Kuyidagi suzlarni yodlang: constipation [ ] n kabziyat



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Lesson 20 - Acute Cholecystitis 7fd2089e189628fd078e83b84934d8ee
ОИ, ГРАЖДАНСКИЙ КОДЕКС РЕСПУБЛИКИ УЗБЕКИСТАН, DARS TAHLILI, Poytaxtimizda O, HISOBOT-O‘ZBEKISTON KASB-HUNAR TA’LIMI HOLATI VA XUSUSIYATLARI, HISOBOT-O‘ZBEKISTON KASB-HUNAR TA’LIMI HOLATI VA XUSUSIYATLARI, Synonyms Antonyms, õlkashunoslik.207a.Berdiyorova Ruxsora, xhdt, 4 Topshiriq, АТЖММ-ян-2020 (Lotincha), АТЖММ-ян-2020 (Lotincha), Yopiq urug‘li o‘simliklar. Bir va ikki pallali o‘simliklar, Ечилмас алгоритмик муаммолар, amaliy ish-12


Kuyidagi suzlarni yodlang:
constipation [ ] n kabziyat 
irritation [ ] n kuzgatish, bezovta kilish 
approximately [ ] adv taxminan, …ga yakin
emergency [ ] n favkulotdagi xolat; a tezkor, favkulotdagi 
1. Matnni o`qing va tarjima qiling. Quyidagi so`z birikmalarning ekvivalentini 
toping: 
kuchli og`rik, og`rik kuchaymokda, mutlaqo sog`lom odamlarda, og`ir kechishi, 
xayot uchun o`ta xavfli 
Text. 
Acute Cholecystitis 
Among inflammatory diseases of bile ducts the most frequent is cholecystitis 
or the inflammation of the gallbladder. Cholecystitis is known to occur rarely in 
isolated condition, inflammatory processes both in the intrahepatic and extra-hepatic 
ducts, sometimes with the involvement of the liver being associated with it. The 
main forms of cholecystitis are the following: catarrhal, purulent , and gangrenous. 
The patient with cholecystitis is known to complain of intense pain, it being 
localized in the right hypochondrium and in the umbilical area. An attack of pain is 
usually preceded by physical and mental overstrain, sharp physical movements or 
abnormalities in diet, fatty food and alcohol being responsible for the onset of pain. 
But sometimes pain is observed to appear suddenly in quite healthy persons. Pain 
may radiate to the right shoulder, right arm, sternum, and lumbar area, its intensity 
depending on the form of cholecystitis and the patient's sensitivity. The pain grows 
much worse when the patient is lying on his right side. 
Dryness in the mouth, vomiting, nausea, and constipation are the 
characteristic clinical manifestations of the disease. 
During the attack of pain the face is moist with cold perspiration, the skin is 
pale, the tongue and lips are dry. Even a slight palpation reveals severe tenderness, 
it being due to irritation of the peritoneum. Approximately in 40-50% of сases there 
is slight jaundice of sclerae. The biochemical blood analysis is known to reveal some 
changes, they resulting from the effect of toxic substances in the liver. 
Purulent form of cholecystitis is highly dangerous to life and requires 
emergency operation. An even more severe course is observed in gangreneous 
cholecystitis. Recovery is achieved by surgical treatment, it being followed by 
prolonged antibiotic therapy and chemotherapy. 


CLASS ASSIGNMENTS 
 
III. a) Supply words and word combinations having close meaning to the 
following: 
preventive, to rise, about five months, to radiate to, to involve, acute, to result 
in, to determine, lesion, entire 
b) Supply words of the opposite meaning: 
to elevate, to recover, to diminish, approximately, dry, empty, sharp, base, to 
doubt the diagnosis 
IV. Use the verbs in brackets in the proper tense of the Indefinite group. 
Translate the sentences

1. Products of protein, fat, and carbohydrate digestion (to be absorbed) from 
the gastrointestinal tract by the liver in which they (to undergo) furthur chemical 
processes. 2. The liver (to destroy) toxic substances which usually (to be formed) in 
the intestinal tract as well as some poisons which (to enter) the body. 3. Jaundice (to 
be known) to be the disease which (to be due to) the presence of a large amount of 
bilirubin in the blood and tissues. 
 
V. 1. Read Text D. 2. Entitle it. 3. Say why probing with radio-pill is 
used: 
 
Text D 
It is common knowledge how difficult it is to examine the gastrointestinal 
tract. Long rubber tubes are used and the process of probing (зондлаш) is known to 
cause the patient much discomfort. It gives only limited possibilities for the 
examination of the stomach and none at all for the intestine. Usual physiological 
methods are often ineffective for studying many important processes in the human 
intestine. 
But a small electronic instrument called a radio-pill (радиокапсула) helps the 
physician in this matter. It is a small tube less than two cm long and only some 
millimetres in diameter. A very small transistor - transmitter is inside the tube. 
The patient swallows this radio-pill which passes along the gastrointestinal
tract sending information on pressure, temperature, gastric secretion, the lever of 
acidity, etc., thus helping the physician to reveal all the pathologic changes. 

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