Department of comparative religion and islamic culture shaheed benazir bhutto university. M. A. (Previous) islamic culture

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I. Introduction.

  1. Nature and scope of Religion

  2. Evolution of Religion.

  3. Classification of Religion.

  1. Primitive Religion

  2. Tribal Religion

  3. National Religion

  4. Universal Religion

  5. Missionary and Non-Missionary Religions.

  6. Religions mentioned in the Quran.

  1. Concept of God.

  1. Evolution of Idea of God.

  2. Deism

  3. Theism-Monotheism, Polytheism, Trinity, Trimurti

  4. Monism (y) Pantheism

  5. Supernaturalism.

  6. Islamic Tauhid and Shirk

  1. Brief study of the following Answers

  1. Egyptian.

  2. Baby Ionian.

  3. Chinese.

  1. Brief study of the following Religions.

  1. Hinduism.

  2. Zoroastrianism.

  3. Buddhism

  4. Confucianism.

  5. Christianity.

  1. Hinduism.

Original of Hindu Religion

The periods of Hindu Renaissance

Hindu Scriptures

Doctrine of Karma

Caste system, Concept of Deity

Teaching of Bhagwad Gita


History of Zoroastrianism Life of Zoroaster and his Teachings Ahura Mazda-Ahirman Scriptures


The life of Gautama Buddha The four Noble Truths The Eightfold path Nirvana History of Buddhism Mahayana, Hinayana Schools


Outline History of Confucianism Confucianism and its teachings The Four Chinese Sacred Books Gods and Spirit Ancestor Worship


  1. F. Ansari. Islam and Christianity in the Modern Word.

  2. A.S. Halepota Dr. Outline of Comparative Religion

  3. Champion. Eleven Religion

  4. M. N. Dhalla. History of Zoroastrianism.

  5. Champion. Religions.

  6. G.M. Syeed. Comparative Religion (Urdu).




  1. FIQH MARKS: 40.

NOTE: - There will be two Sections. The candidates will be required to attempt at Least Two questions from Section ‘A’ and three from Section ‘B’ ___________________________________
The nature and Scope of Fiqh

Definition of Fiqh

Historical development of Muslim Schools of Law

  1. The Hanafi School (ii) The Maliki School

  2. The Shafi’s School (iv) The Hambali School

  3. The Salah Schools

The development of Fiqh Literature


Sunni Mahmasani Dr. Falsafat al-Tashri’ fi al-Islam

Iftkhar Ahmed Balakhi Tarikh Afkar ‘Ulum-e-Islami


Dairh-e-Mararif-e-Islamiyyah Danishgah Punjab (Relevant Chapters)

Abdul Samad Sarim Tarikh-e-Fiqh

Ahmed Amin Dr. Duha al-Islam Vol. II


Textual Study of the following chapters from Bidayat al-Mujtahid of Ibn-Rushd

  1. Kitab Al-Zakat Kitab al-Nikah.


Ibn-e-Rushd Bidayat al-Muhjtahid (Relevant Chapter)

Burhanuddin Almarghfanni Hidaya (Relevant Chapter)


  1. STAT: - The nature and scope of study of Sirat.

  1. Meaning of the terms: Nabi, Rasul

  2. Concept of Prophet hood in various Religions

  3. Concept of Prophet hood in Islam its Nature and Cunctions

  4. Sirat of the Prophets and perfection of Humanity

  5. A brief Sketch of the Prophets life

  6. Main events in the life of the Holy Prophets of Islam

  7. Muhammad an Ideal Prophet and Khatim Al Nabiyyan (the last Prophet of Allah)

  8. A Brief outline of Uswa-e- Hasn (Excellence of the Prophet’s Morals7 Manners)

  9. Prophet’s ideal Character in various Fields of life : -

Ideal Man

Ideal Teacher

Ideal Reformer

Ideal Sudge

Ideal Legislator


Mulana Shibli Naumani Sirat al-Nabi Vol-I&II and VI

Syed Suleman Nadvi Khutubat-e-Madras

Syeed Amir Ali Sprit of Islam (Relevant Chapters)

Qazi Suleman Mansoorpuri Rahmau-LiL-Alamin


  1. Greek Civilization

  2. Roman Civilization

  3. Babylonian Civilization

  4. Indus Valley Civilization


Will, Durant Story of Civilization Heritage.

