Xelisufleba da sazogadoeba (istoria, Teoria, praqtika)” Scientific magazine “authority and society



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samecniero Jurnali ,,xelisufleba da sazogadoeba

(istoria, Teoria, praqtika)”

Scientific magazine “AUTHORITY AND SOCIETY

(History, Theory, Practice)”



Научный журналВЛАСТЬ И ОБЩЕСТВО

(история, теория, практика)”




№ 5


2008

ISSN 1512-4029

UDC 378(479.22)(051.2)

x. 402



saredaqcio kolegia:
SoTa doRonaZe

- mTavari redaqtori



giorgi baRaTuria

- mTavari redaqtoris moadgile

oTar baRaTuria

- pasuxismgebeli mdivani


nana avaliani, mitropoliti abraami (garmelia), evgeni baraTaSvili, vaxtang guruli, genadi iaSvili, Temur Todua, roin metreveli, qeTi qoqraSvili, oTar qoCoraZe, rusudan quTaTelaZe, maia CxeiZe


Jurnali xelmZRvanelobs saqarTvelos kanoniT `presisa da masobrivi informaciis sxva saSualebebis Sesaxeb~. gamoqveynebuli masalebis sizusteze pasuxismgeblia avtori. gamoqveynebuli masalebi gamoxatavs mxolod avtorTa pozicias da SesaZloa ar emTxveodes redaqciis Sexedulebebs.
misamarTi:

saqarTvelo, Tbilisi 0171 kostavas q.77, VI korpusi VIII sarTuli tel. 36.45.14

77 Kostava st., 0160 Tbilisi, Georgia. Tel. [995 32] 36.45.14

Mail: DLPA@gtu.ge

garekanis gaformeba: daviT baRaTuria


Jurnalis eleqtronuli versia gamoqveynebulia misamarTze: http://www.gtu.ge/katedrebi/kat124/
sarCevi
saerTaSoriso konferencia `saxelmwifo marTvis transformacia samxreT kavkasiaSi~----------------------------------- 5
giorgi baRaTuria

sofiko cxadaZe

saxelmwifo politikis strategiuli

dagegmva _ bismarki-------------------------------------------------------------- 5
lali gvasalia

mivubrundeT myudro savanes!

Ria werili Cems da sxva studentebs------------------------------- 24
bela goderZiSvili

maia danelia

regionuli politika federalizmis pirobebSi-------------- 35

tariel kikvaZe

Tamar beriZe

optimaluri portfelis formireba

maTematikuri programirebis meTodebis gamoyenebiT------ 44
genadi iaSvili

mcire da saSualo warmoebaTa upiratesobebi

da naklovanebebi, maTi roli qveynis

ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi------------------------------------------------- 51
rusudan TabukaSvili

qalTa enis hipotezis ganviTareba-------------------------------------61
daviT TaqTaqiSvili

mosazrebani msoflmxedvelobriv problemebze ------------ 68
Temur Todua

mariam nacvliSvili

administrireba da menejmenti saxelmwifo marTvis sistemaSi -----------------------------------------------------------------------------76

Temur Todua, ciala gagniZe

politikuri lideris roli saxelmwifo marTvis sistemaSi-------------------------------------------------------------------------------86

sergo lominaZe

PR-saqmianobis socialur-filosofiuri aspeqtebi-------- 96
maia CxeiZe

logikuri argumentebis konstruirebis problema--------- 106

maia CxeiZe

efeqturi verbaluri komunikaciis problema------------------ 111
studenturi gverdebi
mariam geliaSvili, maia geliaSvili

saqarTveloSi ganaTlebis istoriuli saZirkvlebi------- 115
daCi TaqTaqiSvili

xmamaRali fiqrebi deda-Svilobis fenomenze -----------------127
gvanca gogiSvili

oratoruli xelovnebis saTaveebTan---------------------------------135
mariam lomiZe

saqarTvelos wylis resursebis marTva da dacva-----------146

TinaTin iaSvili, irina iaSvili

ruseTis agresiuli energetikuli politika

mezobeli saxelmwifoebis mimarT ------------------------------------160
Tamar sreseli

sasamarTlo reforma da misi roli -------------------------------179
Teona qaTamaZe

kulturuli memkvidreobis sakiTxi saqarTvelos

(1918-1921) demokratiul respublikaSi -----------------------------187

saerTaSoriso konferencia `saxelmwifo marTvis transformacia samxreT kavkasiaSi~
2008 wlis 27-28 marts q. TbilisSi, sastumro `qorTiard mariotSi~ gaimarTa saerTaSoriso konferencia `saxelmwifo marTvis transformacia samxreT kavkasiaSi~.

konferencia organizebuli iyo saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso da strategiuli kvlevis fondis mier instituti - Ria sazogadoebis mxardaWeriT.

konferenciaSi monawileoba miiRes saqarTvelos, azerbaijanis, somxeTis, ukrainis, kanadisa da safrangeTis saxelmwifo marTvis organoebis, akademiuri wreebisa da arasamTavrobo seqtoris warmomadgenlebma.

konferenciis gaxsnisas sityva warmoTqves:



  • aleqsandre rondelma - saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso da strategiuli kvlevis fondis prezidentma;

  • kristina vitfutma – saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis vice-prezidentma, kanadis saerTaSoriso biuris warmomadgenelma;

  • andrian ioneskum – instituti – Ria sazogadoebis direqtorma (budapeSti);

  • nikolas robiliarma – kanadis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis ufrosma oficerma.

