1. Ekologik muammolar va iqtisodiy samaradorlik. Mulk huquqlari va samarali bozor taqsimoti



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2-mavzu. Iqtisodiy yondashuv mulk huquqi, tashqi aloqalar va ekologik muammolar
POWER POINTdesign, 5-6, 1motivation, Gulzoda, Оqimning аsоsiy gidrаvlik elеmеntlаri. Idеаl suyuqliklаrning hаrаkаt tеnglаmаsi(1), Оqimning аsоsiy gidrаvlik elеmеntlаri. Idеаl suyuqliklаrning hаrаkаt tеnglаmаsi(1), materialshunoslik, Kimyo-fanidan-ish-reja-2019, 197 Qadimgi Rim va , 0a9084ab27a04551f7b5daaa931a8985102d73cc, Axborot tizimlarining ta'minoti Reja (1), КУТУБХОНА, КУТУБХОНА, hazirgi qaraqalpaq tili. sintaksis, Dasturiy taminot informatika
5. Hukumatning samarali roli

While the economic approach suggests that government action could well be used to restore efficiency, it also suggests that inefficiency is not a sufficient condition to justify government intervention. Any corrective mechanism involves transaction costs. If these transaction costs are high enough, and the surplus to be derived from correcting the inefficiency small enough, then it is best simply to live with the inefficiency.


Iqtisodiy yondashuv hukumat harakatidan samaradorlikni qayta tiklashda yaxshi foydalanish mumkinligini taklif qilganda, u shuningdek samarasizlik hukumat aralashuvini oqlash uchun yetarli holat emasligini taklif qiladi. Har qanday tuzatish mexanizmi xizmat xarajatlarini o’z ichiga oladi.agar bu xizmat xarajatlari yetarlicha kichkina qilib tuzatishdan hosil qilingan bo

Lsa, unda bu eng yaxshi samarasizlik bilan oddiy yashash hisoblanadi.

Consider, for example, the pollution problem. Wood-burning stoves, which were widely used for cooking and heat in the late 1800s in the United States, were sources of pollution, but because of the enormous capacity of the air to absorb the emissions, no regulation resulted. More recently, however, the resurgence of demand for wood-burning stoves, precipitated in part by high oil prices, has resulted in strict regulations for wood-burning stove emissions because the population density is so much higher.

Misol uchun ifloslanish muammosini ko’rib chiqaylik. AQSH da 1800 yillar oxirigacha ovqat pishirish va isitishda keng foydalanilgan yog’och-yoqish pechkalari ifloslanish manbai bo’lgan, lekin havoning juda katta sig’imi o’sha tarqalgan issiqlikni so’rganligi sababli hech qanday tartibga solish natija bermagan. Yaqinda, shunga qaramay, yog’och-yoqish pechkalari emissiyasida jiddiy tartibga solishlarda natijalar bo’lgan, chunki ifloslanish zichligi judayam yuqori.


As society has evolved, the scale of economic activity and the resulting emissions have increased. Cities are experiencing severe problems from air and water pollutants because of the clustering of activities. Both the expansion and the clustering have increased the amount of emissions per unit volume of air or water. As a result, pollutant concentrations have caused perceptible problems with human health, vegetation growth, and aesthetics.
Jamiyat rivojlana boshlagandan beri,iqtisodiyotning faoliyat ko’lami va natijada issiqlik chiqarish oshdi. Shaharlar faoliyatlarining klasterlanishi sababli havo va suv chiqindilaridan keskin muammolarni tajribadan bilayaptilar. Kengaytirish va klasterlanish har ikkala havo yoki suvning bir birlik hajmidagi chiqindilar miqdorini ko’paytirdi. Natijada, chiqindilar konsentratsiyalari inson salomatligi, o’simliklar o’sishi va estetikada sezilarli muammolarga sabab bo’lgan.
Historically, as incomes have risen, the demand for leisure activities has also risen. Many of these leisure activities, such as canoeing and backpacking, take place in unique, pristine environmental areas. With the number of these areas declining as a result of conversion to other uses, the value of remaining areas has increased. Thus, the value derived from protecting some areas have risen over time until they have exceeded the transaction costs of protecting them from pollution and/or development.
Tarixan, daromadlar oshganligi bilan, dam olish faoliyatlari uchun talab ham ortib kelgan. Bu hordiq faoliyatlarining ko’pchoiligi, baydarkada suzish va takrorlanishi, noyob ahamiyatga ega bo’lish qadimiy atrof muhit hududlari kabilardir. Bu hududlar soni boshqa maqsadlarda foydalanish natijasida kmaydi, qolgan hududlar qiymati oshdi. Shunday qilib, bazi hududlarni himoyalash vaqt davomida ortganida ularga ifloslanish va yoki rivojlanishdan himoyalash xizmati xarajatlari oshib ketgunga qadar qiymat hosil qilingan.
The level and concentration of economic activity, having increased pollution problems and driven up the demand for clean air and pristine areas, have created the preconditions for government action. Can government respond or will rent seeking prevent efficient political solutions?

Iqtisodiy faoliyat darajasi va konsentratsiyasi, ifloslanish muammolarini va toza havo, toza hududlarga bo’lgan talabni ko’paytirishi
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