J’Accuse/Blast/Moon Pie/Harrison Bergeron/Terrier Tussle April 2005
Tossups by Georgetown University Law Center (Augustine Kim, Robert Beard, Elizabeth Richards) 1. There are several instances of implied cannibalism in this work, such as where people are drugged to be used as ingredients in dumplings. One of the title characters is considered a descendent of the mythical god-hero from Romance of the Three Kingdoms. This detailed novel traces the origins of each character and how they ended up on Mount Liangshang, whose names were immortalized in stone after a lightning strike as 36 Heaven elements and 72 Earth elements. Together they squelched three rebellions of the Sung Dynasty. For 10 points, name this novel that criticized the rampant corruption and injustice of the Sung government, written by Shi Nai’an and Luo Guanzhong and known in translation by any of a host of fraternal and wetlands-based titles.
ANSWER: Shui Hu Zhuan (be generous with pronunciation) [or Outlaws of the Marsh, or The Water Margin, or All Men Are Brothers, or Bandits; or equivalents to any of those]
2. A Minnesota district court once denied a claim that this provision creates a right to refuse to march in parades. Although the Supreme Court has never taken up a case based principally on this law, it was cited in passing by Hugo Black’s majority opinion for Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer as proof that the Constitution distinguishes between war and peace. 1982’s case of Engblom v. Carey, addressing the removal of striking corrections officers, is considered the only federal case clarifying this law. It was deemed necessary to prevent a re-occurrence of two acts passed in 1765 and 1774, the latter being part of the Intolerable Acts. For 10 points, name this amendment that prohibits the forcible peacetime quartering of soldiers in houses.
ANSWER: Third Amendment
3. One of its lesser-known aspects is its explanation of the isotope effect, which reduces the required temperature when heavier isotopes are present. It predicted an energy gap that would vanish at high temperatures and it described what happens when there are no longer any electronic states at the Fermi energy. It also correctly explained the Meissner effect, as well as the exponential drop in heat capacity as the material undergoes a second-order phase transition. For 10 points, identify this theory, which posits that electrons in certain conducting materials can form Cooper pairs, allowing the flow of electricity without resistance.
ANSWER: BCS theory
4. This specific creature killed Adonis in retribution for Aphrodite’s role in the death of Hippolytus, and the people of Cumae in Campania later claimed that their temple to Apollo contained all that remained of it. The hunt for it was prompted by its repeated attacks on Psophis, and it was eventually captured despite the deaths of the centaurs Pholus and Chiron. After its hunter chased it from a thicket by shouting, he drove this creature into deep snow, where it was trapped and brought alive to Eurystheus. For 10 points, identify this creature, whose capture was the fourth labor of Heracles.
ANSWER: Erymanthean Boar
5. He created fictionalized memoirs of 19th century figures such as Herculine Barbin, a French hermaphrodite, and Pierre Riviere, who was wrongfully accused of murdering his mother, sister and brother. His epistemological works include The Order of Things and The Archaeology of Knowledge, while his ventures into direct literary criticism include “A Preface to Transgression” and Death and the Labyrinth. His interest in psychology comes forth in works such as The Birth of the Clinic and one subtitled “A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason,” but he may be better known for a work whose parts include The Care of the Self and The Use of Pleasure. For 10 points name this French author of Madness and Civilization and a three-part History of Sexuality.
ANSWER: Michel Foucault
6. The second part of this work is the patriotic hymn “The Father of our Country,” which is played melodically on the strings. The composer’s opus 80, its first portion is softly played on brass and woodwinds and entitled “We have built a stately house.” “Let Us Rejoice While We’re Young,” is the final portion and the basis for the piece’s coda, while the third portion, “What’s Coming from on High,” represents freshman initiation. For 10 points, identify this piece based on popular German student songs of the late 19th century, written as thanks for an honorary doctorate conferred in 1879 on Johannes Brahms.
ANSWER: Academic Festival Overture, Opus 80
7. Chromoglycate-based drugs can inhibit their most important process, and they express a high-affinity receptor for Immunoglobulin E, the least abundant of antibodies. When activated by the binding to IgE, degranulation in them results in the release of chemotactic factors, cytokines, and histamine, and if it occurs is body-wide, can lead to vasodilation and anaphylactic shock. The chemicals released by these cells in turn cause inflammation, an increase in the number of basophils, and irritate nerve endings, causing itching. Activated by antigens, For 10 points, identify these immune cells, which play a role in allergic reactions.