ZiriTadi moxseneba ` saxelmwifo marTvis transformacia garda-mavali periodis konteqstSi~ warmoadgina bob vonvitma – programa sigma-s xelmZRvanelma (safrangeTi).

konferenciaze muSaobda oTxi seqcia:



  1. adamianis resursebis menejmenti da saxelmwifo marTvis reforma;

  2. politikis formireba: paradigmis cvlileba;

  3. ganaTleba saxelmwifo marTvis sferoSi: gamowvevebi da perspeqtivebi;

  4. skolidan saxelmwifo samsaxuramde.

mosmenili iqna 14 moxseneba, gaimarTa diskusia.

konferenciaze sityviT gamovida saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis saxelmwifo marTvis mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli, profesori SoTa doRonaZe. qvemoT vaqveynebT misi gamosvlis teqsts.


gasuli saukune ara erTi mniSvnelovani movleniT aRiniSna. saqarTvelosaTvis me-20 saukune udidesi tkivilisa da amavedros bednierebis aswleulia. saukunis miwuruls saqarTvelom meored da ukve sabolood moipova damoukidebloba. warmatebiT dagvirgvinda qarTveli xalxis mravalsaukunovani brZola Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobisaTvis. daiwyo axali era, qveyana pirispir dadga msoflio Tanamegobrobisa da Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi gamowvevebis winaSe.

saqarTvelosaTvis, rogorc ganviTarebisa da saxelmwifoebrivi srulyofis gzaze mdgari qveynisaTvis gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria im problematikis mecnierulad gaazreba, romelic saxelmwifo marTvis efeqtiani sistemis SeqmnisaTvisaa saWiro.

miuxedavad imisa, rom bolo wlebSi samecniero wreebSi, am mimarTulebiT, garkveuli gamococxleba SeiniSneba, es saqmianoba jer kidev Sorsaa srulyofisagan. arsebul xarvezs ver avsebs ramdenime wigni da statia, romelic saxelmwifo marTvis Teorisa Tu praqtikis calkeul aspeqts exeba. amocana ki friad mniSvnelovania; ver amarTlebs saqarTvelos sinamdvileze iseTi meTodebisa da saqmianobis formebis kalkireba, romelic aRwerilia ucxour wyaroebsa da gamokvlevebSi.

amocana mxolod imaSi ki ar mdgomareobs, rom saxelmwifo samsaxuris gamarTuli funqcionireba iqnes uzrunvelyofili, iseTi atmosfero unda Seiqmnas, rom adamianTa azrovnebaSi Camoyalibdes saxelmwi­fo­eb­ri­obisa da samarTlianobis gan­c­da.

miuxedavad imisa, rom saxelmwifo marTvis sistemas didi xnis istoria aqvs, misi ganviTareba da daxvewa mudmivi procesia da igi sazogadoebis ganviTarebis kvalobaze axali SinaarsiT ivseba. amdenad, aucilebelia seriozuli da Tanmimdevruli kvleva arsebuli viTarebis analizisa da momavali perspeqtivis ganWvretis mizniT.

saqarTvelos administraciuli sistemis formireba dasasrulebelia, gasamarTia saxelmwifo samsaxuris struqturebi, mosazidi da aRsazrdelia kvalificiuri kadrebi; dasaxvewia urTi­er­Tobebi qve­y­nis sakanonmde­b­lo, aR­masru­le­bel­ da sasamarTlo xe­lis­­uflebaTa Soris; qveyanaSi jer kidev mZlavrobs administraciul-biurokratiuli sistema, marTvis moZvelebuli ideologia. bolomde sworad ar aris gaazrebuli xelisuflebis urTierTobebi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebTan, romlebic Tavis mxriv srulyofis procesSia.

saqarTvelosaTvis praqtikulad deklarirebis donezea marTvis demokratiuli stili, cota ram Tu aris naTeli da mecnierulad gaazrebuli am mimarTulebiT. mecnierTa, politologTa da pedagogikis mkvlevarTa naSromebi (romelTa raodenoba sakmaod mwiria) ver uzrunvelyofen saxelmwifo marTvis umniSvnelovanesi aspeqtebis kvlevis aucilebel moculobas.

saxelmwifo marTvis sakiTxTa mecnieruli analizi iseT saxelmwifoSi, rogoric saqarTveloa umniSvnelovanesi amocanaa da igi pirdapir kavSirSia qveynis moqalaqeTa keTildReobis zrdasTan, im dakveTis SesrulebasTan, romelsac isini, rogorc amomrCevlebi akisreben xelisuflebas.

imisaTvis ki, rom saqarTveloSi damkvidrebul iqnes dasavluri tipis demokratia da ganviTardes igi im principebis Tanaxmad rac aucilebelia qveynis evroatlantikur sivrceSi harmoniulad integraciisaTvis umTavresi saTanadod ganswavluli kadrebis momzadebaa. saxelmwifo marTvis specialistTa momzadeba gansakuTrebuli procesia, aq marto safuZvliani codnis gadacema da aqtualuri Teoriebis Seswavla sakmarisi ar aris. unda aRizardos yovelmxriv Semkuli pirovneba, romlisaTvisac umTavresi prioriteti adamiani, misi interesebi da problemebi iqneba, romelic SeZlebs saqmis iseT organizacias, rac Sedegiani da efeqtis momtani iqneba. profesionalis problema yvelganaa, magram saxelmwifo marTvaSi es problema ormagad sapasuxismgebloa, ramdenadac daSvebulma Secdomebma SeiZleba didi xnis dagvianebiT iCinos Tavi da, rogorc es xSirad xdeba gamosworebis Sansi minimaluria.

es rom esmodaT, gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi saqarTvelos xelmZRvanelobis erT nawils ( batoni z. Jvanias monawileobiT) didi Sroma dasWirda imisaTvis, rom dawyebuliyo saxelmwifo marTvis specialistTa momzadeba, rasac pirvel rigSi saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti gamoexmaura : universitetis bazaze Seiqmna qarTul-amerikuli instituti, romelic magistrebis momzadebaze iyo orientirebuli. teqnikur universitetSi ki humanitarul-teqnikur fakultetze 1995 wlidan daiwyo saxelmwifo marTvis moxeleTa momzadeba. am wamowyebam garkveuli gamoxmaureba miiRo sxva umaRles skolebSiac.

