. of luxury goods such as fibulae

(eg. Neo-Hittite reliefs of İvriz: King Warpalawas wearing a fibula

holding his mantle, and Maraş: fibula holding the woman’s sash)

V. Phrygian writing: alphabet perhaps derived from Phoenician, can be written fr. left to

right and fr. right to left

VI. Phrygian chronology and history: 750 - 680 – 546 BC

A. history

1. roaming in Anatolia for a number of centuries

2. emerging around 750 BC as an important and powerful kingdom, esp. of Central

and Western Anat.

3. 680 BC: Cimmerian conquest

a. Phrygians lose power to the Lydians

b. a revival in culture, seen esp. through the rock monuments of the Highlands

of Phrygia, in 6th cent. BC

B. end of Phrygians and Lydians in 546 BC through Persian hands


Iron Age and

Archaic Period

I. Lydian origins: Indo-European speaking people of the earlier Anatolian people

A. related to Lelegians/Luwi-Luddi as the Neo-Assyrains called them)

B. a number of ruling dynasties: the last two well known through Greek sources

1. Heraclidae : descendents of Heracles of Peloponessus (related to the story of

some Greeks settling in Anatolia after the siege of Troy)

2. Mermnadae: local dynasty, overthrowing the Heraklids, who were probably

puppet rulers controlled by Phrygia

a. Gyges (Gugu in Lydian)

b. Ardys

c. Sadyattes

d. Alyattes

e. Croesus

II. Lydian Land and geography

A. heartland

1. land between the rivers Hermos and Meander

2. esp. Uşak and Manisa areas

B. control areas

1. Phrygia (western frontier between the Medes of Iran and Lydians is the

Halys river after 585 BC)

2. Hellenic colonies in coastal Western Anatolia

III. Lydian Art and Architecture

A. city planning and architecture: as seen from Sardis, the capital near Salihli

(not much is known, but there are descrs. of beautiful

Lyd. cities in Gr. sources)

1. fortification

a. small part of the city wall exposed: re-enforcement after Cimm. Attacks/

stone and mudbrick

b. Acropolis: terrace and fortification wall made of well worked stone

2. palace: not found, but same period palace/mansion in Larisa (not far fr. Sardis)

gives an idea

a. Main plan: megaron

1) columns in front/Aeolic capitals

2) gabled roof

b. flanking buildings as well, so a larger complex is made

3. architectural decoration: friezes

a. terracotta plaques

b. colourfully painted: with figures and motifs

1) fantastic creatures, animals, birds, humans

2) stylized motifs

B. Acropolis of Sardis

1. fortification and terrace wall of well worked stone

2. tunnels connecting the acropolis with the palace

C. Pactolus North of the excavation area

1. Lydian market: esp. interesting is the room w. Lydian lamps

2. gold refinery area

a. cupels for cupellation (little depressions in the ground for refining gold)

b. kilns for cementation (kilns for separating gold and silver from electrum)

1. fragments of clay bellows

2. fragments of blow pipes

c. finds associated with such an area (small gold objects)

1) minting of coins (state controlled and guaranteed)

a) gold stater: with lion’s and bull’s heads

b) gold hekte: 1/6 of a stater with lion’s and bull’s heads

d. Altar of Cybele

1) square

2) made of stone

3) three lions found: possibly a fourth one also, but missing

a) pointing out to Cybele

b) one at each corner (an Etruscan tomb painting, poss. painted by a Lydian

artist; in Tarquinia, Etruria (Italy) depicts a similar altar

D. Lydian burial tombs

1. tumuli

a. Bintepe

1) royal cemetery of Lydians

2) between Sardis and Gygean Lake

3) a number of them have been excavated

a) the biggest belongs to Gyges (recognized by the monogram Gugu

carved on the crepis wall)

- tomb chamber not found

- crepis wall found

- many robbers’tunnels (of the Roman Period)

b) tumulus of Alyattes

- tomb chamber found

-grave goods all stolen in the Roman Period

b. tumuli of the nobles and the rich: scattered in territory around Sardis

(Uşak area, esp. important are the so called treasures of Croesus, returned by

the Metropolitan Mus. to Turkey)

2. simple inhumation graves

a. Şeytandere: bathtub sarcophagi

b. İndere: w. some small bronze and gold grave goods

3. pyramid tomb: Lydian or Persian?

a. compares well with the pyramid tomb in Pazargadae, Iran

b. more probably Lydian, liked by the Persians

E. Lydian Art

1. sculpture

a. in the round: not many examples, one eg. female torso (part of a whole

figure) w. a thin and fine pleated dress

b. relief: frag. of a stele w. Aeolic capital and floral motif

2. pottery

a. plain (shapes basic archaic and classical forms)

b. painted

1) simple motifs rendered freehand

2) more complicated motifs

a) panels

b) animals and mixed creatures within panels

c) geometric motifs scattered in spaces

c. import pottery: esp. Attic black figure (one found on the Acropolis,

dated to just before 546 BC/ a kylix – pedestaled bowl)

3. metal objects

a. bronze: plaques and other objects

b. silver and gold, also w. precious and semi-precious stones

1) vessels

2) boxes

3) incense burners

4) jewellery: necklaces, bracelets, rings, ear-rings, etc.

4. crystal figures

5. bone objects (Scythian plaque)

IV. Lydian inscription: alphabetic/similar to Phoenician and Greek

A. proper names read

B. rest not deciphered

V. Lydian economy: agriculture, horse breeding, trade of luxury goods

VI. Lydian chronology and history: 686 – 546 BC

A. most important king: Croesus, the last king

1. richest, not only of all the Lydian kings, but richest king of all times

2. many stories about him in Greek sources, esp. Herodotus (Cr. and Solon, Cr. on

the pyre, etc.)

B. end of the Lydian kingdom : 546 BC through the hands of the Persians, lead by

Cyrus the Great

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