ANSWER: mast cells
8. As editor of the Literary Review, his son “Bron” created the “Bad Sex Award” for the worst erotic writing of the year. Late in his career, this author returned to his early style to write about Whispering Glades funeral home and Happier Hunting Ground pet cemetery in The Loved One. His overtly religious work includes a story about Constantine’s mother, Helena, and an examination of World War II as a struggle with absolute evil, the Men at Arms trilogy. The satirical novels that established his career include Black Mischief, Vile Bodies, Decline and Fall, and Scoop. For 10 points, identify this English author whose who used his own conversion to Catholicism for the story of the Marchmain family in his more sober novel Brideshead Revisited.
ANSWER: Evelyn Arthur St. John Waugh
9. Its rulers included the lawgiver Ine (EH-nay) and its first Christian king, Cynegils (KIN-uh-gilss). According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, this region’s founders were Cerdic (KER-dik) and Cynric (KIN-rik) in the seventh century. The residents introduced the system of “burghal hidage,” which listed 33 forts that were at most a day’s ride away from its citizens. That system kept this region independent of the Danes even when East Anglia, Northumbria and Mercia were overthrown by the neighboring attackers. For 10 points, name this historical region of England bordered by West Wales, Sussex, and Mercia, whose kings, beginning with Athelstan, became rulers of all England due to the conquests of Alfred the Great .
10. Less luminous than their earlier-known counterparts, these members of Population II are known as horizontal branch stars for their position on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. At only half a solar mass, they still have an absolute magnitude about 50 times as bright as our sun. Some of them, such as XZ Cygni, exhibit a secondary variation of amplitude and period known as the Blazhko effect, and they are abundant in globular clusters, where they can be used as standard candles. For 10 points, identify these old, low mass stars, whose utility comes from their known, short-period variations in luminosity.
ANSWER: RR Lyrae variable stars
11. The fourth stanza in this poem emulates Andrew Marvell by contemplating a plentiful nature of time before the toast and tea. Starting out on half-deserted streets, the poem winds through what appears to be a salon gathering, and ends with visions of a drowning in the sea, surrounded by mermaids and interrupted by human voices. Unsure of himself, the title character wonders whether he should have been “a pair of ragged claws/Scuttling across the silent seas.” For 10 points, name this poem about an insecure man who is either an attendant lord, or at times, the Fool, who hears the women “come and go, talking of Michelangelo” according to T.S. Eliot.
ANSWER: The Lovesong of J. Alfred Prufrock
12. He founded an eight-person experimental jazz workshop group with Darius Milhaud, after studying with him at Mills College under the GI Bill. Experimenting with unorthodox time signatures like 5/4, 7/4, and 13/4 time, this pianist established his fame through works such as My Romance, Elementals, Unsquare Dance, It’s a Raggy Waltz, and Blue Rondo a la Turk. For 10 points, name this man, who performed with Eugene Wright on bass, Joe Morello on the drums, and Paul Desmond on alto sax, the last of whom also wrote their most famous song, Take Five.
ANSWER: Dave Brubeck
13. She is the subject of a musical by Christopher McGovern and Amy Powers, an opera by Jack Beeson, and an Agnes DeMille ballet called “Fall River Legend.” She resented her well-off father’s frugality, and it has been suggested that the event that made her famous was a retaliation against sexual abuse. According to a website that shares her name, her former home is now a bed and breakfast, featuring a menu reminiscent of that enjoyed on August 4, 1892. For 10 points, identify this Massachusetts woman who was accused but acquitted of killing her father and stepmother with a hatchet.
ANSWER: Lizzie Andrew Borden
14. Early in his career this man wrote the treatise “On Stage Composition” and the play “Yellow Sound,” although hearing Wagner’s Lohengrin inspired him to devote his life to art. Autumn in Bavaria exhibits his roots in Symbolism, while a sea battle and a ravine are among the subjects of his Improvisations. He believed that color and soundwere linked such that placing a color on a canvas was the equivilent of placing a note on a musical score, which led him to created a number of works he called Impressions and Compositions. For 10 points, name this Russian Abstract-Expressionist, a co-founder of The Blue Rider.
