Geomorphological Investigations in Indian County, Florida between the North Relief Canal and the Main Line Canal Report Prepared by Dr. Frank J. Vent, Ph. D., Pg-001831-G, rpa quaternary Geological and Environmental Consultants, llc



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Geomorphological Investigations in Indian County, Florida between the North Relief Canal and the Main Line Canal

Report Prepared by

Dr. Frank J. Vent, Ph.D., PG-001831-G, RPA

Quaternary Geological and Environmental Consultants, LLC.

4640 Walten Woods Drive Erie, Pennsylvania 16511

Submitted to

OVIASC Committee

Vero Beach, Florida

September 2, 2016

Table of Contents


Acknowledgements 2

List of Figures 2

1.0 Introduction 3

1.1 General 3

1.2 Scope of Investigation 4

1.3 Purpose of Investigation 5

2.0 Results of Investigation 5

2.1 Main Line Relief Canal -immediately east of US1 (bank cut on north bank) 5

2.2 Hogan Property 6

2.3 Gifford Site 8

2.3.1 Gifford - Northeast Quadrant 8

2.3.2 Gifford Site- Southwest Quadrant 8

2.3.3 Gifford Site – Southeast Quadrant 9

2.3.4 Gifford Site-Northwest Quadrant 9

2.4 US1 (Prior Archaeological Site) 9

2.5 Airport Property-Northeast of the Vero Excavations 10

2.6 Falasiri Property (near 13th Street) 11

2.7 Rouse Site 11

2.8 Lower Reach of Van Valkenburg Creek 12

2.9 14th Street Vacant Lands near Crestlawn Cemetery 13



3.0 Conclusions and Recommendations 13


Acknowledgements


I would like to thank Mr. Rodolf Johnson for his guidance and support during all phases of the geomorphology investigations. I also would like to thank especially Mr. Victor Zinck, Mr. Gary Peirce and Mr. Dan Jacobus for their help in identifying areas to be tested as well as their help in the hand excavation of the auger probes, a labor intensive endeavor. Mr. Zinck and Mr. Peirce wer4 especially helpful in defining areas which they had examined over the years as well as the landforms, associated soils and stratigraphic profiles which they encountered over the years.


List of Figures




1.0 Introduction




1.1 General


The geomorphology report and associated figures details the results of the geomorphological investigations recently completed in Indian County, Florida under a research contract from the OVIASC Committee. The objective of the geomorphology studies was to identify any late Pleistocene drainage lines which had existed and that once flowed eastward across the Sangamon (Oi5) marine terrace (Figure 1). The current project area extends from the North Relief Canal to the South Relief Canal and 300 m (1000 ft.) west and east of US1. At present nine areas were investigated to determine the soil stratigraphy with regard to age, depositional history and potential to contain in situ prehistoric cultural resources (Figures 2 and 3). The tested areas include: 1) Hogan property lying east of Lateral E and south of the Main Relief Canal; 2) the reach or area lying on the Airport property extending from Airport Drive to the Main Relief Canal. The tested area lies just west of the US1 and the railway line and presently serves as a drainage outlet from the water treatment plant site 3) the Gifford site area including the southwest, southeast and northeast quadrants bordering the North Relief Canal. The northwest quadrant on the golf course was not examined due to access 4) the Falasiri property near 13th Street and the Main Relief Canal, 5) the exposed bank cuts along the Main Canal extending east of US1 near 13th Street; 6) the lower reach of Van Valkenburg Creek in a residential area; 7) the probable Rouse Site #7 site is situated midway between the Gifford Site and the Old Vero Site and lying just east of the Old Dixie Highway, 8) the areas adjacent to the North Relief Canal lying under US1 and approximately 200 m (660 ft.) east of the Gifford Site and the City of Vero owned property near adjacent to 14th Street and south of the Crestlawn Cemetery (Figures 2 and 3). Figures 4 - 10 are ground surface LiDAR degree slope maps and google earth images of probable relict, late Pleistocene and Holocene stream channels. These as well as several additional segments of other probable channels will be tested during the second week of June 2016.

1.2 Scope of Investigation


This investigation was performed by Dr. Frank J. Vento (PG-001831-G), Professor Emeritus, Department of Anthropology, Geography and Earth Science, Clarion University of Pennsylvania and President, QGEC, LLC. The preliminary study included a review of both general and specific references on the bedrock geology, quaternary history, and previous archaeological work conducted within the general project area. In addition, topographic maps, geologic and soil survey maps and reports, and hydrologic information were reviewed.