Mr. & Mrs. I.i.Kazi Brown Girl in her Search of God

Robert Criffault The Making of Humanity

H.G. Wells Outlines of the History of the Word


F. King Don wards Feet stips in Civilization

Davies Outlines of the History of the World

O.S. Hoyland A Brief History of Civilization

Said-al-Andlusi Tabaqat-al-Umam

Khuda Bakhash Contributions to the history of Islamic

Civilization (Relevant Chapters)

Renouf Outlines of World History

Waddell Makers of Civilization

Cultural Anthropology: Study of Man and his Society: -

Psychological Basis

Virtues Their Development

Sociological Basis

Evolution of Customs and Traditions

Ethical and Moral Conduct

Basis of Domestic Conduct

Basis of Personal Conduct

Basis of Political and Economic Conduct

God consciousness

Nature and scope of Religion

NOTE: - The Subject matter in Nos. 1 to 10 to be dealt with in the light of cultural and social Philosophy of Shah Waliullah


A.S. Halepota Dr. Philosophy of ShahWaliullah


Lebon Inqalab-al-umama

Herbert Spencer Principles of sociology

W. Mac Dougall Introduction to Social Psychology

Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Articles on Anthropology and culture


  1. Al-Ghazzali

  2. Ibn-e-Tamiyyah

  3. Shaikh: Ahmed Faruqi Sarhandi

  4. Shah Waliullah

  1. Monograph (with the permission of the Chairman)


M.A (final) PAPER II (Optional)


1 Introduction

    1. Meaning, scope and subject matter

    2. Historical development

    3. Theories and approaches of community

  1. Processes of community development

    1. Community mobilization

    2. Community participation

    3. Resource mobilization

  1. Community development Programs in Pakistan

    1. History of Community development before partition of the sub continent

    2. Community development with reference to village AID program

    3. Role of international organizations in development

    4. Participatory community development projects

  1. Community concepts and definition

    1. The nature of community

    2. Methodology and organization of community development

    3. Role of social welfare councils in economy development

  1. Community organization and related service

    1. Family and child welfare

    2. Cottage industries

    3. Adult education skill development

    4. Health housing water and sanitation development in rural /urban areas of Pakistan

  1. Cooperation and community development

    1. Principles and methods of cooperation

    2. History of cooperative movements in Pakistan

    3. Role of cooperative societies in community development

  1. Community development program in under development countries of Asia and Africa

    1. India

    2. Kenya

    3. Thailand

    4. Egypt

    5. Philippines

  1. Filed visits and presentation and report


Field visit of student shall focus on visiting social welfare/community development projects in rural areas .These projects may be both government and non areas .These projects may be both governments and non government organization (NGOs). The students shall be required to submit filed reports which will be assessed equivalent to 20 marks of the assignments by the teacher in charge

Books Recommended

  1. Cornea, M 1985 Putting People First sociological Variables in Rural development New York Oxford University press

  2. Chambers R 1983 Rural development putting the last first London Longman

  3. Chambers R 1992 Rural appraisal Rapid Relaxed and participatory Sussex Institute of development studies

  4. Edwards M and Hulled and 1992 making a difference NGOs and development in changing world

  5. Escobar A 1995 Re-counting development the making and un making of the Their World Princeton University press.

  6. Fernandez W and Tendon R end 1981 Participatory Research as a process of liberation new Delhi Indian Social Institute.