ANSWER: Wassily Kandinsky
15. Although it fails to explain certain cases, such as the strong bonding of the low-dipole carbonyl group, it successfully explains many other chemical properties. The crucial parameter is delta, which is compared with the energy cost of having two electrons in the same orbital. If delta, which measures the difference in energy levels created by the presence of ligands, is large, electrons in the central metal atom are forced into the lower of the d energy levels, explaining many of the anomalous properties of metal complexes. For 10 points, identify this theory of inorganic chemistry, which was superseded by molecular field theory.
ANSWER: crystal field theory [pprompt on CF]
16. Recent papers have re-opened the debate on whether this man ended slavery in his country, as tradition held that he did upon his ascension at the end of the Kalandozások period. He secured his throne at the Battle of Veszprém where he defeated his cousin Koppány. He married the daughter of Henry the Wrangler, Duke of Bavaria, and changed his name from Vaik when he was baptized by St. Adalbert of Prague. Tradition states that Pope Sylvester II sent him a jeweled crown recognizing him as a Christian monarch in 1001. For 10 points, name this future saint who defeated the pagan nobles, united the Magyar tribes, and became the first king of Hungary, the namesake of the only English king from the House of Blois and American personalities Austin, Douglas, and Decatur.
ANSWER: King Stephen I of Hungary [or Saint Stephen of Hungary, or Szent István; accept Vajk before it is read]
17. His obsession with strength allows him to beat The Cat in a wrestling match and claim the championship of the nine villages. His embarrassment concerning his father, an effeminate debtor who feared the sight of blood, drives him to succeed, but he secretly shares a wife’s fear that her only surviving child will die. When his gun explodes and kills the sixteen-year-old son of a recently-deceased clansman, he and his family are exiled for seven years. For 10 points, identify this Ibo leader who struggles to cope with the intrusion of white missionaries into tribal society, the main character of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart.
18. The disastrous failure of 130,000 strong Union forces to prevail against an opponent less than half its size here is blamed on Major General Oliver Howard, who ignored instructions to guard against surprise attack. Joseph Hooker’s Army of the Potomac suffered an embarrassing loss to Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia in this rural battle, but the Confederacy’s victory was marred when a set of troops, confused by the setting sun, shot their commander in the left arm, requiring an amputation that caused a deadly infection. For 10 points, name this 1863 battle in Virginia, at which it is stated that “Lee lost his right arm when Jackson lost his left arm.”
ANSWER: Battle of Chancellorsville
19. This region’s largest cities include Ribe (ree-bey), Alborg, and Arhus. Considered the natural boundary between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, this area was historically occupied by Angles, Saxons, Vandals, as well as the barbaric tribe that gave its name to this peninsula, now partially occupied in the south by German province Schleswig-Holstein. For 10 points, name this peninsula that saw a historic World War I naval battle and is one of the three main parts of Denmark.
20. Her last request before death was to have half an hour for prayer. Seemingly aware of her impending death, she requests her attendant Emilia to put her wedding sheets on the bed, and bury her in them should she die first. Despite her meek response to her own death, she asserts herself when her husband strikes her, saying “I have not deserved this”, and also by marrying a man without her father Brabantio’s blessing. For 10 points, name this woman who died at the hands of her husband due to a misunderstanding over a handkerchief later possessed by Michael Cassio in Othello.
J’Accuse/Blast/Moon Pie/Harrison Bergeron/Terrier Tussle April 2005
Boni by Georgetown University Law Center (Augustine Kim, Robert Beard, Elizabeth Richards) 1. Whenever I miss summer, I sing songs that mention July 4th repeatedly because I’m weird like that. Identify these songs for 10 points each.
 Jason Mraz says in this song “‘cause you were born on the Fourth of July, freedom ring. Now something on the surface, it stings.”
ANSWER: “Remedy (I Won’t Worry)”
 Better Than Ezra muses, “Well, maybe I’ll call or I’ll write you a letter. Maybe we’ll see on the Fourth of July. But I’m not too sure, and I’m not too proud.”
 The Wallflowers remember when “She said, ‘It’s cold, it feels like Independence Day. And I can’t break away from this parade...”
ANSWER: “One Headlight”
2. A series of lectures in linguistics in the 1910s had a profound impact in philosophy and art. For 10 points each:
 Introducing the concept of the sign-signifier-signified, which profoundly affected Cubism and structural linguistics, these series of lectures were published in a book posthumously by students in 1916.
ANSWER: Course in General Linguistics [or Cours de Linguistique Générale]
 This structuralist-linguist prepared the lectures, which later turned into the book.