2001 wels teqnikur universitetSi `saxelmwifo marTvis moxelis~ specialuri kaTedrac ki gaixsna. gadamuSavda saswavlo gegmebi, daixvewa programebi da gagrZelda saxelmwifo marTvis specialistTa momzadeba or doneze : bakalavriatSi da magistraturaSi. aqve daiwyo 2 sxva specialobis - saxelmwifo politikis bakalavrTa da qalaqis menejeris momzadebac. aRsaniSnavia, rom `saxelmwifo marTvis moxelis~ kaTedra gamoirCeoda sanimuSo materialur-teqnikuri baziT, swavlebis axleburi, Tanamedrove meTodologiiT. kaTedra didi mxardaWeriT sargeblobda saxelmwifo struqturebis mxridan, araerTi maRali rangis saxelmwifo moRvawe kiTxulobda CvenTan leqciebs, studentebi saswavlo praqtikas gadiodnen samTavrobo dawesebulebebSi.

Sedegi, Sedegi TvalnaTelia, Cveni kursdamTavrebu-lebidan, gansakuTrebiT magistrebi, mniSvnelovan poziciebze arian saxelmwifo samsaxurSi da biznesis marTvis sferoSi. aRniSnuli specialobis kursdamTavrebulTa dasaqmebis maCvenebeli sagrZoblad maRalia sxva specialobebTan SedarebiT. aseT mokle periodSi SesaZlebeli gaxda kursdamTavrebulTagan mogvemzadebia 4 axalgazrda leqtori, romlebic warmatebiT aswavlian momaval moxeleebs.

unda iTqvas, rom wlebis manZilze aRniSnuli specialobebi, gansakuTrebiT `saxelmwifo marTvis moxele~ konkurentunarian specialobad iTvleba, misaReb gamocebze konkursi 1:9-ze Seadgenda. pirveli erovnuli gamocdebis Catarebisasac didi iyo aRniSnul specialobaze SemomsvlelTa ricxvi: saxelmwifo marTvis moxelis specialobis gamocxadebul 40 adgilze Cairicxa 40 abiturienti, romelTagan naxevars mopovebuli aqvs saxelmwifo dafinanseba, danarCenic maRali qulebis mflobelebi arian. srulad Seivso qalaqis menejeris bakalavriatis pirvel kursze gamocxadebuli 10 adgilic. samwuxarod, nacvlad imisa, rom SenarCunebuli yofiliyo es maCveneblebi saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saministrom 2005 wels bakalavriatis specialobaTa CamonaTvalidan, e.w. klasifikatoridan amoiRo spesialoba – saxelmwifo marTva da qalaqis menejeri. dRes SemorCa mxolod meorad specialobad (mainor-ad), sabednierod magistraturaSi es specialoba SenarCunebulia da msurvelTa did mozRvavebac saxezea. aseve, mimdinare wels 4 doqtoranti Seudga momzadebas saxelmwifo marTvis mimrTulebiT.

vTvliT, rom gamarTlebuli ar aris bakalavriatis specialobaTa CamonaTvalSi aRniSnuli specialobebis amoReba, bevri mizezis gamo, maT Soris:



  • axalgazrda saxelmwifos mSeneblobas maRalkvalificiuri kadrebi esaWiroeba, gansakuTrebiT iseT mimarTulebebSi, rogoricaa saxelmwifo marTva, saxelmwifo politika, qalaqis menejmenti; isini specialuri programebiT unda iqnen momzadebuli; usafuZvloa imis mtkiceba, rom saxelmwifo marTvis moxelisaTvis bakalavris xarisxi sakmarisi ar aris. ramdenadac saxelmwifo samsaxurSi mxolod didi rangis Tanamdebobebi ar aris, nebismier Tanamdebobaze ki saWiro codniT aRWurvili specialistia saWiro. aseTi kontigentis momzadeba bakalavriatSi Tavisuflad aris SesaZlebeli.

  • didia kadrebis nakleboba regionebSi (aki specialurad am xarvezis Sesavsebad Seiqmna specialuri skola q. quTaisSi);

  • es specialobebi konkurentunarianni arian saqarTvelos Sromis bazarze;

  • dawyebulia mecnieruli kvleva, romelSiac aqtiurad arian Cabmulni studentebi da magistrantebi da es samuSao unda gagrZeldes, miT ufro, rom kaTedras saqmiani kontaqtebi aqvs damyarebuli msoflios araerTi universitetis analogiuri specialobebis saswavlo-samecniero rgolebTan.

  • amerikasa da evropaSi, mravali specializebuli saswavlebeli da saswavlo erTeulia, romlebic warmatebiT amzadebs bakalavrebsa da magistrebs; swored maT gamocdilebas iyenebda da iyenebs teqnikuri universiteti.

mimaCnia, rom saxelmwifo marTvis specialistTa momzadebaSi gansakuTrebuli iniciativebi da siaxleebis mudmivi Ziebaa saWiro. interaqtiuli swavlebis meTodikis gamoyeneba ki aucilebeli pirobaa warmatebisaTvis.

samwuxarod, bevri siaxle jer kidev ver ikidebs fexs CvenSi. Cveni kaTedris bazaze ori wlis win daviwyeT saxelmwifo marTvis 6 Tviani kursebis programa, romelic distanciuri swavlebis meTodiT mimdinareobda. es meTodi farTod aris gavrcelebuli mTels msoflioSi. saqarTvelos sinamdvileSi am meTodiT swasvlebam ver gaamarTla, es imdenad materialur-teqnikuri bazis sisustiTa da dauxvewavi programebis mizeziT ar iyo gamowveuli, ramdenadac ganaTlebis sistemis mmarTvelTa uyuradRebobis bralia. dRemde saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba ar cnobs distanciuri swavlebis meTods da igi mxolod calkeul enTuziastTa mondomebazea damokidebuli.

vfiqrob dRevandeli Cveni konferencia, aq warmodgenili prezentaciebi didad Seuwyobs xels siaxleebis danergvas saxelmwifo marTvis meTodebisa da formebis swavlebis saqmeSi. Cven bevri axali gavigeT, sxva rakursiT davinaxeT nacnobi problemebi da gamowvevebi, albaT ar unda gagviWirdes adeqvaturad vupasuxoT maT. madloba organizatorebs aseTi sasargeblo diskusiis organizebisaTvis.

gmadlobT yuradRebisaTvis.