1 Introduction

    1. Conceptual distinction social change and related concepts

    2. Various dimensions of social change

    3. Magnitude rate and direction of social change

    4. Identification of social change

  1. Theories of social change

    1. Schools :evolutionary conflict equilibrium classical and modern

  1. Analysis of social change

    1. Environment and the origin of social change

    2. Organization that change

    3. Sudden change

    4. Revolution

    5. Social movements

    6. Planned social change

    7. Social predication and social change

  1. Dynamics of social change

    1. Dynamics of social change in Pakistan

    2. Trends and prospects of social change in the third world

  1. Analysis of economic development in modern and modernizing countries

    1. Approaches I economic development centralized de centralized micro and macro social goals and economic targets.

    2. Planning for development

  1. Sociology of economic development

    1. Development nature and scope

    2. Sociological and economic concepts of development

    3. Development continuum under development ,development and over development

    4. Development taxonomy planned and un planned development as a social culture change authoritarian democratic process.

  1. Concepts and dimension of development.

    1. Social and economic development

    2. Instruments, approaches and implication of development.

    3. Socio-psychological dimensions

    4. Tradition value attitudes ideologies and national dimensions

    5. Rural and urban sections of economic development

    6. Sustainable development

  1. Problems in development

    1. Availability of physical resources

    2. Non availability technical know how

    3. Availability of appropriate human resources

    4. Social implication of development

  1. Analysis of development

    1. Monitoring and evaluation of development projects

    2. Rapid rural appraisal ( RRA)

Books Recommended

  1. Abdul Quad’s ,Seed (1990) Social Change in Pakistan Lahore ; Progressive Publishers

  2. Adams W.M (1990) Green development environments and sustainability in the Third World London Rutledge.

  3. Epstein T.S (1992) Economic development and Social Change in South India ,Manchester University Press

  4. Etzioni Amite and Etzioni Eva 1964 ads Social Change sources ,Patterned Consequences New York basic Book, inc

  5. Grimier K B and limber M, P (1997) Social Change and Conservation London earth scan.

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  1. Introduction

    1. The Concept Of Education

    2. Origin And Development Of Education

  1. Institutional Fabric Of Education

    1. Education And Religion

    2. Education And Economy

    3. Education And Politics

    4. Education And Social Mobility

  1. Forms Of Education

    1. Formal

    2. Non-Formal

    3. Informal

  1. Contemporary Education System

    1. Semester

    2. Annual

    3. Madrasah Education

  1. Education In Pakistan

    1. Education Policy And Reforms

    2. Private And Public Sector in Education.

    3. Education Problems

      1. Quality Of Education

      2. Investment in Education

      3. Access To Education

      4. Teacher’s Training & Education

      5. Citizenship

      6. Student’s Problems

Books Recommended

  1. Balanchine, Jeanne H.(1993) The Sociology Of Education: A Systematic Analysis New Gercy: Prentice Hall.

  2. Banks, Olive (1971) the Sociology of Education. London: L B:T Bats ford Ltd.

  3. Best, John W. (1992) Research In Education. New Delhi .Prentice Hall.

  4. Broacher, L.S (1970) Modern Philosophies of Education. New Delhi: McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.



1 Introduction

    1. Definition

    2. Elements of religion

  1. Theories of Religion

    1. Sociological

    2. Psychological

    3. Evolutionary

  1. Sociological Consequences

    1. The sociological functions of religion

    2. University order of religion

    3. Pragmatism in religion

    4. Integrating power of religion

    5. Religion and social ideals

  1. Sociological analysis of world religions system

    1. Judaism

    2. Hinduism

    3. Islam

    4. Christianity

    5. Buddhism

  1. Types of religious authority

    1. The Prophet

    2. Clergy/organization of religious groups

    3. The reformer

    4. The saint/priest/moulvi

    5. The magician

  1. Religion as agency of social control

Books Recommended

  1. Evan Pritchard E.F (1956). Theories of Primitive of Religions Oxford Claneolan Press

  2. Thompson Lana (1988) Religion Sociology in Focus Series London Longman

  3. Schneider Louis (1964) Religion Culture And Society A Reader In The Sociology Of Religion New York John Wiley and Sons

  4. Binder Leonard (1963) Religion and Politics in Pakistan California University of California Press

  5. John stone, Ronald L (1975) Religion and society in interaction; the sociology of religion

New Jersey Prentice Hal

M.A (Final) Paper II (OPTIONAL)