ANSWER: Ferdinand de Saussure
 In his lectures, Saussure articulated the concept of the sign, which was a basic unit of langue. Langue, in turn, was a complete system of signs that created a language. This term, the actual speech of an individual, was the external manifestation of the langue.
 The fourth movement of this work is a set of variations on a lied by the same composer. It is the only piece of its kind written by its composer aside from a minor one in C major, and is unusual for its use of a double bass and only one violin.
ANSWER: Trout Quintet [or Schubert’s Piano Quintet in A major]
 This composer created the American Quartet in F major during his 1893 stay in Spillville, Iowa, a town populated almost entirely with Czech expatriates.
ANSWER: Anton Dvorak (d-VOR-zhak)
 Dvorak also wrote one of these entitled “Dumky,” while Beethoven’s fourth is called “Gassenhauer.” Usually they are scored for their primary instrument along with two string instruments, one of which is sometimes substituted with a woodwind.
ANSWER: piano trios [prompt on partial answer]
4, Answer the following questions about integrals, for 10 points each.
 The most common form, based on approximating the area under a curve as a sum of infinitely many rectangles, this integral bears the name of a German mathematician.
ANSWER: Riemann integral
 For functions that cannot be graphed pictorially, a new definition is needed. This integral multiplies each of the possible y-values of a function by the length of the x-intervals that correspond to that y-value. It is a generalization of the Riemann integral named for a French mathematician.
ANSWER: Lebesgue integral
 The key to calculating a Lebesgue integral is finding a generalization of “length” that can apply to non-contiguous sets of points and other difficult geometric entities. That generalization is given this name, a common 7-letter word that lends its name to a field of analysis.
ANSWER: measure 5. Answer the following about a communiqué that launched a thousand missile silos, for the stated points.
 For 10 , written by X, it was officially titled “The Sources of Soviet Conduct.”
ANSWER: Long Telegram
 For 10, this “father of containment” wrote the Long Telegram
[5, 5] For 5 each, Kennan was inspired to write the Long Telegram when the US Treasury department asked why Soviets were not willing to support these two newly created institutions after the Bretton Woods conference.
ANSWER: World Bank and International Monetary Fund
6. Name some Russian poets for 10 points each.
 This acmeist’s works include “Requiem”, “Poem Without a Hero”, and the collections Evening and Rosary. Once denounced for her “eroticism, mysticism, and political indifference,” in the 1950s she published poems praising Stalin and communism in the hope of winning the freedom of her son, who had been exiled to Siberia.
ANSWER: Anna Akhmatova OR Anna Andreevna Gorenko
 This post-Stalin poet decried Soviet indifference to the Nazi massacre of Jews in Kiev in “Babi Yar” and wrote a “Precocious Autobiography” at the wise age of 32.
ANSWER: Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko
 His later works turned political as in To My Friends and Egyptian Nights, but he made his name with the long Yevgeny Onegin and Ruslan and Ludmilla.
ANSWER: Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin 7. Identify the following about plant biology, for 10 points each.
 This tissue, which comes in 3 types, including lateral and intercalary, contains the cells that give rise to all the other tissues in plants.
 In woody plants, the vascular system is generated from this layer of lateral meristem, which lies between the xylem and phloem.
 Lying outside of the vascular tissues and the cambium is this tissue, which is responsible for storing nutrients. The inner portion of this layer is often differentiated into the endodermis.
ANSWER: cortex 8. Name these figures involved in celestial combat, Mesopotamian style, for 10 points each.
 The general in the war against the gods, this figure was the keeper of the tablets of destiny. Ninhursag used his blood to make the first man.
 Kingu was consort to this monster, who is often associated with the flood story in the Bible. She is eventually slain by Marduk.
 This deity, the consort and brother of Kishu, is the father of Anu and the god of the sky. He leads the divine forces in the war against Tiamat.
ANSWER: Anshar 9. Name these prominent figures from late medieval British literature, for 10 points each.
 Although famous for writing Le Morte d’Arthur, his life remains shrouded but it is certain that he was arrested many times for robbery, extortion, poaching, and other crimes, which gave him ample time in jail to write stories.
ANSWER: Sir Thomas Malory
 Although known better in history as Chaucer’s close friend, he was an accomplished poet himself, his most famous work being Confessio Amantis, or Lover’s Confession.
ANSWER: John Gower
 He was considered the greatest English poet before Chaucer came along with his tales. He is best known for the allegorical poem The Vision of William Concerning Piers the Plowman.
