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Object references. Most  object-oriented languages support object references. It is 

rarely considered a modeling feature, but mainly a mechanism for representing the state 

of objects. In Smalltalk it is the only way to represent the state of an object and this 

state is considered a private part of the object. In Reference [BC87] the representation 

of part objects in Smalltalk has been considered, and an extension of Smalltalk was 

proposed. 

• 

Part patterns. Nesting of procedures is supported by most Algol like languages

including Pascal, but rarely in object-oriented languages. Nesting of classes is only 

fully supported by Simula and BETA. C++ allows nesting of classes, but within a 

nested class it is not possible to refer to names in the enclosing class. Nesting of classes 

in C++, is thus a pure scope mechanism. 

• 


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