Field and archival investigations were initiated on June 8, 2016 and subsequently completed on July 22, 2016. The geomorphology study included the inspection of exposed bank cuts along both the Main Relief Canal and North Relief Canal as well the excavation of numerous 4 inch bucket auger probes adjacent to now relict Pleistocene and Holocene drainages lines. All soils were recorded and described in the field using standard soil nomenclature (Soil Taxonomy 1999).


1.3 Purpose of Investigation


The geomorphologic study entailed the examination of the landforms and associated soils along probable relict, late Pleistocene stream channels and associated soils bordering these drainage lines that occur within Indian County, Florida between the North Relief Canal and the Main Line Canal. The limit of the geomorphological investigations extended from 300 m (1000 ft.) west of US1 and 300 m (1000 ft.) east of US1. The objectives of each stage of geomorphological study are discussed below:

1) Determine the ages of the landforms (flood plain/terraces) and associated soils which occur within the project corridor at each of the investigated areas;

2) Determine the depths to which future testing should extend to ensure the identification of any and all, potentially significant cultural resources;

3.) Discuss if relevant the extent and methods of prior ground disturbance to the soils within the study area and;

4) Discuss the site specific depositional processes responsible for emplacement of the soil/sediment packages encountered at each tested locus.

2.0 Results of Investigation

2.1 Main Line Relief Canal -immediately east of US1 (bank cut on north bank)


Excellent bank cut exposure were present along the north side of the Main Relief Canal. The exposures showed a moderate degree of variability clearly a result of prior lateral channel migration of Van Valkenburg Creek. One of the bank cut profiles consisted of the following profile: Fill 0-48 cm; 48-70 cm thick A1 black (5YR2.5/1) organic rich sand; 70-85 cm thick eluviated AE transitional horizon consisting of very dark gray (5YR3/1) sand; 85-100 cm thick A2 black (5YR2.5/1) organic rich sand; 100-160 cm thick Bhs oxidized yellowish red (5YR5/6) to reddish brown (5YR4/4) sand with Pleistocene bone fragments; >160 cm Anastasia Formation (Figures 10 - 13). A second profile consisted of a thin fill horizon (0-22 cm) that was underlain by a series of stacked A-C lamellae documenting rapid deposition into a back slough or swale on the relict flood plain of Van Valkenburg Creek. The A-C package was approximately 1 m (3.3 ft.) in thickness and was disconformably underlain by the Anastasia Formation. It is precisely in these erosional swales which incise the Anastasia Formation that would be an excellent locus for finding transported Pleistocene osteological remains.

Given access issues the south side of the Main Relief Canal was not tested, however, it appears that the south side may actually offer the best potential for the identification of both in situ prehistoric cultural material and Pleistocene osteological material. A low T1 terrace situated 1.2 m to 1.5 m (4 ft. to 5 ft.) above the nominal pool for the canal is present with no evidence (based upon observed bank exposures) of any historic fill material mantling the ground surface. It appears that the 2A-2Bhs (Van Valkenburg and Melbourne Soils) present at the Old Vero Main Site is present within the upper solum on the south side of the canal.

The profiles encountered along the Main Line Relief given the thin package of fill material may offer one of the best localities for identifying more shallowly buried as well as surficial prehistoric archaeological materials.

2.2 Hogan Property


The location of several of the auger probes and slope maps are show in Figure 2. At the Hogan Property four auger probes were excavated near the confluence with the Lateral E Canal and the Main Relief Canal. Auger Probe 1 situated directly across from the Vero excavations consisted of a 180 cm thick package of coarse fill which disconformably overlies a truncated, now buried, 50 cm thick black (10YR2/1) sand, loose, granular, organic rich cumulic A horizon. The A horizon was conformably underlain by a 30 cm thick strongly oxidized, yellowish red (5YR4/6) loose, granular sand Bhs horizon. The Bhs horizon was immediately underlain disconformably by the Sangamon age coquina of the Anastasia Formation (115ka).