Summary
International conference PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TRANSFORMATION IN THE SOUTH CAUCASUS
Shota Dogonadze, Full Professor, Head of the Public Administration programm of Foreign Languages and Communication Department (Georgian Technical University), presented his brief report on the international conference in Tbilisi of March 27-28, 2008.
Резюме
Международная конференция : Трансформация

государственного управления на Южном Кавказе

Матерял посвящается Международной конференции : Трансфор-мация государственного управления на Южном Кавказе, проведенной 27-28 марта в г. Тбилиси. Публикуется выступление на конференции проф. Шота Догонадзе.





`Zlevamosili omic ki _ borotebaa, romelic

xalxTa sibrZniT unda aviciloT~

bismarki
Tavisufleba da erTianoba – sasicocxlo garemo

saxelmwifosa da eris arsebobisTvis
politikuri moRvawis saqmianobis srulyofili Sefaseba, rogorc wesi, mxolod xangrZlivi drois Semdeg xdeba SesaZlebeli. adamianebs uWirT saTanadod daafason maTi Tanamedrove bumberazi moRvaweni, gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac politikosis moRvaweoba rTul, mtkivneul gardaqmnebs iwvevs da Soreul strategiul miznebs ukavSirdeba. es bunebrivicaa, vinaidan Tanamedroveni ver ixilaven Soreuli Sedegebis nayofs. arc Tu iSviaTad, STamomavlobac saTanadod ver afasebs aseTi politikosis moRvaweobis Sedegebs, Tu ki mis politikur moZRvrebas memkvidreebi daamaxinjeben da qveynisa da msoflios sazianod imoqmedeben.

aseTi bedi ewia oto eduard leopold fon bismark-Sionhauzens (1815-1898), germanulad - Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck-Schönhausen; germaniis udiades politikur moRvawes, saxelmwifo politikis strategiuli dagegmvis didostats, qveynis gamaerTianebels, Tanamedrove germaniis – evropisa da msoflios erT-erTi uZlieresi saxelmwifos fuZemdebels.

eWvs ar unda iwvevdes, rom nebismieri qveynis Rirseuli ganviTarebisa da arsebobisaTvis aucilebelia ori pirobis Sesruleba _ erTia qveynis politikuri (da, rogorc Sedegi, ekonomikuri) Tavisufleba, meore _ erTiani saxelmwifos arseboba. Tavisufleba da erTianoba warmoadgens im aucilebel pirobebs, romlebic gansazRvraven qveynisa da xalxis keTildReobasa da bednierebas. qarTvelma erma es Zalian kargad icis.

Tavisuflebisa da erTianobis sakiTxi mudam umwvavesi da, umetesad, gadauWreli problema iyo da aris saqarTveloSi. amdenad, miT ufro sagulisxmoa im qveynebisa da politikur moRvaweTa magaliTebi, romlebmac SeZles samSoblos Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofa da erTianobis miRweva. rodesac bismarki gamovida politikur asparezze germania, rogorc erTiani saxelmwifo, ar arsebobda. iyo mxolod samTavroebi, samefoebi, gaerTianebebi, romlebic gamudmebiT qiSpobdnen erTmaneTSi. politikuri asparezidan wasvlisas ki man datova uZlieresi erTiani saxelmwifo. uZlieresi yvela TvalsazrisiT – ekonomikuri, politikuri, samecniero, kulturuli da a.S. Camoyalibda mZlavri germanuli saxelmwifo, romelsac TiTqmis veraferi daaklo orma gamanadgurebelma msoflio omma. dRes, erTiani germania evropisa da msoflios stabilurobisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis garanti gaxlavT.

es warmateba ver iqneboda miRweuli daqsaqsuli germaniis pirobebSi. swored amitom ver gaxda saqarTvelo Zlieri saxelmwifo, Tumca ki arsebobda saTanado istoriuli SesaZlebloba (`gavmzadebulvarT meore bizantiad~ _ murman lebaniZe). Sua saukuneebis `oqros xanis~ Semdeg, XX saukunis dasasrulamde, aRar gvqonia erTiani saxelmwifo (1918-1921 ww. `mcire oqros xana~ saerTo suraTs ar cvlis), arc iseTi politikuri moRvaweni gvyavdnen, romlebic SeZlebdnen bismarkis msgavsi Sedegebis miRwevas. Teimuraz II-m mniSvnelovani nabijebi gadadga am mimarTulebiT, magram, qarTvelTa saTayvano mefem, `patara kaxma~, sworupovarma mxedarTmTavarma, magram, Cvenda savalalod, araSorsmWvretelma politikosma, faqtobrivad gaacamtvera didi mamis danatovari – erTiani qarTl-kaxeTis samefos Semdgomi gaZlierebis nacvlad man saWiro momentSi aramcTu qveynis gaerTianeba ver moaxerxa, piriqiT, qarTl-kaxeTis samefoc daSala, xolo qarTlis samefo TiTqmis mTlianad saufliswulo mamulebad daanawila mravalricxovan batoniSvilTa Soris. es gaxldaT misi umTavresi Secdoma. swored aseTma politikam ganapiroba sabediswero marcxi krwanisis omSi da, Semdeg, saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dakargva TiTqmis 200 wlis ganmavlobaSi. Tumca, aqve isic unda SevniSnoT, rom swored ruseTis imperiis farglebSi arsebulma erTianma qarTulma qveyanam (ara saxelmwifom), Tundac guberniebad dayofilma, da, Semdeg ukve sabWoTa kavSirSi, SeZlo, mieRwia samecniero, ekonomikuri, kulturuli warmatebebisTvis.

