1.Education in Uzbekistan
a) Education authorities.
b) Secondary special education
c) Higher education.
2.Education in Britian
a) Education system
b) Private Education
The education system of the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of:
state and non-state educational institutions implementing educational programs in accordance with the state educational standards;
scientific and pedagogical organizations carrying out necessary researches for functioning and development of educational system;
public administration bodies in the field of education, as well as enterprises, institutions and organizations under their control. The education system of the Republic of Uzbekistan is unique and united. Education in the Republic of Uzbekistan is carried out in the following forms: - pre-school education; - General secondary education; - secondary special education; - Higher education; - postgraduate education; - professional development and retraining; - extracurricular education.
Education authorities. General management of the education system is carried out by the Cabinet of Ministers. The Cabinet of Ministers also manages branches of a separate higher education institution, Tashkent Islamic University, as well as branches of internationally renowned foreign universities (MSU, Westminster University, etc.).
The competence of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan includes:
pursuing a unified state education policy;
management of the state educational management bodies;
development and implementation of educational development programs;
establishment of procedures for establishment, reorganization and termination of educational institutions;
establishment of procedures for accreditation of educational institutions, attestation of pedagogical and scientific personnel;
issuance of permits to educational institutions of other countries, granting the right to education in the Republic of Uzbekistan;
Establishing the procedure for recognition of foreign educational documents in accordance with the legislation and establishing a strong coherence;
establishment of state educational standards;
establishment of the state educational certificates and the order of their issuance;
the procedure for admission to educational institutions and the amount of state grants;
appointment of rectors of state higher educational institutions;
establishment of the procedure for transfer of trainees from one accredited educational institution to another;
other powers provided by the legislation.
Two ministries - the Ministry of Public Education (HTV) and the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education - are responsible for direct management of education systems in Uzbekistan.
Preschool education system. Pre-school education is a primary part of continuing education. It prepares the child for a systematic training, stimulating the learning of the child by ensuring that he or she becomes a healthy and developed person. Preschool education for children aged 6-7 is provided by state and non-state preschools and families. The purpose of pre-school education is to prepare children for schooling, to form a healthy, well-developed, independent personality, to develop their abilities, to develop their desire for learning and systematic education. Protecting the life and health of children in preschools is provided by preschool and state medical staff, as well as health care personnel attached to the preschool.
Purposeful and systematic preparation of school children;
Development of children's abilities and talents;
Introduce children to national and universal achievements and cultural values, intellectual development of the child;
Formation at children of high moral and ethical foundations;
Strengthening of physical and mental health of children;
Social and charitable organizations, makhallyas, international funds actively participate in the realization of goals and objectives of preschool education. Preschool education in Uzbekistan is taught in the state language and in the Karakalpak, Russian, Tajik, Kyrgyz and Kazakh languages.
The system of general secondary education. The purpose of general secondary education is to equip the participants with systematic knowledge of the basics of science, skills and qualifications required for their activities in various areas of cultural and domestic, national economy, as well as special education (vocational, technical). , secondary, higher).
There is compulsory, free, 9-year general secondary education in Uzbekistan: primary (grades 1-4) and secondary (5-9 grades) divided into education.
Primary education is focused on the formation of the knowledge and skills necessary for general secondary education and the basics of literacy. Children in the first grade are 6-7 years old Primary education in Uzbekistan is compulsory, free and universal. This means that all school-age children go to primary or general (primary school children with or without developmental) primary school. Involvement of children in primary education is 100% of the appropriate age group. When a child completes elementary school, he / she must be able to read, write, and write. The learner will be taught the elements of theoretical thinking and the ability to control the actions taught. It also provides knowledge of speech culture, basics of personal hygiene, healthy lifestyles and how to behave in a community. The quality and circulation of academic subjects varies according to the primary school, the type of school and the learning environment. All first-graders are provided with free textbooks and manuals. Grade 1-9 students from low-income families have been provided with school supplies and winter clothing since 1996. The organization of primary and secondary education in Uzbekistan is directly linked to the structure and structure. Each secondary school provides secondary education at both levels. This will ensure full enrollment of primary school graduates and continuity in the system of general secondary education. General secondary education provides the necessary amount of knowledge, development of independent thinking, the foundation of organizational skills and practical experience, and helps in the selection of the primary vocational orientation and the next level of education.
