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59 Silverstein, 533-546.

60 Robert H. Ruby and John A. Brown. A Guide to the Indian Tribe of the Pacific Northwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

61 Silverstein, 533-546.

62 Seaburg, 561.

63 Zenk, 1990a, 569.

64 Zenk, 1990b, 572-579.

65 Ruby, 1992.

66 Zenk, 1990b, 574.

67 Seaburg, 582.

68 Silverstein, 533-546.

69 David V Ellis, Judith S. Chapman, and John L. Fagan. Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Survey and Inventory of the Portland Segment of Level 3’s Proposed Fiber Optic Line from Portland, Oregon to Seattle, Washington. Prepared by Archaeological Investigations Northwest, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 1999.

70 Ruby, 25-26.

71 Seaburg, 561.

72 Zenk, 1990a, 570.

73 Ruby, 206-207.

74 Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw Indians (CTCLUSI), “About Us,” CTCLUSI, http://ctclusi.org/about-us (accessed May 2, 2014).

75 Ruby, 206-207.

76 CTCLUSI, 2014.

77 Dicken, 1978, 5-7.

78 Ibid, 7.

79 Ibid, 5-9.

80 Dicken, 9.

81 Ibid, 10-12.

82 Ibid, 14-15.

83 Ibid, 15, see Figure 11.

84 Dicken, 25-17, see Figure 23.

85 Ibid, 31-33.

86 Ibid, 37-38, see Figure 32.

87 Ibid, 42, see Figure 38.

88 Ibid, 49, see Figure 43.

89 Ibid, 55-58, see Figures 47 and 50.

90 Dicken, 1982, see Figure 53.

91 Ibid, 1982, see Figures 57 and 63.

92 Leslie M. Scott, “Oregon Coast Highway,” Address, State Highway Commission, Gold Beach, OR, May 28,

1932, Reprinted in Oregon Historical Quarterly, XXXIII, 268.



93 Scott, 268-269.

94 Husing Onno, “A History of U.S. Highway 101”, Oregon Coastal Zone Management Association, Oregon Coastal News, March, 2008, 1-27.

95 Joe R. Blakely, Lifting Oregon out of the Mud: Building the Oregon Coast Highway. Wallowa, OR: Bear Creek Press, 2006, 7.

96 Hugh Myron Hoyt, Jr., “The Good Roads Movement in Oregon: 1900-1920,” thesis, University of Oregon, June 1966, 43-48.

97 Blakely, 8.

98 Gary Meier, “When the Highway Was Sand,” Oregon Coast, Jan/Feb 1991, 27.

99 Meier, 27.

100 The Oregonian, “Cannon Beach Rich in Scenery and Legend,” June 12, 1927, 91.

101 The Oregonian, “Hug Point Road Ready,” April 15, 1910, 6.

102 Meier, 27.

103 Meier, 27.

104 Meier, 27.

105 BeachConnection.net, “Can I Drive on Oregon Coast Beaches? Rules, Regulations for Cars, Vehicles,” March 30, 2014, http://www.beachconnection.net/news/drivebeach043014_1014.php (accessed November 20, 2014).

106 For the purposes of this document, the highway is referred to as US 101.

107 Blakely, 9-10.

108 Gary Meier, “When the Highway Was Sand,” Oregon Coast, Jan/Feb 1991, 26-27.

109 ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Clatsop County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

110 Blakely, 7.

111 Blakely, 10.

112 Blakely, 9.

113 Oregonhighways.us, “Pacific Highway #1,” http://www.oregonhighways.us/html_files/Highways/hwy-001.html (accessed December 3, 2014).

114Oregonhighways.us, “The Dalles-California Highway #4,” http://www.oregonhighways.us/html_files/Highways/hwy-004.html (accessed December 3, 2014).

115 ODOT, History of State Highways in Oregon, Salem: ODOT, 2011, 15-1.

116 KVAL, “Old McKenzie Highway Honored in American History,” http://www.kval.com/outdoors/featured/117096153.html (accessed December 3, 2014).

117 Robert Hadlow, Historic Columbia River Highway National Historic Landmark Nomination, Portland, Oregon, 2000, 44.

118 Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) History Committee, Oregon on the Move: A History of Oregon’s Transportation Systems, Salem: ODOT History Committee, 2009, 11.

119 Hoyt, 249.

120 Blakely, 10.

121 Robert Hadlow, “McCullough, C.B. Major Oregon Coast Highway Bridges, National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Submission,” National Park Service, Department of the Interior, 2005.