ANSWER: William Langland 10. Name these pioneers of photography, for 10 points each.
 He shortened shutter speed to 1/1000th of a second, as well as inventing the zoöpraxiscope to project photos quickly in order to create movement. He is best known for proving once and for all that a running horse does indeed have all four feet off the ground at one time.
ANSWER: Eadweard Muybridge
 One of the earliest photo-collagists and use of close-up photography, he studied under Vladimir Tatlin, experimenting with various mediums, but settling for photographic Constructivism. His most distinctive works used unusual perspectives, such as his Gathering for the Demonstration, shot from atop a building looking down at organized marchers.
ANSWER: Alexander Rodchenko
 Many theorize, based on the photo-realistic paintings and the particular perspective of his many works, that this Dutch painterextensively used camera obscura in his many of his works, such as The Milkmaid.
 This analogue of Norton’s theorem states that any combination of resistors and voltage sources can be reduced to a single effective voltage and resistance.
ANSWER: Thevenin theorem
 This is the term given to the tendency of alternating current to travel along the outside of the conductor, causing the resistance to increase with the square root of the frequency.
ANSWER: skin effect
 Frequently used to draw equivalence networks for 3-terminal networks, this transformation takes its name from the fact that it changes the network’s shape between that of a triangle and that resembling a particular letter.
ANSWER: Y-Delta [or Wye-Delta or Kennely’s Delta-Star or star-mesh transform or mesh-star transform]
12. Identify the following historical events with something in common, for 10 points each.
 This 1895 armed action accompanied an attempted coup d’etat led by Cecil Rhodes. It came in response to heavy taxation of the Transvaal gold industry by the Boer government.
ANSWER: Jameson Raid
 These attacks on Communists and Socialists between 1918 and 1921 are named for Woodrow Wilson’s attorney general, who blamed Communism for most of the nation’s problems.
ANSWER: Palmer Raids [prompt on Red Scare]
 The 21 men who perpetrated this October 1859 attack gathered in a Maryland farmhouse rented by their abolitionist leader using the assumed name Isaac Smith.
ANSWER: Raid on Harpers Ferry [accept equivalents]
13. Name these Tennessee Williams plays from plots, for 10 points each.
 The Gentleman Caller Jim O’Connor plays a critical role in Tom Wingfield’s abandoning of his mother and sister.
ANSWER: The Glass Menagerie
 Chance Heavenly, an aspiring actor, works as a gigolo for Princess Kosmonopolis, an aging actress. Chance wants to reunite with the love of his life, Heavenly, but plans are foiled by Boss Finley, as well as the fact that Chance gave Heavenly an STD a while back.
 Big Daddy wants a child from Maggie and Brick, but Brick isn’t too big on conceiving a child, because he is in love with his dead friend Skipper.
ANSWER: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof 14. Answer the following about a novel for 10 points per part.
 Rats in the Algerian city of Oran cause big problems in this book.
ANSWER: La Peste or The Plague
 According to Jay Sherman, Sartre is smarter than this author of The Plague, A Happy Death, The Stranger, and Exile in the Kingdom.
ANSWER: Albert Camus (either cam-oo or cam-us is fine)
 This valiant doctor and narrator tried to warn the city officials about the plague, but failed. During the quarantine, he is separated from his wife, but works hard to save the lives of those afflicted. Sadly, as the quarantine is lifted, his wife dies after a long illness.
ANSWER: Bernard [or Dr. Bernard Rieux]
15. Identify the following Chinese philosophers, for 10 points each.
 Although there is no proof that this author was a historical person, the text attributed to him, the Dao de Ching, introduced the basic ideas of the Daoist philosophy.
ANSWER: Lao Tzu
 Somewhat arbitrarily grouped in the Daoist school, this author, universally acknowledged as the best prose stylist in Chinese philosophy, developed ideas similar to those of Lao Tzu. He attacked Confucianism in “The Old Fisherman” and “Opening Trunks,” and elaborated hius own philosophy in a book named for him, alternatively known as The Pure Classic of Nan-hua.
ANSWER: Zhuangzhi [or Chuang Tzu (Shuang Suh)]
 Surprisingly, his ideas on government, known for their hardnosed practicality, are similar to those of the mystic Lao Tzu. This philosopher, who expounded the fundamental ideas of the Legalist school.
ANSWER: Han Feizi [or Han Fei Tzu]
16. Answer the following questions about molecular structure for 10 points each.
 One of the reasons carbon is such a versatile element is its ability to bond to itself and form long chains and rings. Give the technical term for this property.