Auger Probe 2 was excavated 5 m (16.5 ft.) to the north of Auger Probe 1 and consisted of 100 cm of coarse fill that disconformably overlies a 20 cm thick black (10YR2/1) organic rich, loose, granular sand A horizon. The A1 horizon was underlain by a 10 cm thick light gray (5YR7/1) E horizon that was conformably underlain by a 10 cm thick black (5YR2.5/1) loose granular organic A2 horizon. The A2 horizon was conformably underlain by an 80 cm thick yellowish red (5YR4/6) loose, oxidized, granular Bhs horizon. The Bhs horizon was then underlain by a 30 cm thick BC/CB horizon which consisted of loose, granular, pinkish gray (5YR6/2) probable aeolian sands. The aeolian sand BC/CB horizon was then underlain conformably by a 50 cm thick white (5YR8/1) probable aeolian sand (C horizon). The C horizon was underlain by coquina (shell hash) of the Anastasia Formation.

Auger Probe 3 was situated closest to the confluence with Lateral E Canal and the Main

Relief Canal and was situated north of Auger Probe 2. The sol profile countered in Auger Probe 3 consisted of 150 cm of coarse fill from canal construction which was disconformably underlain by a truncated, 20 cm thick black (5YR2.5/1) loose, granular sand cumulic organic rich A horizon. The A horizon was conformably underlain by a 20 cm thick reddish brown (5YR5/4) oxidized, loose, granular, transitional BA horizon. The BA horizon was conformably underlain by a 55 cm thick yellowish red (5YR4/6) oxidized, loose granular sand Bhs horizon. The B horizon was in turn underlain by a 20 cm thick very pale brown (10YR7/4) loose, granular, BC sand horizon. The BC horizon was conformably underlain by a 5 cm thick white sand (C horizon) with 5 to 10 percent coarse sand and gravel. The C horizon was then underlain disconformably by Sangamon age coquina of the Anastasia Formation.

Auger Probe 4 was excavated on a low lying platform bordering the main canal. The platform is entirely artificial in construction and lies 1.5 m (5 ft.) above the Main Canal. The soils encountered on the artificial platform are entirely comprised of urban fill, recent flood deposits and dredge spoil from the canal.

2.3 Gifford Site

2.3.1 Gifford - Northeast Quadrant


A single auger probe was emplaced on the northeast quadrant along the North Relief Canal at the Gifford Site (Figure 3). The probe was emplaced along the fence line that separates the canal property boundary from the land owner to the north. The soil profile encountered in

Auger Probe 5 consisted of a 10 cm thick fill horizon which was disconformably underlain by a 50 cm thick, black (5YR.5/1) organic rich loose, granular sand A horizon. The A horizon was underlain conformably by a 40 cm thick yellowish red (5YR4/6), loose, granular, oxidized Bhs horizon. The Bhs horizon was then immediately and disconformably underlain by the Anastasia Formation.


2.3.2 Gifford Site- Southwest Quadrant


Exposed excavation cuts and several auger probes were examined just west of the railway line and approximately 15 m (50 ft.) south of the North Relief Canal (Figure 3). The soil profile was essentially the same as that encountered on the northeast quadrant the principal difference being a much thicker (ca. 1 m to 1.5 m) package of fill material overlying the buried cumulic A horizon. On the southwest quadrant the buried A horizon and Bhs horizon pinch out rapidly to the south.

2.3.3 Gifford Site – Southeast Quadrant


Several auger probes were emplaced on the southeast quadrant within 25 m (80 ft.) of the canal. The soil profile encountered in both auger probes consisted of a 38 cm thick dark reddish brown (5YR3/3) sand A horizon which was underlain by a 30 cm thick oxidized, reddish brown (5YR4/4), granular Bhs horizon. The Bhs horizon was disconformably underlain by a shell “hash” of the Anastasia Formation. The soil profile encountered on the southeast quadrant is essentially the same as the profiles noted on both the southwest and northeast quadrants at Gifford.

2.3.4 Gifford Site-Northwest Quadrant


The northwest quadrant bordering the North Relief Canal lies in a wooded area just south of a golf course. Given access issues no testing was completed in this area, however, it appears from mapping that a relict channel is present lying between the golf course and the canal prism. This area may offer the potential for both the identification of in situ prehistoric cultural resources as well as Pleistocene osteological materials.

