(1871-1937) Ernest Rutherford was born in New Zealand where he lived up to 1895. At the age of 19 after finishing school he entered the only New Zealand University founded in 1870. At that time there were only 150 students and 7 professors there. At the university Ernest took great interest in physics and developed a magnetic detector of radio waves. However, he was absolutely uninterested in the practical applications of his discoveries.
In 1895 Rutherford went to Cambridge where he continued research under Thomson (1856-1940), the outstanding English physicist. There Rutherford studied the processes of ionization in gases and took great interest in radioactivity opened by Becquerel (1852-1908), a world-known French physicist. About ten years Ernest Rutherford lived and worked in Canada. Later he lectured in leading universities in the USA and England from 1907 till 1919.
Rutherford’s famous work “The Scattering of Alpha and Beta Particles of Matter and the Structure of the Atom” dealt with so-called “atom models”. All main Rutherford’s works deal with the nuclear models. The splitting of the atom has opened to man a new and enormous source of energy. The most important results have been obtained by splitting the atom of uranium.