 After carbon, catenation is most strongly exhibited by this Period 3 element.
 Under standard conditions, sulfur is most commonly found as molecules of crown-shaped rings. How many atoms form each ring?
ANSWER: 8 17. Answer the following about the presidency of Andrew Jackson for 10 points per part.
 This first Vice-President under Jackson resigned to run for the Senate from South Carolina, in which role he hated on the Tarriff of Abominations with the South Carolina Exposition and Protest.
ANSWER: John Caldwell Calhoun
 This executive order issued in 1836 was an attempt to curb land speculation in the West and protect settlers from having to pay excessive prices for land by banning most forms of scrip currency. It destabilized the economy and contributed to the Panic of 1837.
ANSWER: Specie Circular [prompt on Coinage Act]
 Jackson’s cabinet was scandalized by the marriage of his Secretary of War to this widow, who later shared Antonio Buchignani with her granddaughter.
ANSWER: Margaret “Peggy” O’Neal Eaton 18. Name these components of the Apocrypha for 10 points each.
 In this passage removed from the Book of Daniel, Daniel is thrown into the lion’s den for exposing the fraud of Marduk priests, and then killing the Tiamat figure with a deadly poultice. Habakkuk brings Daniel food, by flying to Babylon from Judea thanks to the Angel of the Lord. Daniel survives six days in the Lion’s den, making Cyrus the Persian a believer.
ANSWER: Bel and the Dragon
 Also once part of Daniel, this story features two lecherous Jewish elders who try to molest a beautiful woman. When rebuffed, they accuse her of adultery and condemn her to death. Thankfully, our hero Daniel comes to rescue her, exposing the lecherous elders and having them killed.
 In this book that was not part of Daniel, sparrows pooped in the title character’s eyes while he was sleeping. He goes blind, but his everyday piety and pure of heart brings him a cure through archangel Raphael with a magical potion. He lives happily ever after.
ANSWER: Tobit 19. Answer the following about an Islamic dynasty for 10 points per part.
 This Dynasty had caliphates and emirates in Egypt, Damascus, Aleppo, Hamah, Homs, and Yemen. It started in 1171 with a dynamic leader that overthrew the Fatimid Caliph of Egypt.
ANSWER: Ayyubid Dynasty
 Name the founder of Ayyubid Dynasty, whose kingdom didn’t last very long after his death.
ANSWER: Saladin [or Salah al-Din]
 The Mongols ended the Damascus branch of Ayyubid Dynasty when they conquered Syria in the 13th century. The Egyptian branch ended when these Turkish bodyguard warriors overthrew them.
ANSWER: Mamluks 20. Identify these characters from David Copperfield, for 10 points each.
 This is the shared last name of David’s cruel stepfather and his spinster sister.
 He works as a clerk for Mr. Wickfield and aspires to marry the lovely Agnes and gain control of the Wickfield family fortune. Outwitted by David and Agnes, he eventually gets hauled off to jail, where he is a model prisoner.
ANSWER: Uriah Heep
 Despite spending time in debtor’s prison, this financially irresponsible but sympathetic character is always certain that something is about to “turn up.”
ANSWER: Wilkins Micawber Extras
Answer the following about plays that opened on Broadway this season, for 10 points each.
 Identify either of these two actors whose one-man shows premiered this season. The first show, Laugh Whore, contained homages to Liza Minnelli and Judy Garland. The second, 700 Sundays, is a comedic reminiscence of the star’s relationship with his father.
ANSWER: Mario Cantone or Billy Crystal
 John Patrick Shanley was recently awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for this play about a Catholic school priest suspected of abuse.
 This Martin McDonagh play about a short story writer suspected of a series of child murders was a big hit in London last season. The New York production stars Jeff Goldblum as an interrogator and Billy Crudup as Katurian Katurian Katurian.
ANSWER: The Pillowman Identify the following things related to Hawaiian volcanoes, for 10 points per answer.
 Mauna Loa is this type of volcano. Produced over a long period of time by repeated gentle eruptions, these volcanoes are flat and not very steep.
ANSWER: shield volcano
[10, 10] Mafic lava, which consists mainly of basalt, forms two distinct types of rocks on cooling. One is long and ropy, while the other is composed of broken fragments, and would be very painful to walk on. Give the names of both, derived from Hawaiian words.