2.4 US1 (Prior Archaeological Site)


It was indicated during the field work that several young kids had excavated artifacts of probable early Archaic affiliation from under US1 immediately east of the Gifford Site. Based upon this information a single auger probe (Auger Probe 6) was excavated under the US1 Bridge over the North Relief Canal on the north bank (Figure 3). The probe was excavated approximately 1.5 m (5 ft.) above the North Canal. The soil profile encountered in Auger Probe 6 consisted of 60 cm of fill and recent flood deposits which now disconformably overlie a 15 cm thick truncated, black (5YR2.5/1) organic rich, sand A horizon. The A horizon was conformably underlain by a 15 cm thick dark reddish brown (5YR3/3) sand AB horizon. The AB horizon was conformably underlain by a 25 cm thick yellowish red (5YR4/6) oxidized sand Bhs horizon. The Bhs horizon was immediately underlain by a shell hash or coquina of the Anastasia Formation.

A second auger probe was excavated to the east of the bridge and Auger Probe 6. Auger probe 7 was emplaced near a large water pipe which trends north-south across the North Canal.



The soil profile encountered in Auger Probe 7 included: 0-60 cm fill; 60-110 cm black (5YR2.5/1) sand A horizon; 110140 cm reddish brown (5YR4/4) Bhs horizon; >140 cm Anastasia. Note that the soil profile in Augers 6 and 7 are quite similar to the soil profiles encountered to the west at the Gifford Site.

2.5 Airport Property-Northeast of the Vero Excavations


Multiple auger probes (Auger Probes 7-11) were excavated along the drainage ditch or outfall for the water treatment plant site that lies to the north of Airport Road. The auger probes extend from 100 m south of Airport Road to within 30 m (100 ft.) of the Main Relief Canal (Figure 2). The probes were quite variable in composition/horizonation. Those probes excavated nearest to the waters in the relict channel? /drainage ditch consisted of fill deposits immediately overlying the Anastasia Formation. As one rises in elevation and distance from the channel the soils contained a variably thick (30 cm to 70 cm) package of coarse fill which now disconformably overlies a truncated cumulic, organic rich black (5YR2.5/1) A horizon. The A horizon was consistently underlain by an oxidized reddish brown to yellowish red (5YR4/6) sand Bhs horizon. The Bhs horizon was consistently underlain by a shell hash or coquina of the Anastasia Formation.

2.6 Falasiri Property (near 13th Street)


Unfortunately, during the field testing a large rain storm the night before caused pounding of water at the Falasiri property which limited the scope of augering. Only a single auger probe (Auger Probe 12) was excavated on the Falasiri property near 13th Street (Figure 2). The soil profile encountered consisted of the following: 0-80 cm black (5YR2.5/1) sand organic rich A horizon; 80 – 140 cm Bhs oxidized yellowish red (5YR4/6) sand; > 140 cm coarse white sand with gravel. The water table was encountered at 80 cm below ground surface. The high water table limited the depth of testing due to “hole” collapse. It is likely that the coarse sands and gravels represent the old channel position of Van Valkenburg Creek. The location of the reach of the relict channel of Van Valkenburg Creek on the Falasiri property further argues for additional testing to the south along the bank edge of the Main Line Canal. This area would have been the relict levee of Van Valkenburg Creek. Levee positions or landforms are often a preferred locus for prehistoric sites given access the stream as well as generally better soil drainage conditions.

2.7 Rouse Site


The probable location of the Rouse #7 Site was identified during the recent geomorphology investigations. The location of the site was based upon archival data as well as the LiDAR and slope relief mapping completed for this study. The tested area lies along a small unnamed stream which occurs just east of the Old Dixie Highway. The only landform present is a T1 terrace which currently lies less than 1.2 m (4 ft.) above the stream channel. The extant stream channel is bound to the north and south by commercial buildings thus limiting the testable area bordering the now channelized segment of the unnamed stream. Several auger probes were excavated to the north and south of the small unnamed stream channel. Auger probe 1 was excavated within 2 m (6.6 ft.) of the active stream channel on the north bank and 10 m (30 ft.) east of Old Dixie Highway. The profile consisted of 60 cm of sandy fill material which disconformably overlies a now buried, 30 cm thick organic rich black (5YR2.5/1) cumulic A horizon. The A horizon was conformably underlain by a 10 cm thick coarse sand C horizon. The C horizon documents a high energy flood event which now disconformably overlies a truncated Bhs subsoil horizon. Given the thickness and coarse texture of the sands in the C horizon it was likely emplaced in response to flooding associated with an earlier Holocene hurricane event. The C horizon was disconformably underlain by a 90 cm thick, truncated reddish brown (5YR4/4), oxidized sand Bhs horizon. Testing was terminated at a depth of 190 cm below ground surface in the Bhs horizon due to the water table. Auger probe 2 was excavated on the south bank of the unnamed, channelized segment of the stream channel and 30 m (100 ft.) east of Old Dixie Highway. The Auger probe 2 was excavated on the same T1 terrace as Auger probe 1 and within 4 m (13.5 ft.) of the stream channel. The soil profile in Auger probe 2 consisted of a 20 cm thick fill horizon which was disconformably underlain by a 50 cm thick, truncated dark gray (5YR4/1) loose sand AE horizon. The AE horizon was underlain by 120 cm thick, oxidized, reddish brown (5YR4/4), compact sand Bhs horizon. The probe was abandoned at a depth of 190 cm below ground surface due to the water table. It should be noted that the Bhs horizon identified at the probable location of the Rouse Site is the thickest expression of the subsoil horizon identified to date at all tested localities. Given its thickness the Bhs horizon in this area may offer the best potential for the identification of early Holocene and late Pleistocene prehistoric cultural materials. The principal limitation to testing in this area is going to be the seasonal position of the water table.

