Variant – 1 Three basic concepts of science.



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Jumashev Qilich-WPS Office, 3-мавзу, КУТУБХОНАШУЕОСЛИК ИШЧИ ДАСТУР, Furye qatori va uning tatbiqlari, 4. Юмшоқ дори шакллари Point (1), 5-maruza. Boyin sohasi klinik anatomiyasi, 7-jahon test 2017(1), biologiya 5 uzb, 2 5471947652620879709, 2-Tema uzb, 3176 15.08.2019, Mehnat fiziol, 22 mavzu MMQ, 100354, 2 5352789617558948687


VARIANT – 1 
1. 
Three basic concepts of science. (give short information about each of them) 
2. 
Scientific classification. (definition) 
3.
Write keywords and abstract for the following article: 
Language plays an important role in the development of society. The main feature that 
distinguishes humanity from other beings is also language. With his own language, a person is 
able to convey to the addressee what he perceives. This process happens very often in a few 
seconds. This phenomenon is also studied by the science of cognition. This science is a science 
that emerged at the intersection of several disciplines, and the date of its emergence as a 
science is recorded as September 11, 1956.
Cognitology is closely related to philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, neurology, 
linguistics, and anthropology. The main object of research in this science is the study of human 
and cognitive activity. The role of the "intermediate language" in this process is unique, said 
the famous anthropologist Yu.N.Karaulov in his scientific theories and conducted various 
studies. According to him, "intermediate language is formed in the process of intellectual 
activity and its linguistic manifestation, and takes place in the specific language space between 
sound, external speech and the brain."
But the "intermediate language" he proposed had the same problem: The intermediate 
language had no dictionary form, making it difficult to distinguish it materially. According to 
Karaulov, the use of the term "sign means" in relation to the thought process is incorrect. He 
wrote about it in his book “Русский язык и языковая личность”. 
Russian anthropologist included to the “intermediate language” the following units: “image”, 
“gestalt”, “scheme”, “frame”, “proposition”, “picture”, “symbol”, “formula”, “diagram”, 
“word” and etc. Although these molded units differ in form, they are "boxes" that hold pieces 
of information that are collected and stored in the human mind. From these boxes, we will 
make a cognitive analysis of some of the research languages - English and Uzbek euphemisms 
- using the structural unit "Scenario":
The socio-political changes that have taken place in our society in the past are closely linked 
with the development of our society. As a result of these changes, humanity's pursuit of 
perfection is observed, which serves as a beacon of greatness. A person uses his language 
effectively in carrying out the activities assigned to him in society. Human speech, on the other 
hand, is governed by moral standards. A mature person, on the other hand, participates in 
speech processes in accordance with these ethical and cultural norms. The use of certain words 
and phrases is prohibited or replaced with other words and phrases in order to enhance the 
culture of speech. The use of words and phrases instead of words that are morally or culturally 
forbidden or considered unethical is called "euphemism". According to English linguist 
Rawson, euphemisms are powerful linguistic tools that are “so deeply ingrained in our 


language that even those who are proud of our shortcomings, even our outspokenness, will 
miss a day without using them” (Linfoot- Ham, 2005, 228). The
need for euphemism is both 
social and emotional, as it allows discussion of forbidden topics (such as sex, personal 
appearance, or religion) and acts as a pressure valve while maintaining a cultural appearance 
(Linfoot-Ham, 2005). 
There are general and specific aspects of the use of euphemisms in the two language cultures 
under study, and we have selected general euphemisms for our analysis. When the health of 
our loved ones is deteriorating, we use other milder variants in our speech instead of the word 
"sick" in order not to hurt their hearts and to give them confidence in order to heal faster. 
Euphemisms used in place of the word "sick" in English:
- Indisposed
- Health reasons
- To feel unwell
- To suffer from discomfort
- To suffer from an uncomfortable physical condition
Euphemisms for the word "sick" in Uzbek:
- Betob
- Bemor
- Mazasi yo’q 
- Mazasi qochmoq
- Tobi yomonlashib qolmoq
All of these euphemisms are a softened version of the "sick" concept. We carry out our 
cognitive analysis using the "Scenario" structural template. So what is a "scenario"? - The 
scenario is the illustration of the interrelated facts inherent in a typical event in the form of a 
model form that reflects their coherence.
These concepts were first introduced to the science of cognition by linguists R. Shenk and R. 
Abelson in the field of artificial intelligence. In their comments on the "scenario": - Scenarios 
are used as the main means of showing the sequence of events, their interconnectedness. 
Scenarios consist of "slots", which show the role, goals and actions of the participants. A slot 
is a small piece of content. 
What if this scenario happened to a living person who had not encountered it at least once in 
his life? As soon as we hear that someone is "sick", this process is reflected in our thinking. In 
conclusion, these small "slots" that unite the scenarios are one and the same, so that we can get 
information about how the "patient" claims his illness or vice versa. Through this cognitive 
structure, we can accelerate the process of perceiving in our minds the events that take place 
around us. New information is "accepted" without any hassle. 



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