Urban Sociology and Human Economy


    1. urbanization and urbanism

    2. Community ,town ,city metropolis and megalopolis

    3. Urban sociology scope and field of study

  1. The growth of cities

    1. Origin of urban life

    2. The ancient city ecology patterns and social life

    3. The city in medieval ages

    4. The rise of modern city

  1. The Growth of citizen

    1. Faction in urbanization and urban growth

    2. Growth of cities planned development

    3. Trends of urbanization in Pakistan

  1. The ecology of the city

    1. Human ecology meaning and relationship with urban sociology

    2. Location of the city

    3. Ecological process

    4. Symbiosis

    5. Invasion

    6. Concentration

    7. Succession

    8. Segregation

    9. Urbanization

    10. The ecological pattern of Pakistani cities

    11. The land utilization and its pattern

    12. Theories of ecological pattern and land utilization

  1. Town planning

    1. Social and welfare planning meaning need and scope

    2. House planning

    3. Neighborhood planning

    4. Voluntary association

    5. The future of the city

Book Recommended

1 Bardot John W (1982) Urban Sociology New York Mac Grew

2 Berry Bryan 1977 Contemporary Urban Ecology New York Macmillan

3 Ecology Scan Francisco W,II Freeman and Co

4 Enrich Paul and An nix L,S(1970),Population resources

And Environment issue in Human.



1 Introduction

    1. Urbanization and urbanism

    2. Community ,town ,city ,metropolis and polis

    3. Urban sociology scope and field of study

  1. The rise and decline of cities

    1. Origin of urban life

    2. The ancient city ecological patterns and social life

    3. The city in medieval ages

    4. The rise of modern city

  1. The growth of cities

    1. Factors in urbanization and urban growth

    2. Growth of cities planned development

    3. Trends of urbanization in Pakistan

  1. The ecology of the city

    1. human ecology meaning and relationship with urban sociology

    2. Location of the city

    3. Ecological process

    4. Symbiosis

    5. invasion

    6. Concentration

    7. Succession

    8. Segregation

    9. Urbanization

    10. The ecological pattern of Pakistani cities

    11. The land utilization and its pattern

    12. Theories of ecological pattern and utilization

  1. Town planning

    1. Social and welfare planning meaning need and scope

    2. House planning

    3. Neighborhood planning

    4. Voluntary associations

    5. The future of the city

Book Recommended

1 Bardot. John W (1982) Urban Sociology New York Mac

2 Berry Bryan (1977) Contemporary Urban Ecology New York Macmillan

3 Ecology San Francisco; W.II Freeman and Co.

4 Ehritich, Paul Rwanda An nix St(1970) Population resources and Environment issue in Human.
M.A (Final) PAPER IV


    1. Orientation to the study of social problems

    1. The Nature of Social problem

    2. Approach to the social problem

    3. Classification of social problems

    4. Role of sociologist in solving social problems

  1. Family Problems

2.1 Family as a basic institution .Joint Family system .its Merits and De-merits

2.2 Divorce marital adjustment, Broken Family, Parent- Child relationships

  1. Educational Problems

    1. Critical study of the present educational set up General Aims and objectives and of education

  1. Religious Problems

    1. Islam and its Impact on our Social life Religion and Science, Religion as a factor in national Integrating.

  1. Population Problems

    1. High Population growth ,causes and consequences Rural/Urban imbalance

Theories of Population.

  1. Economic and Agricultural Problems

    1. General characteristics of Agricultural Economy, low output unemployment water lagging salinity flood pests and crop diseases Rural/Urban migration Industrialization Un-employment and Under-employment, Agricultural credit Labor problems Labor reforms.

  1. Health and Sanitation Problems

    1. Physical, mental disease their causes Necessary measures in the interest of Health Policy Problems of youth and adolescent.

  1. Social evils

    1. Dirking Gambling Poverty Prostitution Dowry etc.

  1. Crime

Crime as Social Phenomenon .Theories of crime`s Causes ,Nature of Crime Kinds of Criminals Juvenile Delinquency .

  1. Problems Hindering Social change

    1. Beggary ,Child Labor ,Bundle Labor sex Discrimination Illiteracy and Child Education Health and Education

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