2.8 Lower Reach of Van Valkenburg Creek


Several auger probes were excavated in a residential area along the what may be an extant portion of the lower reach of Van Valkenburg Creek. Both probes displayed the same profile which consisted of a 30 cm thick very dark gray (5YR3/1) organic rich sand A horizon. The A horizon was underlain by a 10 cm thick eluviated, gray (5YR5/1) sand E horizon. The E horizon was underlain by a 30 cm thick black (5YR2.5/1) organic rich sand A2 horizon. The A2 horizon was underlain by a 20 cm thick, light gray (5YR7/1) gravelly sand C horizon. The C horizon likely represents basal lateral accretion deposits associated with the relict channel of Van Valkenburg Creek. The C horizon was disconformably underlain by a 40 cm thick gray (5YR6/1) wet, very fine sand 2C horizon which is of probable aeolian and may be time equivalent with the Sangamon sub age Anastasia Formation.

2.9 14th Street Vacant Lands near Crestlawn Cemetery


Multiple ager probes were excavated in a grassy City of Vero owned vacant lot adjacent 14th Street. The small unnamed tributary flows east roughly paralleling 14th Street proper. All of the probes encountered coarse fill deposits and no in situ alluvial or aeolian soils were encountered in any of the auger probes. It is obvious that the area has been extensively graded. This area has no potential to contain in situ prehistoric cultural resources.

3.0 Conclusions and Recommendations


  1. Most of the investigated areas contained soils which correspond with the F5 (2A) and F9 (Bhs) horizons encountered at the Vero Site (Figure 14). The three areas which contained the most intact and thickest solum was the Rouse Site, the tested area along the north bank of the Main Line Canal and at the Gifford Site.

  2. The Vero Site was different stratigraphically from the other tested areas in that it contained two additional buried cumulic A horizons (F17/3A and F24/4A) below the Bhs horizon. None of the tested areas contained these paleosols (Figure 14).

  3. The absence of these paleosols formed in aeolian sands is that the recently tested areas lie well to the east of the Sangamon beach/dune ridge which lies just west of the Vero Site. In other words, these is a near complete absence of aeolian sands in these areas; where present they accounted for generally less than 50 cm of the observed soil profiles and lie just above the Anastasia Formation (Figure 14).

  4. It is clear that the late Pleistocene bones present in the Bhs horizon and on top of the Anastasia have been primarily transported by Van Valkenburg Creek. It is also likely that the Bhs horizon offers the greatest potential to contain in situ prehistoric artifacts of Clovis and Pre-Clovis age. This is based upon multiple radiocarbon dates of the Bhs horizon (Melbourne of Sellards) from the Vero excavations.

  5. Pleistocene osteological remains will be significantly better preserved to the east of the Vero Site (e.g.., where the Anastasia is present). This occurrence is due to the higher alkalinity afforded to the overlying soils by alkaline ground waters derived from the shell remains in the Anastasia Formation.