In general, starting with the start-up makes sense, the quality of the content and the style are different. Participation in the general environment allows you to define your social creative status, develop passion, interest and abilities, and learn about the formation of people's personalities. Qualified specialists receive system knowledge from school science experts. Creating enhanced forms of education and the ability to think creatively. People are embracing the sense of self-esteem that will improve your place by accepting me as a child spiritually and culturally. The school offers a wide range of opportunities for students to enroll in independent learning. Components of the education and labor components. The mandatory component is defined by the state and sets the minimum level of training. Your home-based car is fully guaranteed. This component defines the basis of the public and public order, the interests and needs of the individual. Connecting students to the level of logistics and staffing of the school, the development of regional social and economic relations, depending on the student's ability and ability.
The amount of additional teaching tasks is distributed according to the standards set by the Ministry of Education. The educational work of the school is carried out through a basic education curriculum and general secondary education curriculum, approved by the Ministry of Public Education. General secondary education is provided through attendance and daily alumni certification. Graduates will be awarded state certificates, and those who have achieved success will be awarded with honors. Participants who independently develop the general education program will be eligible for externally certification in accordance with the Kesternan Regulation approved by the Ministry of Public Education. Secondary special education is a form of vocational education, the main purpose of which is the organization and management of the first level of production, assistants of the highest category, training of professionals, such as technicians, agronomists, primary school teachers, philharmonic, dentist, concertmaster, who can independently carry out a certain type of work requiring high qualification and skills. Specialists of ballet, circus artists and some art professionals are in the midst of special education. Secondary special education focuses on the development of professional skills and skills in a specific area, along with practical and theoretical knowledge in general secondary education. The three-year compulsory secondary specialized vocational education (SPCE) is an independent form of continuous education. It is implemented in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Education and the National Program for Personnel Training.
Secondary specialized vocational education has been compulsory since 2009, and graduates of general secondary education can choose to study at the discretion of an academic lyceum or vocational college. Secondary special education provides vocational education and vocational training to graduates in order to find their niche in the labor market. On the basis of general secondary education, each graduate may choose either a college or a vocational school or an academic lyceum. Secondary special vocational education is offered in full-time education in academic lyceums and vocational colleges.
In addition to vocational training, vocational colleges provide secondary special education, such as academic lyceums, which allow them to continue their education, whether or not they can continue their education.
The academic lyceum is a three-year specialized secondary education institution designed to enhance the intellectual capacity of students in accordance with the state educational standards based on their capabilities and interests. deep into the ground. Students in academic lyceums choose their education on a voluntary basis - in the humanities and natural sciences. Academic lyceums are open to higher education institutions and, as a rule, the main attention is paid to the involvement of highly qualified teachers of the higher educational institutions in the educational process of the lyceum, if necessary. to create conditions for their users to use.
The academic lyceum will also be involved if it is necessary for a focused, in-depth learning process at the academic lyceum. In these cases, as agreed with the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education.
Vocational colleges are secondary special and vocational educational institutions, with three years of training. In accordance with the state educational standards, the college provides vocational training and professional development with general secondary education and in-depth training. College graduates may pursue one or more professions based on their orientation.
Trustees are assigned to vocational colleges from businesses or institutions developed by local government executive bodies. It is also sponsored by a college that offers orientation to the college. The purpose of the educational institution is to provide secondary specialized vocational education. The college provides education on the basis of dual education system based on bilateral professional and educational programs.
General secondary education and vocational training programs are available in academic lyceums and vocational colleges:
In three stages.
At the end of each phase, the learning process is monitored to ensure that students' knowledge is complete.
The academic year consists of two semesters, with ten or 12 weeks of study. Students are organized into groups based on their courses and directions.
The auditorium for the academic lyceums and vocational colleges is 40 minutes. If necessary, a couple of hours can be combined
The system of higher education. Preparation of highly qualified specialists working in the field of higher education in the fields of economy, science, technology and culture, using the latest scientific, cultural, technical innovations and working out theoretical and practical problems is understood. The main purpose of higher education is to develop the scientific, cultural, economic and social spheres of the republic, which can meet the requirements of modern, highly qualified, competitive, highly educated, highly qualified specialists. It is the training of highly qualified professionals who contribute to z, independent thinking and high spirituality. The system of higher education is structured as follows:
higher educational institutions, implementing educational and vocational training programs on the basis of state educational standards, regardless of their own or state ownership;
research institutions, which are necessary for the development of higher education;
state educational institutions, as well as their affiliated enterprises, organizations and institutions.
Higher education has two stages: undergraduate and graduate.