bismarks ki xSirad swored imaSi adanaSaulebdnen, rom man Cauyara safuZveli erTian germanul saxelmwifos, rasac marqsisti istorikosebi da politikosebi germanul imperializmad naTlaven (am dros `ver amCneven~ rusul, britanul, amerikul, frangul imperiebs). kritikosTa azriT germanulma reaqciulma da agresiulma Zalebma Seqmnes istoriuli koncefcia, romlis Tanaxmadac militarizmma da omma gaaZlieres germaniis erTianoba [1]. amave dros isini, vinc mas imperializmSi adanaSaulebdnen, arafers amboben sakuTari qveynebis imperialistur zraxvebze. rac Seexeba msoflio omebs, romlis iniciatorad germanias gvisaxaven, aq did gaugebrobasTan gvaqvs saqme. msoflio omebis mizezi gaxldaT imperialisturi qveynebis, imdroindeli zesaxelmwifoebis urTierTsawinaaRmdego strategiuli miznebi, rasac aucileblad unda gamoewvia samxedro dapirispireba, romlis centrSi aRmoCnda germania. savsebiT samarTlianad SeniSnavs germaneli istorikosi g.onkeni (H.Oncken. Das alte und das neue Mitteleuropa): `Cveni qveyana evropis SuagulSia, mouwyobeli da cvalebadi saxmeleTo sazRvrebiT, romliskenac mimarTulia yvela isari~ [1]. marTlac, imdroindeli germania mtruli qveynebiT iyo garSemortymuli.

bismarkTan da erTian germaniasTan dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebiT xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom germaniis monawileoba msoflio omSi da misi marcxi swored iman gansazRvra, rom germaniis imdroindelma liderebma gadauxvies bismarkis doqtrinas, rom ar SeiZleba or frontze omi da miTumetes ruseTis winaaRmdeg. igi ambobda: `arasodes araferi dagegmoT ruseTis winaaRmdeg, imitom, rom yovel Tqvens eSmakobaze igi gipasuxebT gauTvaliswinebeli sisuleliT” [2].

strategiuli dagegmva saxelmwifo politikaSi
ram ganapiroba bismarkis warmateba? sxva obieqtur (imdroindeli istoriul-politikuri viTareba) da subieqtur (bismarkis niWiereba da patiosneba, qveynis usazRvro erTguleba, imperatoris sruli ndoba) mizezTa Soris erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesia is garemoeba, rom bismarki gaxldaT namdvili strategi, saxelmwifo politikis strateguli dagegmvis didostati, saxelmwifos marTvasa da politikis warmarTvaSi igi praqtikulad iyenebda im meTodebis erTobliobas, rac SemdgomSi stategiuli dagegmvis mecnierebad Camoyalibda.

gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saxelmwifo politikis warmatebuli warmarTvis safuZvelia strategiuli dagegvis meTodebis gamoyeneba. bismarkis praqtikuli saqmianobis analiziT SesaZlebelia mokled CamovayaliboT TeoriaSi kargad cnobili strategiuli dagegmvis ramdenime ZiriTadi elementi [3], romlebmac ganapirobes bismarkis warmatebebi.

strategia unda:


  • Seicavdes naTel miznebs, romelTa miRweva gadamwyvetia saqmis saboloo warmatebisaTvis;

  • xels uwyobdes iniciativas;

  • axdendes mTavari Zalisxmevis koncentrirebas saWiro dros da saWiro adgilas;

  • iTvaliswinebdes moqmedebis iseT moqnilobas, raTa resursebis minimaluri odenobiT SesaZlebeli iyos maqsimaluri Sedegebis miRweva;

  • anxorcielebdes koordinirebuli moqmedebas;

  • varaudobdes moqmedebaTa gasageb ganrigs;

  • uzrunvelyofdes garantirebul resursebs.

am CamonaTvlis Tundac zedapiruli gaanalizebiT da bismarkis politikasTan SedarebiT naTeli xdeba, Tu ratom moaxerxa bismarkma dasaxuli miznebis miRweva.

bismarkis politikuri moRvaweoba
germaniis imperiis pirveli raixskancleri oto fon bismarki warmoSobiT pomeraneli iunkeri [4] gaxldaT. igi daibada 1815 w. 1 aprils SionhauzenSi (branderburgis provincia, dRes saqsonia-anhaltis miwa), mciremiwian aznaurTa ojaxSi.

17 wlis bismarki Cairicxa gotingenis universitetSi, sadac samarTals swavlobda. studentobis periodSi bismarkma CxubisTavobiT gamoirCeoda, xSirad monawileobda duelebSi da erTxel daiWra kidec. 1835 w. bismarkma daicva disertacia filosofiasa da politikur ekonomiaSi, mas diplomatoba surda, magram prusiis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma axalgazrda bismarki, rogorc cnobili duelianti uariT gaistumra, Tan urCia _ `gijobs imuSavo germaniaSi raime administraciul Tanamdebobaze da ara evropuli diplomatiis sferoSi~. bismarkmac daiwyo muSaoba jer berlinis municipalur sasamarTloSi, Semdeg _ axenSi. 1838 wlidan bismarki samxedro samsaxurSia _ Sevida egeris gvardiul polkSi, magram usaxsrobisa da dedis sikvdilis gamo 1839 w. man datova samsaxuri, dabrunda pomeraniaSi da memamulis saqmianobas mihyo xeli. mamulis marTvaSi bismarkma saukeTeso Tvisebebi gamoavlina da mezobelTa pativiscemac daimsaxura, amave dros agrZelebda ganaTlebis miRebas. igi kiTxulobda hegelis, kantis, spinozas, d.Strausis da foierbaxis naSromebs, imogzaura inglissa da safrangeTSi da mogvianebiT pietistebs [5] SeuerTda.

