Mamadieva Vazira

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Mamadieva Vazira

448 – group

Task 1: Theoretical questions 1. What is a word combination/phrase? 2. What is structural classification of word combinations in compared languages? 3. What is syntactic classification of word combinations in compared languages?

Task 2: Find examples for phrases/word combinations (noun phrases, verb phrases, adjective phrases, adverbial phrases or pronoun phrases) and reflect on their syntactic relations (agreement, adjoining, government).

Task 3: Find examples for adjoining dependent relation of phrases in English, Uzbek and Russian and find similarities and differences.


Task 1

1)The phrase (a free word combination) is a syntagmatic grouping of 2 or more words. It can be made of. Notional words ( an old man) Notional and functional words ( in the corner) –naming function. A combination is a grouping together of separate things. ... Combination is the act of combining, which comes from the Latin for "joining together two by two," although it's not necessary that you combine things in pairs.

2) Five major components of the structure of language are phonemes, morphemes, lexemes, syntax, and context. These pieces all work together to create meaningful communication among individuals. Major levels of linguistic structure: This diagram outlines the relationship between types of linguistic units.

3) Word classes, largely corresponding to traditional parts of speech (e.g. noun, verb, preposition, etc.) are syntactic categories. In phrase structure grammars, the phrasal categories (e.g. noun phrase, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, etc.) are also syntactic categories. All languages follow the rules of a grammar. All languages rely on word order for syntax. Latin and Old English syntax relied upon: word endings.

Task 2

Walking on the beach is one of my favorite activities.

In this sentence, even though walking is usually categorized as a verb, in this sentence, it is being used as a gerund phrase, and it is the subject of the sentence. 

Verb Phrases

Verb phrases consist of the main verb and its auxiliaries, or helping verbs. Unlike adjectives and noun phrases, adverbs that modify the verb are not considered part of the verb phrase.

For example:

The turtle was running quite quickly considering the nature of his species. 

In the sentence above, the verb phrase consists of only the main verb (running) and any helping verbs or auxiliaries (was).

Modifying Phrases

There are many types of phrases that all act as different types of modifiers. Most of these phrases modify single words in sentences; however, one type of phrase modifies the entire sentence! 

Start practicing on Albert now!

Here are the different types of modifying or describing phrases:

1. Prepositional Phrases

Prepositional phrases consist of a preposition, its object, and any articles or modifiers. As a unit, prepositional phrases can be used to modify nouns or verbs by acting like adjectives or adverbs respectively. 

For example: 

Bambi frolicked in the meadow with Thumper. 

The prepositional phrase in the sentence above is acting like an adverb by modifying the verb and answering where Bambi and Thumper frolicked.

Here is another example: 

The princess with long golden hair was trapped in a tower by a dragon. 

In the sentence above, the prepositional phrasewith long golden hair modifies the noun, princess, by describing her outward appearance.

2. Participle Phrases

Participle Phrases consist of a present or past participle (a verb ending in -ing or -ed), an object, and any modifiers. These phrases act like adjectives and always modify nouns.  It is very easy to confuse gerund phrases with participle phrases because they look exactly the same! However, it’s important to remember that while participle phrasesmodify nouns, gerund phrases can actually replace nouns altogether! 

For example: 

Present Participle Phrase: Gasping for breath, the dachshund barely made it home from his ten foot walk. 

In the sentence above, the participle phrase gasping for breath describes how the dog felt after his “long” walk. 

Past Participle Phrase: Perched menacingly on the porch railing, the cat watched the neighbor’s dog. 

In the sentence above, the participle phraseperched menacingly on the porch railing describes the body language and intentions of the cat.

3. Infinitive Phrases

Infinitive phrases are made up of an infinitive (the “to” form of a verb), an object, and any modifiers. Infinitive phrases can function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns. 

For example: 

Adjective Infinitive Phrase: My favorite movie to watch is Little Women

In this example, the infinitive phraseto watch modifies the noun, movie and functions as an adjective. 

Adverb Infinitive Phrase: He studied all night to avoid failing his math test the next day. 

In this sentence, the infinitive phraseto avoid failing his math test the next day modifies the verb studied by telling us why he studied. 

Noun Infinitive Phrase: They wanted to visit New Orleans during Jazz Fest

In this sentence, the infinitive phrase to visit New Orleans during Jazz Fest acts as a noun because it answers what “they wanted”.

4. Absolute Phrases

Absolute phrases contain a noun, a participle, and any modifiers and/or objects. 

These phrases are tricky for several reasons: 

First, they look deceptively similar to independent clauses since they do technically contain a noun and a form of a verb. However, when you try to make an absolute phrase stand on its own, it does not make sense. 

Secondly, absolute phrases are tricky because we could mistake them for dependent clauses. They are not dependent clauses because they do not meet the structural requirements of dependent clauses. Dependent clauses must start with either a subordinating conjunction, a relative pronoun, or an interrogative pronoun or expletive. If none of these are present, then it cannot be a dependent clause. 

Thirdly, absolute phrases are sometimes hard to spot because they describe or modify an entire independent clause instead of a single word. This makes them different from participle, infinitive, and prepositional phrases.

Here is an example: 

Holding onto the rigging for dear life, I barely survived the storm that we encountered at sea. 

In the example above, the absolute phrase modifies the entire independent clause by explaining how “I barely survived the storm”. 

Task 3

According to the basic semantic difference in the relations between

clauses, that of coordination/subordination the composite sentence is divided

into two types: the compound sentence based on coordinative semantic relations

between the clauses, and the complex sentence based on the semantic relations

of subordination. Coordination reflects the most general types of logical

relations between situations and events: conjunction, disjunction, juxtaposition,

cause and consequence. Subordination reflects various relations of dependence

between events: condition, result, cause etc. As a rule, the principal clause

presents the main event and the subordinate clause - the dependent event which

explains or modifies the main event. The meaning of coordination/subordination

is manifested by special words - the conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs and

pronouns which carry a double function: 1) they connect the clauses into one

whole; 2) they specify the type of semantic relations between the clauses.

3. The compound sentence is a syntactic unit which consists of two or

more clauses joined together on the basis of coordinate relations. Coordination

reflects equal relations between two or more thoughts integrating them into one

syntactic whole. Though the sentences name two or more events of reality

which are not subordinated to one another, yet when they are joined together and

make up a compound sentence they partially lose their independent status and

become clauses. The first sentence becomes the “leader clause” and the others

are “sequential clauses”. The leader clause is structurally more independent

whereas the successive clauses are more dependent which is manifested by the

fact that they may contain anaphoric elements, substitutes and they may be


In general the semantic elaboration of coordination is less elaborate then

subordination. Traditionally scholars point out four types of semantic relations

between the clauses of compound sentences which are marked by the

prototypical conjunctions: 1) copulative (the conjunction and), adversative (but),

disjunctive (or), causative-consecutive (for, therefore, so).
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