A bachelor's degree is the first stage of a four-year course focused on theoretical and applied education. Upon completion of the undergraduate study, the student will be awarded a Bachelor Degree in accordance with the direction taught on the basis of the state attestation certificate and will be awarded a state diploma. Postgraduate study is a two-year higher education course that provides both theoretical and practical knowledge and can continue on a competitive basis only after completing a bachelor's degree. Graduates will be awarded a Master's Degree in accordance with the State Certification Commission and a diploma in the state sample. Bachelor and Master Degree diplomas of the state sample allow diplomas holders to continue their professional activities or continue their education at the institution.
Higher education institutions. Higher education institutions have legal status. There are the following types of higher education institutions in the Republic:
University - Provides comprehensive education for students in the field of higher education in order to pursue further education in the field of study;
Academy - Prepares a specific course for further study while pursuing higher education as well as higher education;
The institute - as all higher education institutions - carries out the higher education program, with one-direction education.
The main purpose of higher education is to develop the scientific, cultural, economic and social spheres of the republic, which can meet the requirements of modern, highly qualified, competitive, highly educated, highly qualified specialists. It is the training of highly qualified professionals who are able to think independently and contribute to their spirituality.
State Education in Britain.
All state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment for their studies. Education is compulsory from 5 to 16 years. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a pre-school play group to prepare them for the start of compulsory education. Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are 11. At primary school children become acquainted with Reading, Writing, Arithmetic and develop their creative abilities, they are taught to sing, dance, play, draw. Primary children do all their work with the same class teacher, except for physical education and music, which are often taught by specialists. Most children are taught together, boys and girls in the same class. At 11 most pupils go to secondary schools called comprehensives with accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds and religious and ethnic groups. Ninety per cent of secondary schools in England, Scotland and Wales are co-educational.
At 16 pupils take a national exam called “GCSE” (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education. Some 16-year olds continue their studies in the 6th form at school or at a sixth form college. The 6th form prepares pupils for a national exam called “A” level (Advanced Level) at 18. Pupils need “A” levels to enter a university. Other 16-year olds choose a college of further education to study hairdressing, typing or mecanics. Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with “A” levels from 18.Students study for a degree, which takes on average three years of fulltime study. Most students graduate at 21 and are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony.
Seven per cent of British Schoolchildren go to private schools. There are 3 levels of private schools: primary schools (age four to eight), preparatory schools (age eight to thirteen). At the age of 13 children take an examination. If they pass it, they go to public school, where they usually remain until they are 18. Many preparatory and most public schools are boarding schools, the children live at school during the school terms. But though these schools are called public, they are, in fact, private and it can be very expensive to send a child to such a school.
The most famous public schools have a long history and tradition. It is often necessary to put a child’s name on a waiting list at birth to be sure he or she get a place. Children of wealthy or aristocratic families often go to the same public school as their parents and their grandparents. Eton is the best known of these schools.
It is situated in Eton, a town about 20 miles west of London, on the River Thames. The school was founded in 1440 by King Henry 4, and some of the original buildings are still standing. Many famous figures from British public life were educated at Eton. Immediately opposite Eton, across the Thames, is Windsor, a town which is closely associated with Eton. Windsor Castle, the largest castle in England and a favourite home of the Royal family, dominates the skyline the town.
Traditionally, public schools were always single-sex schools but now many of them are becoming co-educational, both boys and girls attend the school. Eton, however, still remains a public school for boys only
System of education of Great Britain
1. (simplified circuit of education of Great Britain)
Initial school education 5-12 years preparatory schools 5-7 years of elementary schools, 7-12 years of a day time type (private(individual) and state) or boarding-schools (as a rule, private(individual)); schools for the boys, school for the girls, school of joint training Average school education 11-18 years. Five obligatory classes for reception of the certificate GCSE:
- Various schools and colleges of a day time type or boarding-schools (private (individual) and state);
- School for the boys, school for the girls, school of joint training;
- Certificate GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) - analogue of the Russian school-leaving certificate; the further education - not necessarily Sixth class 1-2 academic years for reception of the certificate GCE - A Level (General Certificate of Education Advanced Level) or preparatory rates 16-18 years various schools and colleges of a day time type or boarding-schools (private (individual) and state);
- School for the boys, school for the girls, school of joint training; the certificate GCE - A Level or diploma about the termination (ending) of preparatory rates - necessary condition for receipt in high school the Further education 2-year's training in private(individual) or state college or institute on one of academic or professional specialties;
- Reception of the maximum national diploma - HND (Higher National Diploma) Maximum education 3-4 years training on day time branch of college, polytechnic institute or university on one of the academic or professional programs;
- Reception of a degree of the bachelor Maximum education 1-2 years of study on day time branch of polytechnic institute or university, including training or research job and protection of the diploma;
- Reception of a degree of the Foreman Maximum education 1-3 years of independent research job at university under the direction of the professors, protection of the dissertation;
- Reception of a degree of the doctor.