politikur asparezze bismarki 1847 w. gamovida, roca prusiis landtagis deputati gaxda da ukidures memarjvene frTas miemxro. fridrix vilhelm IV-m SeniSna bismarki da CainiSna: `reaqcioneri, gamoviyenoT mogvianebiT” [6]. 1848 w. evropuli revoluciebis welia _ safrangeTi, avstria, italia revoluciis alSi gaexva. revolucia daiwyo prusiaSic patriot liberalTa TaosnobiT. revoluciis mTavari miznebi iyo germaniis gaerTianeba da konstituciis SemoReba. mefe fridrix vilhelm IV daTanxmda am moTxovnebs, ramac bismarkis imedgacrueba gamoiwvia. Tumca Semdeg, konservator politikosTa daxmarebiT, romelTa Soris bismarkic imyofeboda, mefem Sewyvita parlamentis sxdoma da berlinSi jari Seiyvana. amis Semdeg mefem gamoaqveyna konstitucia, romelic absoluturi monarqiisa da orpalatiani parlamentis principebs Seicavda.

bismarki, rogorc ultra monarqisti, ibrZoda revoluciisa da germaniis ,,qvemodan” (revoluciebis gziT) gaerTianebis winaaRmdeg. prusia maSin gadaurCa revolucias da revoluciiT gamowveul borotebas. rac Seexeba germaniis gaerTianebas, es mogvianebiT moxda, oRond ara revoluciuri gziT, aramed `sisxliTa da maxviliT” – daniis omis (1864 w.), avstria-prusiis (1866 w.) da safrangeT-prusiis (1870-71 ww.) sisxlismRvreli omebis Sedegad Camoyalibda germaniis imperia. amrigad es omebi aucilebeli gaxldaT germaniis gaerTianebis gzaze, magram `vai im saxelmwifo moRvawes, romelic ar izrunebs ipovos omis iseTi safuZveli, romelic omis Semdegac SeinarCunebs Tavis mniSvnelobas~ (bismarki). garda amisa, aucileblad unda SevniSnoT, rom bismarki germanel samTavroebs ki ar ebrZoda, aramed, SeiZleba iTqvas, _ dampyroblebs, germanuli miwebis mimtaceblebs – danias, safrangeTs, avstria-ungreTs.

1851 wels maisSi mefem bismarki prusiis warmomadgenlad daniSna mainis frankfurtSi. iq bismarki praqtikulad maleve mixvda, rom mTeli prusia ver iqneboda germaniis konfederaciaSi da, Sesabamisad, avstriasTan keTilganwyobaSi. amitom gardauvali iyo omi avstriasTan, riTac SesaZlebeli xdeboda germaniis gaerTianeba. imis Semdeg, rac bismarkma Seiswavla diplomatiis xelovneba da saxelmwifoTa Soris urTierTobebi, misi Sexedulobebi ufro da ufro Sordeboda mefis Sexedulebebs. Tavis mxriv mefec TandaTan kargavda ndobas bismarkis mimarT. 1859 wels mefis Zmam, SemdgomSi (1861 w.-dan) prusiis mefem da germaniis imperatorma vilhelm I-ma, im droisaTvis regentma, bismarki elCad gaagzavna sank-peterburgSi. iq bismarki dauaxlovda ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrs – Tavad a.m.gorCakovs. gorCakovTan erTad bismarki iwyebs brZolas jer avstriisa da, Semdeg, safrangeTis diplomatiur izolaciaSi mosaqcevad.

1862 w. bismarki gaigzavna elCad safrangeTSi napoleon III samefo karze. male igi ukan gamoixmo vilhelm I-ma da imave wlis seqtemberSi gaxda prusiis ministr-prezidenti da sagareo saqmeTa ministri. maSinve mkafiod gamoikveTa bismarkis mTavari mizani _ germaniis gaerTianeba prusiis egidiT.

bismarkma seriozuli reformebis gatareba daiwyo, ugulebelyo landtagis sabiujeto uflebebi, gaatara samxedro reforma, ramac ganamtkica germanul saxelmwifoebs Soris prusiis samxedro upiratesoba, da daiwyo gamalebuli momzadeba germaniis kavSiridan avstriis gansadevnad. bismarki daufaravad acxadebda, rom germaniis gaerTianeba SesaZlebelia mxolod ,,sisxliTa da maxviliT”, rac bismarkis kritikis mTavari safuZveli gaxda, TiTqos im periodSi SesaZlebeli yofiliyos gaerTianebis sxvagvari gza. ubralod, bismarki arasdros mimarTavda yalb diplomatiur reveransebs.



omi daniasTan. bismarkis pirvelive nabijebi metad efeqtiani aRmoCnda. 1863 w.-s, rodesac poloneTis sakiTxis gamo ruseTs TiTqmis mTeli evropa daupi­ris­pi­rda (maT Soris bismarkis mcdelobiTac), ruseTis umTavresi mokavSire prusia aRmoCnda [7], ramac prusiisTvis mniSvnelovani Sedegi iqonia. 1863 w.-s Slezvig-holStainisaTvis diplomatiur brZolaSi prusiam ruseTisagan Caurevlobis garantia miiRo. saWiro iyo sxva didi saxelmwifoebis mxardaWera an neitraliteti. bismarkma zustad Seafasa arsebuli viTareba _ safrangeTs meqsikis problemebi hqonda mosagvarebeli da daniis gamo prusias ar daupirispirdeboda, avstria holStainiT daainteresa da mokavSired gaixada daniasTan mosalodnel omSi (1863 w. miwuruls Soris daido avstria-prusiis saidumlo SeTanxmeba). rCeboda inglisi, magram Seqmnil viTarebaSi inglismac Caurevloba amjobina [8]. ramdenime saomari Setakebis Semdeg 1864 w. 12 maiss daido sazavo xelSekruleba, romliTac daniam daTmo Slezvigi, holStaini da lauenburgis sahercogo. winaswari morigebis Tanaxmad, prusiam miiRo Slezvigi, avstriam ki _ holStaini [9]. amiT dasrulda germaniis gaerTianebis pirveli etapi.