  6. Based upon all levels of inquiry all of the areas discussed above should be tested for their potential to contain surficial as well as more deeply buried prehistoric cultural resources. Several of the tested areas contain Holocene and late Wisconsin age soils which are less than 1 m (3.3 ft.) in thickness and might be effectively tested by standard shovel test probes. Other areas (e.g., Main Line Canal and Rouse) contain fill material and soil in excess of 1 m (3.3 ft.) and should be examined by standard tests units (1 m by 1 m or 2 m by 2 m). Testing in each of these areas should extend to the top of the Anastasia Formation, if present.

Figure . LiDAR map showing the boundary between the Silver Bluff Marine Terrace (dark blue) and the higher and older Talbot Marine Terrace.



Figure . Ground Surface LiDAR slopes map showing locations of auger probes emplaced at the Gifford Site and at the US1 overpass adjacent to the North Relief Canal.



Figure . Ground surface LiDAR slopes map of auger probes emplaced at the Hogan property, the drainage ditch/relict channel on the west side of railway line and US1, at the Falasiri property and along the north bank of the Main Relief Canal east of US1.



Figure . Ground surface LiDAR slope map of the possible location of the Rouse #7 Site along an extant probable late Pleistocene drainage line.



Figure . Google Earth Image of the probable Rouse #7 Site lying just east of Old Dixie Highway.



Figure . Possible relict, late Pleistocene drainage line along Golf Course bordering Laurel and Carissa Drives and lying south of the Main Relief Canal.



Figure . Google Earth Image of possible relict, late Pleistocene drainage line along Golf Course bordering Laurel and Carissa Drives.



Figure . Ground Surface LiDAR slope map of a possible relict stream channel lying north of the North Relief Canal.



Figure . Google Earth Image of a possible relict stream channel lying north of the North Relief Canal.



Figure . Photograph facing south of low terrace along Main Relief Canal. The photo was taken from the north side of the Canal approximately 300 m east of US1.

Anastasia Fm.

Fill


A1

E

A2



Bhs

Figure . Photograph of bank cut along Main Relief Canal south approximately 250 m east of US1. Note 50 cm thick fill horizon underlain by dark black cumulic A1 horizon. The A1 horizon is then underlain by an eluviated E horizon. The E horizon is underlain by a second buried A horizon (A2). The A2 horizon is underlain by an oxidized and mottled Bhs horizon. The Anastasia Formation immediately underlies the subsoil or B horizon.


Multiple stacked A-C horizons likely emplaced in a low swale along Van Valkenburg Creek

Figure . Photograph of bank cut along Main Relief Canal south of US1. Note multiple stacked C horizons (flood deposits) interbedded or intercalated with buried, incipient and cumulic A horizons.



Figure . General view of bank cut along Main Relief Canal. Note thick exposure of the shell hash/coquina of the Anastasia Formation overlain by strongly developed Bhs horizon (reddish brown soil in bank cut). The Bhs horizon is overlain by an organic rich, thick, black (5YR2.5/1) A horizon. The A and Bhs horizon correspond with the 2A (Van Valkenburg soil of Sellards) and 2Bhs (Melbourne soil of Sellards) encountered din the Old Vero Man Site.

West East

Vero Site Hogan Railway line US1 Falasiri south bank-in situ terrace/no fill



Lateral E Rouse
Drainage ditch/relict channel Old Dixie Highway bank cut Main Canal

  • Vero-Fill (2.5 m)-A Missing-E-2A(F5)-2Bhs (F9/F15/F18)-3A(F17)-3C1-3C5 (F19F23)-4A(F24)

  • Rouse Site Fill-A-Bhs (to 190 cm below ground surface)

  • Hogan (1.2 m fill)-A-Bhs-Anastasia (Sangamon)

  • Drainage ditch paralleling US1 Airport property: Fill (10 cm)-A-Bhs-Anastasia

  • Main Canal (north bank) Fill (50 cm) A1-E-A2-Bhs-Anastasia

  • Falasiri Property near 13th Street A-Bhs- thick C horizon to 140 cm below ground surface

  • Gifford northeast Fill (10 cm) A-Bhs-Anastasia

  • Gifford southwest Fill (1.2 m) A-Bhs-Anastasia

  • Site under and east of US1 Fill (60 cm) A-Bhs-Anastasia

  • Lower Reach of Van Valkenburg Creek A1-AE-A2-C1(lag)-2C

Figure 14. Idealized soil stratigraphic cross section of tested study areas. The horizons encountered in the tested areas likely corresponds stratigraphically with the 2A (F5) and 2Bhs horizons at the Vero Site.

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