However highly the British education in the world, nevertheless in middle fifties was appreciated. The government of Great Britain has begun reformAll system, from an elementary school up to high school. Completely this reform is not completed and to this day. In result today in the country some types of high schools peacefully coexist, for example. The base educational minimum is legislatively fixed which should be given by (with) any school is not dependent on a type and programs of training. Obligatory secondary education (children also is study till 15-16 of years), and this obligatory education - free-of-charge. The graduates of high schools pass examinations and, as well as our Russian schoolboys, receive first in life the certificate - GCSE, however as against the Russian analogue GCSE does not give the right to act in high schools. After that the young people appear before a choice - either to look for job, or to continue to study.The old system of high schools was saved in some areas of a countryside. Here after termination (ending) an elementary school by results of test.
Examinations children are distributed (allocated) for three types of high schools - most capable act in special school, others direct or to technical schools, or in modern school. At average technical schools is given general educational, general technical and initial professional training. The modern school was so is named because in the base program of training there were no ancient languages (Latin and ancient Greek), were taught only modern. At these schools the usual secondary education is given, but the significant part of the program is made by (with) practical employment (occupations). At once after leaving school the graduates basically act on job.
The reorganization of high school has resulted that in large cities the complex schools for children from 11 till 18 years have appeared. About it will be in detail told in the chapter devoted high school. High school finishing by examinations GCSE, - five years. Those who is going to further to act in high school, should end the sixth class and pass examination on the certificate GCE - A Level – general (common) certificate on the profound educational level. If to compare our system of education to English, the certificate GCE - A Level actually corresponds (meets) to the document on the termination (ending) of preparatory rates of high school, in which you are going to act. The terms " the sixth class" and "the programs of an And - level" are in Great Britain nominal and designate the various programs and rates conducting to reception GCE - A Level. For receipt in high schools in Great Britain besides schools there are colleges of the sixth class, younger biennial colleges and it is simple colleges, in which teach not only general educational subjects of the sixth class, but also professional disciplines.
After the certificate GCE - A Level is received, before the young people the further and maximum education is open. The term "maximum education" concerns to the programs, which purpose - award of a degree of the bachelor, foreman or doctor. " The Further education " of an academic degree does not give, it, as a rule, professional training. The rate of the "further" training is finished by examinations and reception of the maximum national diploma HND. In the field of vocational training the diplomas given by one of three professional committees are most appreciated: CGLI (City and Guilds of London Institute), RSA (Royal Society of Arts), BTEC (Business and Technical Education Council). Many colleges and institutes are authorized to give out the diplomas on behalf of one of these three committees. Other educational institutions give out or own diplomas and certificates, or diplomas of other examination committees.
The diploma HND is important for receiving by the one who is going to at once to begin job on the elected specialty and is not going to be protected on a degree of the bachelor. From the point of view of professional career, this diploma allows to advance on a service within the limits of the average technical or younger administrative board of firm. Besides having this diploma, it is possible to enter university (if all the same are convinced of necessity of maximum education), and to begin training at once from the second rate. Maximum education the Englishmen receive in colleges, polytechnic institutes and universities. After 3-4 years of study on day time branch the youth receives a degree of the bachelor. Having this degree, it is possible to count on a good post in a non-production part or average administrative board private(individual) or state-owned firm, at the industrial enterprise, or to open own private(individual) practice (for doctors and lawyers).
The degree of the bachelor suffices for some trades, and further education it is not required. But for the majority of specialties the degree of the foreman opens much more opportunities. For example, having the bachelor's degree of medicine, it is possible to work in clinic or to have small private (individual) practice. But to head branch in any hospital or even the whole clinic, the diploma of the foreman is necessary for expansion of private (individual) practice.