omi avstriasTan. germaniis gaerTianebis mTavari dabrkoleba axla avstria gaxldaT. amitom ukve avstriis winaaRmdeg iyo saWiro omis mzadeba. ruseTis neitraliteti kvlav garantirebuli iyo [10], inglisi isev Caurevlobis (`brwyincvale izolaciis~) politikas amjobinebda (evropaSi inglisis aqtiuri Carevis dro jer ar damdgariyo da amas bismarki kargad grZnobda). erTaderT angariSgasawev Zalad safrangeTi rCeboda. bismarki Tvlida, rom piradi kontaqtebi bevrad ufro met Sedegebs moitans diplomatiaSi, vidre notebis gacvla da amitom 1865 w. piradad Sexvda safrangeTis imperators napoleon III-s. neitralitetis sanacvlod bismarkma napoleon III-s pirdapir SesTavaza luqsemburgi. napoleon III-s belgiac surda, igi Tvlida, rom omi avstriasa da prusias Soris gaWianurdeboda da sasurvel teritoriebs uomrad miiRebda. bismarkma es varaudic gaTvala, warmatebisTvis aucilebeli iyo avstriasTan omis swrafad mogeba, amisaTvis ki axali mokavSireebis Zebna gaxda saWiro. mravali sirTulis miuxedavad bismarkma moaxerxa sardiniis samefos (piemonti) mimxroba veneciis sanacvlod. amrigad avstrias 2 frontze mouwevda brZola. 1866 w. 16 ivniss daiwyo omi avstriis winaaRmdeg, romelic Zalian male, 3 ivliss dasrulda prusiis gamarjvebiT. SeiZleboda venaSi Sesvlac, magram bismarkma ar Seuracxyo avstrielTa Tavmoyvareoba da prusielTa jari venaSi ar Seiyvana, miTumetes, rom ukve avstriasTan axal kavSirze fiqrobda amjerad safrangeTis winaaRmdeg. 26 ivlisis zavis pirobebiT avstria gamovida germanuli kavSiridan, daTmo holStaini da venecia da daTanxmda axali CrdiloeT-germanuli kavSiris Seqmnas prusiis hegemonobiT.

omi safrangeTTan. dadga safrangeTTan omis dro, saamisod metad xelsayreli saerTaSoriso mdgomareoba iyo. inglissa da ruseTs xels aZlevda safrangeTis dasusteba prusielTa xeliT. garda amisa ruseTis imperatori aleqsandre II bismarks avstria-ungreTis neitralizebas Sepirda omis muqariT. 1870 w. ruseTma neitraliteti gamoacxada da sxvebsac mouwoda ar Careuliyvnen saomar moqmedebebSi. evropuli saxelmwifoebis Caurevloba miRweul iqna magram omis dasawyebad, im dros, saWiro iyo agreTve saTanado sababic.

omis sababi espaneTis taxtis garSemo atexili ambebi gaxda. napoleonma Tavisi warmomadgeneli benedeti gaagzavna emsSi, sadac prusiis mefe vilhelm I mkurnalobda. napoleoni iTxovda germanel princs leopold fon hohencolerns moexsna Tavis kandidatura, rasac vilhelm I daTanxmda, radganac mas safrangeTTan omi ar surda. vilhelmis Tanxmoba napoleonma prusiis sisusted aRiqva da kidev ufro kategoriuli moTxovniT mimarTa vilhelm I-s _ aekrZala leopoldisaTvis espaneTis taxtis dakaveba, Tu es winadadeba xelaxla iqneboda wamoyenebuli. miuxedavad gaRizianebisa vilhelma ganucxada benedetis, rom axals verafers etyoda da molaparakebebi am sakiTxze berlinSi gagrZeldeboda. am saubris Sesaxeb depeSiT Seatyobines bismarks. es iyo cnobili `emsis depeSa~, bismaris gegmebi iSleboda, amitom man depeSa odnav saxecvlili gamoaqveyna `emskis~ cnobarSi. Seiqmna STabeWdileba, TiTqos vilhelmma benedeti gaagdo. aman sasurveli Sedegi gamoiRo. napoleonma 1870 wlis 19 ivliss omi gamoucxada prusias. es omi ki, diplomatiur doneze bismarks, jer kidev omis dawyebamde hqonda mogebuli. man gamoaqveyna napoleon III-is adre gamogzavnili werili, romliTac is belgias iTxovda. es iyo safrangeTis diplomatiis sruli marcxi, safrangeTi agresorad gamoCnda. diplomatiuri manevrirebiT bismarkma SeZlo safrangeTis imperiis izolireba saerTaSoriso asparezze da amitom safrangeTma mxardaWerac veravisgan miiRo.

safrangeT-prusiis omi sakmaod xanmokle gamodga. moigeries ra frangebis pirveli Setevebi, agvistoSi prusielebi safrangeTis teritoriaze SeiWrnen da seqtembris dasawyisSi sedanTan sastikad daamarcxes frangebi. parizi alyaSemortymuli aRmoCnda.