122 Blakely, 11.

123 Blakely, 11.

124 OSHD, “General Administrative History: Federal Aid for Oregon Roads”, ODOT Library Archives, 1917, 1.

125 OSHD, “General Administrative History: Federal Aid for Oregon Roads”, ODOT Library Archives, 1917, 3.

126 Blakely, 11.

127 Blakely, 13.

128 Blakely, 12.

129 Blakely, 13-15.

130 Hadlow, 2005, 4.

131 Hoyt, 46.

132 Hoyt, 34.

133 Oregon State Highway Commission (OSHC), First Biennial Report, 1913-1914, 19 and Plate No. 11.

134 ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Clatsop County and Lane County ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

135 ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Clatsop County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

136 ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Lane County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

137 T.W. Salisbury, The City and Port of Astoria Year Book: Annual Review of Shipping, Manufacturing and Development of the Lower Columbia River District U.S.A. Astoria: City of Astoria, 1924, 45; Blakely, 28.

138 Salisbury, 43-45.

139 Hoyt, 34.

140 OSHC, 1914, 13-15.

141 Scott, 286.

142 ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Clatsop County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

143 Ibid.

144 Ibid.

145 Ibid.

146 Ibid.

147 ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Lane County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

148 Allen, 43.

149 Appendix C. “Biennial Collection Map” contains a copy of each Biennial Report Map, these maps are very helpful for understanding the evolution of the highway overtime.

150 Oregon State Highway Commission (OSHC), Third Biennial Report, 1918, 3.

151 OSHC, 1918, 90.

152 Ibid, 133.

153 OSHC, Fourth Biennial Report, 1920, 164.

154 OSHC, 1920, 194.

155 OSHC, 1920, 304.

156 OSHC, 1920, 352.

157 All population data used in each Community Development Section, including population numbers for cities, precincts and counties, was acquired from U.S. Census Reports. Reports used in analysis include the Twelfth Census of the United States (1900), the Fourteenth Census of the United States (1920), the Fifteenth Census of the United States (1930), the Sixteenth Census of the United States (1940), the Seventeenth Census of the United States (1950), and the Eighteenth Census of the United States (1960). Data retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html on December 17, 2014.

158 City of Astoria, “History,” http://www.astoria.or.us/page/135 (accessed December 18, 2014).

159 Scott, 286.

160 PDXHistory.com, “Astoria,” http://www.pdxhistory.com/html/astoria.html (accessed December 18, 2014).

161 Jeffrey H. Smith, Images of America: Astoria, Columbia River Maritime Museum, Charleston (SC): Arcadia Publishing, 111-112.

162 “New Sawmill Probable,” The Oregonian, February 11, 1917, 5; “Paper Mill Machinery at Astoria,” The Oregonian, May 17, 1917, 10.

163 “Houser Buys Shipbuilding Plant,” The Oregonian, June 17, 1917, 7.

164 “Young’s Bay Must Wait,” The Oregonian, February 10, 1918, 41.

165 Ibid.

166 “Grain Elevator Will Rise at Young’s Bay,” The Oregonian, January 27, 1919, 1.

167 “Warrenton to Ask Road,” The Oregonian, February 25, 1919, 2.

168 Ibid.

169 The City of Seaside, Oregon, “Seaside’s Rich Historical Past,” http://www.seasideor.com/item.asp?iid=22 (accessed December 18, 2014).

170 Ibid.

171 Ibid.

172 Tillamook Dairy, “Tillamook: Our History,” http://www.tillamook.com/tillamook-story/history.html#,1 (accessed December 18, 2014).

173 Tillamook County Online, “Tillamook County History,” http://tillamoo.com/history/ (accessed December 18, 2014).

174 Ibid.

175 City of Lincoln City, “Lincoln City: Wander Through our History,” http://www.oregoncoast.org/heritage-culture/ (accessed December 18, 2014).

176 Ibid.

177 Ibid.

178 North Lincoln Pioneer and Historical Association (NLPHA), Pioneer History of North Lincoln County, Oregon Volume I, McMinnville, OR: Telephone Register Publishing Co., November, 1951, 9.

179 Lincoln County Historical Society (LCHS), “Lincoln County: A Brief History,” http://www.oregoncoast.history.museum/lincolncountyhistory3.html (accessed December 18, 2014).

180 NLPHA, 1951, 9.

181 LCHS, “The History of Lincoln County Communities,” information from Oregon Geographic Names, edited by Lewis A. McArthur, 6th edition, website copy write 1992 Oregon Historical Society Press and from the Lincoln County Historical Society files. http://www.newportnet.com/coasthistory/Communities.htm (accessed December 18, 2014).

182 Secretary of State, “Lane County History,” State Archives, http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/records/local/county/lane/hist.html (accessed December 18, 2014).

183 Albert G. Walling, Illustrated History of Lane County, Oregon, Portland: A.G. Walling Publishing, 1884, 449.

184 Secretary of State, “Douglas County History,” State Archives, http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/records/local/county/douglas/hist.html (accessed December 18, 2014).

185 Ibid.

186 Lewis A. McArthur, Lewis L. McArthur. Oregon Geographic Names (7th ed.). Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society Press, 2003, 803.