The degree of the foreman approximately corresponds (meets) to our diploma about maximum education, and degree of the doctor - degree of the candidate of sciences in Russia. The equivalent of a degree of the doctor of sciences in Great Britain does not exist. There is a number (line) of general (common) important features, characteristic for all universities. All of them appropriate (give) own degrees. Everyone have the identical requirements at reception on training under the program of the bachelor. The large universities such as London inside themselves are subdivided into colleges. These colleges are a part of university and give education on the certain specialty. Separately in structure of university the colleges specializing on preparation of the entrants to receipt on the basic programs (faculties) of university, improvement of professional skill of the experts, teaching of English language for the foreigners are allocated. The small universities are subdivided into faculties, and the name of colleges is appropriated (given) to preparatory branches and language rates of the large universities. Polytechnic institutes. The system of polytechnic institutes works in parallel university. Under the status all institutes are independent educational corporations. They appropriate (give) the diplomas and degrees on its own behalf or on behalf of the national authorized Advice (council) CNAA. On many parameters these institutes are very similar to universities, but have a number (line) of differences. Most important: in polytechnic institute it is possible to study wider spectrum of rates, than it is necessary on the chosen specialty. The second feature is the semi-annual or annual course job on a specialty which is carried out in one of the commercial or industrial companies. As well as university, the polytechnic institute gives education under the program of the bachelor, and then foreman and doctor. Recently some of polytechnic institutes were renamed into universities, but the features of training in them were saved.
Colleges of maximum education. It is the third variant of reception of maximum education in Great Britain. The colleges award nationally the recognized degrees and diplomas both on academic, and on professional disciplines. The graduates of colleges receive the maximum national diploma HND or degree of the bachelor, and the diplomas are awarded after each successfully finished program. The colleges seldom have rates under the program of the foreman and practically never are engaged in preparation of the students under the program of a scientific degree of the doctor of philosophy. Many colleges have special preparatory rates, at which successful termination (ending) the graduates are enlisted without examinations and competition for the further training under the program of the bachelor in polytechnic institutes and universities.
In Great Britain 30.000 comprehensive schools and 2300 – private (individual), named "independent sector" work. The majority of comprehensive schools (from 60 up to 90%) - mixed. The private schools work as mixed basically for the younger schoolboys, the training in the senior classes is conducted separately. In comprehensive schools children study, as a rule, complete day, the educational week makes 5 days. In England and Wales the school year proceeds since September till July. In Scotland - from middle of August till the end of June, in Northern Ireland - since September till July. The academic year is divided (shared) into three terms for 13 weeks everyone.
To go in school to children 2-4 years in England and Wales it is absolutely not necessary. Moreover, the parents and prefer to give back them in children's gardens having programs of preschool preparation, or in private (individual) groups organized frequently by parents. There are also special commercial groups, in which children train on the special techniques, for example on a method Montessori. In Ireland the system kindergarten of preschool education is not so advanced. Probably, therefore per 4 years in school is sent much more than children, than in other parts of Britain.
The obligatory education begins in England, Wales and Scotland - per 5 years, in Northern Ireland - per 4 years. Per 11 years in all parts of Great Britain children pass in high school (except for Scotland, where children translate per 12 years).
The elementary schools are different. Irrespective of a type of school the schoolboys should pass an obligatory base rate of an elementary school, thus the administration has the right independently to decide(solve), what subjects, in what volume and in what class are studied, under what manuals and techniques the teaching is conducted. A natural consequence is that fact, that learned for the certain period by the schoolboys of different schools the educational material does not coincide.
Now there are four types of high schools.
In Municipal technological colleges (MTC) most gifted children act, from which prepare the experts of a high class in the field of modern technologies and business; in 1992 of such colleges was only 14. MTC - the special educational institutions, in which are taught obligatory subjects of a general (common) cycle, but.
The most serious attention is given to teaching of subjects having the attitude (relation) to modern business, especially information technologies. To technological college can turn and usual school, if she is located, for example, in a countryside or industrial town, where the demand is much higher the experts, than on the graduate without special knowledge. The most part of financing of technological colleges gradually will be undertaken by (with) local business concerns. The majority of children (90%) England, the Wales and Scotland visit (attend) comprehensive schools. It is explained by that in these schools accept all children irrespective of abilities and train in all subjects, which enter into a base rate of high school. It is analogue of our usual regional schools without the profound study of subjects. From here teenagers who have reached (achieved) 16 years, are sent or in 6th form colleges, or in tertiary colleges.
About 4% of children become the schoolboys grammar schools are children shown abilities and proved, that they can study under the programs of an academic structure. Besides, by analogy, it some kind of our specialized schools with that difference, that in our specialized schools is profound teach one or several subjects, and at the British schools a level of teaching on all basic disciplines - profound. Children here study up to 18 and even 19 years.
Education is definitely important in one`s life. A gift of knowledge can bring us to the top of our dreams. It leads us to the right path and gives us a chance to have a wonderful life. Education makes people capable of doing new interesting things that can go a long way to improving human living conditions and standards. Our whole life is the process of learning and gaining new useful knowledge. We should always remember that getting a good education is imperative in today`s society as it is a foundation of our successful future. Our education is really worth investment. Only if you believe and work hard you can achieve anything.
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