Lectures on history of medicine



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MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

KARAGANDA STATE MEDICAL ACADEMY

N.F. Saifulina, G.F. Galina
LECTURES ON HISTORY OF MEDICINE

Educational manual

KARAGANDA, 2008
УДК 61(09)

ББК 63.3+5 я 7

S16

REVIEWERS:



D.M. Dzhangozina - department of pharmacognozy with course of medical –biological disciplines of Pharmaceutical Institute of Karaganda University “Bolashak”, head of department, d.m.s., professor.

F.A. Mindubayeva – physiology department of Karaganda State Medical Academy, head of department, d.m.s., professor.

O.K. Nikitina – department of history of Kazakhstan and social-political disciplines of Karaganda State Medical Academy, head of department.


S16 Saifulina N.F., Galina G.F. Lectures on history of medicine. - Educational manual.- Karaganda.-2008. – p. 101

ББК 63.3+5 я 7


There was description about development of doctoring and medicine in all periods of world history since the primitive system to present times in the educational manual.

The educational manual was prepared according to the model program on discipline “History of medicine” approved by the Department of medical science and education in 2005y.

Lectures are intending for medical students, post-graduators, residents and broad circle of the readers taken an interest in history of medicine.

Discussed and approved at the meeting of Methodical Council of KSMA

Protocol № 7 of 12.03.2008

Confirmed and recommended for edition by Academic Council of KSMA

Protocol № 8 of 28.03.2008
© N.F. Saifulina, G.F. Galina, 2008


CONTENTS


Introduction …………………………………………………………………...

4
  1. History of medicine as science and subject of teaching. Medicine in epoch of the primitive communal system………………………………

5





  1. Medicine in the slave-owning states of Ancient East: Babylon, Assyria, Egypt, India and China……………………………………….



17


  1. Medicine development in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome…………




27

3.1Medicine in Ancient Greece……………………………………………

27

3.2 Medicine of Ancient Rome……………………………………………..

36


4. Medicine during the period of feudalism in the countries of East and Western Europe………………………………………………………………

42


5. Medicine development in capitalism epoch in Western Europe and Russia………………………………………………………………………….

60


5.1. Medicine development in Western Europe……………………………


60

5.2. Medicine development in Russia………………………………………


69

6. Medicine development in Kazakhstan…………………………………


78

Test for the control of knowledge……………………………………………

93


Introduction
The history of medicine as a science and a subject of teaching have great importance for education of the future doctor, formation of his scientific thinking and ethics, expansion of general cultural and medical outlook, it allows to make representation about medicine as the developing science and brings up patriotism. Being a component of the general history of science and culture, history of medicine reflects struggle of ideas, as in past as in the modern world, gives criteria for right estimation of medicine’s theories and understanding of the present stage of medicine and public health development.

The scientific discipline “history of medicine” studies laws of development and history of doctoring, medical knowledge and medical activity at all people of the world during the all periods of history of mankind (since the ancient times till the modern time). It is in integrative connections with development and changes of socioeconomic structures, history, philosophy, achievements of natural sciences and culture.

History of medicine as the subject of teaching is independent discipline though separate data on medical specialties’ development are studied on corresponding theoretical and clinical departments of medical high schools. They detail and supplement materials of the course of medicine history (life and activity of prominent doctors and scientific-physicians, scientific achievements of their schools, history of discoveries, etc.).

Being separated and not connected among them in historical sequence, these data cannot replace the complete and systematized course of medicine history. On the basis of historical and logic methods there are studied development of medicine directions and theories as the world- historical process, bases of historical-medical education of the student - doctor.


1. HISTORY OF MEDICINE AS SCIENCE AND SUBJECT OF TEACHING. MEDICINE IN EPOCH OF THE PRIMITIVE COMMUNAL SYSTEM

History of medicine as science and subject of teaching.


Significance of history of medicine in the system of higher education
Medicine, as knowledge, is result of long and difficult process of development. Medicine presents definite stage of development in connection with health and diseases of people, what is why to study history of medicine is need in historic development. Past study helps us to understand better present, to fore see future.

Present is characterized by speeded up development in all fields of knowledge, including medicine. It is increased the role of independent thought of every specialist. Doctor‘s profession requires logic thought, to find correlation between past events and modern scientific achievements, to correctly decide.

History of medicine is science which study development of medical activities and medical knowledge in the connection with development and changes of social-economic structures, with people culture. Significance of history of medicine is to display role and achievements of scientists in medicine development, their place in world progress. Scientists influence on adjacent field of science and practice is promoting comprehension of tasks of public health. Doctor’s activity was and is directed on care attitude and conservation of environment which influence on health and study social –economic and social-cultural conditions in which originated and developed medical science and practice. Study of each medical discipline begins from analysis of historic development. It allows to learn well medical material and to realize creative potential of student or young specialist.



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