187 Ibid, 392.

188 Georgina Durbin, “The Gardiner That Was,” Douglas County Historical Society, 2011, http://www.douglascountyhistoricalsociety.org/2011/01/04/the-gardiner-that-was/ (accessed December 5, 2014).

189 Ibid.

190 McArthur, 228.

191 Ethel Taylor, “Coos County History,” http://rebelcherokee.labdiva.com/cooshist.html (accessed December 18, 2014).

192 Taylor, 2014.

193 Allen, 157-158.

194 Secretary of State, “Curry County History,” State Archives, http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/records/local/county/curry/hist.html (accessed December 18, 2014).

195 Blakley, 7.

196 USGS, “Jump-Off Joe,” http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/pubinfo/jump.html (accessed January 20, 2015].

197 “Jump Off Joe Immune. Newport May Enjoin Advertisers Who Desecrate Pet Rock,” The Oregonian, July 1, 1914; “Seascape To Be Natural,” The Oregonian, July 23, 1914.

198 Dr. Warren D. Smith, “Geology of Automobile Route Along Corvallis-Newport Road Explained,” The Sunday Oregonian, May 3, 1925.

199 Beach Connection, “Newport's Jump-Off Joe, Rock Structure History,” http://www.beachconnection.net/vtour_newp29.htm (accessed January 20, 2015].

200 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, “Three Arch Rocks National Wildlife Refuge,” http://www.fws.gov/oregoncoast/3archrocks/ (accessed January 26, 2015].

201 Larry McKinley, Interviewed by authors, ODOT Region 2, District 1, Personal interview, Astoria, OR., July

31, 2014.



202 Rockaway Beach Chamber of Commerce, “History: Making Memories for more than 100 Years,” http://www.rockawaybeach.net/explore/history/ (accessed December 22, 2014).

203 “Many People Seeking Rest and Pleasure at the Seashore,” The Oregonian, July 29, 1917, 44.

204 Ibid, 44-47.

205 Ibid, 46-47.

206 Blakely, 16.

207 Oregon State Law, Chapter 395, Oregon Laws, 1921.

208 Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) History Committee, Oregon on the Move: A History of Oregon’s Transportation Systems, Salem: ODOT History Committee, [2009?], 22.

209 Blakely, 18.

210 Merriam, 20.

211 Blakely, 32.

212 Blakely, 40.

213 OHSC, 1928, 13.

214 Ibid, 44.

215 Oregon State Law, Chapter 90, Oregon Laws, 1931.

216 ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Coos County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

217 “Roads Group to Fight for New Bridges,” Astoria Daily Budget, December 14, 1931, 1.

218 Merriam, 19.

219 Lawrence C. Merriam Jr, Oregon’s Highway Park System 1921-1989, An Administrative History, Salem: Oregon Parks and Recreation Department, 1992, 19.

220 Merriam, 20.

221 Merriam, 262.

222 Merriam, 20.

223 Armstrong, Section 2.

224 Merriam, 21.

225 Merriam, 262.

226 Merriam, 22.

227 Oregon Blue Book, Notable Oregonians: Samuel H. Boardman – State Parks Pioneer. Oregon Secretary of State, 2014.

228 Merriam, 23.

229 Oregon Blue Book.

230 Merriam, 26; 262.

231Blakely, 26.

232 ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Clatsop County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

233 ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Tillamook County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem; ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Coos County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

234 Merriam, 23.

235 ODOT, 2011, various pages.

236 Status of Railroad R/W Ownership Thru City of Seaside, ODOT, Road Establishment Files: Clatsop County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

237 Blakely, 19.

238 Ibid.

239 OHSC, 1922, 56.

240 Ibid.

241 Blakely, 23.

242 Ibid.

243 Ibid.

244 Ibid.

245 OSHS, 1922, 56.

246 Ibid.

247 ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Lane County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

248 Ibid.

249 Ibid.

250 Blakely, 27.

251 Oregon State Highway Commission, Specifications and Contract Agreements for State Highway Construction, Salem, 1924.

252 OSHC, 1924, 56.

253 OSHC, 1926, 71.

254 OSHC, 1926, 71.

255 OSHC, 1926, 71.

256 Oregon State Highway Department, Plan and Profile of Proposed State Highway. Euchre Creek—Rogue River Section, Curry County, ODOT Library Archives, September, 1925; ODOT, Road Establishments Files: Lincoln County, ODOT Library and History Center, Salem.

257 Scott, 270.

258 OHSC, 1928, 12.

259 OHSC, 1928, 13.

260 OHSC, 1928, 66.

261 OSHD, Plan and Profile of Proposed State Highway. Bandon—Port Orford Section, Coos and Curry Counties, 2B-9-5, ODOT Library Archives, March, 1927.

262 Ibid.

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