1871 w. 28 ianvars xeli moewera winaswar SeTanxmebas, 26 Tebervals daido SeTanxmebebi versalSi, xolo yovelive dasrulda frankfurtis zaviT (1871 w. 10 maisi). zavis Tanaxmad, safrangeTi axladSeqmnil germaniis imperias uTmobda elzassa da loTaringias da pirobas iRebda, rom gadaixdida 5 miliard frank kontribucias. sanacvlod, bismarkma mxari dauWira safrangeTis axal mTavrobas parizis komunis CaxSobis dros.

bismarkis mTavari mizani aRsrulda. 1871 w. 18 ianvars, versalSi gamocxadda germaniis imperiis Seqmna. amiT bismarkma daasrula germaniis gaerTianeba.


oto fon bismarkis pirmSo: garTianebuli germania
imperiis kancleri. 1871 wels versalSi imperatorma vilhelm I-ma bismarki daniSna germaniis imperiis kanclerad [12].

germaniis imperias ,,rkinis kancleri” faqtobrivad SeuzRudavad marTavda TiTqmis 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi (1871-90 ww.) raixskanclerobis pirvel periodSi igi eyrdnoboda erovnul liberalur partias. bismarkma gaatara reformebi germaniis samarTalSi, marTvasa da safinanso sistemebSi. reformebma kaTolikur eklesiis dapirispireba gamoiwvia, ZiriTadi mizezi am konfliqtisa iyo protestanti prusielebis undobloba germaneli kaTolikebis mimarT. brZolam kaTolikuri eklesiis winaaRmdeg ,,kulturkampfis” saxelwodeba miiRo.

mkveTrad reaqciuli iyo bismarkis politika germaniis proletariatisa da socialistebis winaaRmdeg. specialuri kanonis meSveobiT is cdilobda maTi mzardi gavlenis Sesustebas. gansakuTrebiT ewinaaRmdegeboda im droSi populistur kanonebs, romlebic mimarTuli iyo muSaTa da mSromelTa pirobebis gaumjobesebisaken. samagierod Tavadve zrunavda mSromelebze _ SemoiRo dazRvevis sistema avadmyofebisTvis (1883w.), daSavebulTaTvis (1884w.) pensionerebsTvis (1889w.).

sagareo politikaSi bismarkis umTavresi mizani iyo frankfurtis zaviT (1871w.) mopovebuli mSvidobis SenarCuneba. safrTxis Tavidan asacileblad germaniis imperiisTvis saWiro iyo safrangeTis diplomatiuri izolireba. am mizans emsaxureboda 1873 w. 23 oqtombers gaformebuli ruseT-avstria-germaniis SeTanxmeba (`sami imperatoris kavSiri~). amieridan arc avstria-ungreTi da arc ruseTi safrangeTis mokavSired ar moiazreboda [10]. inglisi kvlav Caurevlobis politikas atarebda da safrangeTis mokavSireoba ar ainteresebda, italias safrangeTisadmi teritorialuri da koloniuri pretenziebi hqonda. amdenad, safrangeTi didi xniT gamoiTiSa aqtiuri evropuli politikidan manam, sanam bismarki iyo xelisuflebis saTaveSi. amave dros bismarki cdilobda gaerTulebina ruseTis mdgomareoba axlo aRmosavleTSi, balkaneTze misTvis avstria-ungreTi daepirispirebina, xolo xmelTaSua zRvis auzSi – inglisi, raTa maTi winaaRmdegobebi germaniis imperiis sasargeblod gamoeyenebina. 1879 w. bismarkma xeli moawera samxedro SeTanxmebas avstria-ungreTTan, romelic italiis SeerTebis Semdeg samTa kavSirad gardaiqmna (1882 w).

inglisTan megobruli damokidebulebis gamo 1884 wlamde bismarki kolonialuri politikiT ar iyo dainteresebuli. garda amisa, kolonialuri kursi, bismarkis TvalsazrisiT, gamoiwvevda germaniis kapitalis gadinebasa da xarjebis gazrdas. mainc, bismarkis dros germaniam kolonialur imperiad gadaqceva daiwyo, miuxedavad imisa, rom bismarkis pirveli eqspansiuri gegmebi yvela partiisa (kaTolikebis, socialistebis, iunkerebis) da xelisuflebis Zlier winaaRmdegobas iwvevda.



1881 w. iwureboda germania-ruseT-avstria-ungreTis SeTanxmebis vada. SeTanxmebis gagrZeleba ver moxerxda ruseTis uaris gamo, radganac avstria-ungreTi antirusuli politikas eweoda balkaneTSi. maSin bismarkma ormxrivi kavSiris idea wamoayena. daido SeTanxmeba, romelsac SemdgomSi `gadazRvevis SeTanxmeba~ ewoda. bismarkma scada, Tavi daezRvia ruseT-safrangeTis daaxloebisagan da or frontze SesaZlo omisagan. mxareebma valdebuleba aiRes, rom daicavdnen neitralitets romelime maTganis mesame did saxelmwifosTan omis SemTxvevaSi, magram aqve miTiTebuli iyo gamonaklisebi: garda germaniis Tavdasxmisa safrangeTze da ruseTisa _ avstria-ungreTze. bismarkma xelSekrulebiT cno ruseTis interesebi balkaneTis naxevarkunZulze, bosforisa da dardanelis sruteebTan dakavSirebiT, Tumca SesTavaza ruseTs, rom `ormagi fskeris~ qveS SeenaxaT es dokumenti (e.w. `ormagfskeriani xelSekruleba~). garda amisa, imave wels man inglisTan, italiasa da avstria-ungreTTan erTad xeli moawera dokuments, romelic sruliad sapirispiros qadagebda da romliTac aRniSnuli saxelmwifoebi valdebulebas iRebdnen win aRdgomodnen ruseTis mxridan balkaneTsa da Sav zRvaze status-qvos darRvevis mcdelobebs.

germaniis imperiis gaZlierebiT SeSfoTebulma ruseTma 80-iani wlebis dasasrulidan daiwyo safrangeTTan daaxloeba, rac 1893 wels, ruseT-safrangeTs Soris samxedro kavSiris dadebiT damTavrda, magram maSin germaniis politikis warmmarTvelni sul sxva pirebi iyvnen. germanuli politika TandaTan Sordeboda bismarkis kurss.


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