What do you know about vitamins? II. Complete the sentences with words or expressions from the box. Nutrition: What is it and why is it important?



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What do you know about vitamins? 
II. Complete the sentences with words or expressions from the box. 
Nutrition: What is it and why is it important? 
Nutrition, nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials - food - required by 
1.
______________ and cells to stay alive. In science and human medicine, nutrition is the science 
or practice of consuming and utilizing foods.
In hospitals, nutrition may refer to the food 
2.
______________ of patients, including 
nutritional solutions delivered via an IV (intravenous) or IG (intragastric) tube. Nutritional 
3.
______________ studies how the body breaks food down (catabolism) and how it repairs and 
creates cells and tissue (anabolism). Catabolism and anabolism combined can also be referred to 
as 
4.
_____________. Nutritional science also examines how the body responds to food.As 
molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics 
5.
______________, nutrition has become more 
focused on metabolism and metabolic pathways - biochemical steps through which 
6.
______________ inside us are transformed from one form to another.Nutrition also focuses on 
how diseases, conditions, and problems can be prevented or reduced with a 
7.
_____________ 
diet. Similarly, nutrition involves identifying how certain 
8.
_____________ and conditions may 
be caused by dietary factors, such as poor diet (malnutrition), food allergies, and food 
intolerances. 
LESSON 5 ESP: NUTRITION 
science healthy organisms metabolism substances diseases
requirements advance 


III. Read the following some information about vitamins and say whenever you have had to 
have following the doctor’s advice. Why? Note:
Fiber 
consists mostly of carbohydrates. However, because it is not easily absorbed by the body, 
not much of the sugars and starches get into the blood stream. Fiber is a crucial part of nutrition, 
health, and fuel for gut bacteria. 
Iron. 
What it does - required for proteins and enzymes, especially hemoglobin, the oxygen-
carrying compound in blood.Deficiency - anemia.Excess - iron overload disorder; iron deposits 
can form in organs, particularly the heart. 
Chloride. 
What it does - key for producing stomach acid, important in the transport of molecules 
between cells, and vital for the proper functioning of nerves.Deficiency - hypochloremia - low 
salt levels, which, if severe, can be very dangerous. Excess - hyperchloremia - usually no 
symptoms, linked with excessive fluid loss. 
Magnesium. 
What it does - processes ATP; required for good bones and management of proper 
muscle movement. Hundreds of enzymes rely on magnesium to work properly.Deficiency - 
hypomagnesemia - irritability of the nervous system with spasms of the hands and feet, muscular 
twitching and cramps, constipation, and larynx spasms.Excess - hypermagnesemia - nausea, 
vomiting, impaired breathing, low blood pressure. Very rare, but may occur if patient has renal 
problems. 
Calcium. 
What it does - important for muscle, heart, and digestive health. Builds bone, assists in 
the synthesis and function of blood cells.Deficiency - hypocalcaemia - muscle cramps, 
abdominal cramps, spasms, and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes.Excess - hypercalcemia - 
muscle weakness, constipation, undermined conduction of electrical impulses in the 
heart, calcium stones in the urinary tract, impaired kidney function, and impaired absorption of 
iron, leading to iron deficiency. 
Zinc
. What it does - required by many enzymes. Important for reproductive organ growth. Also 
important in gene expression and regulating the nervous and immune systems.Deficiency - short 
stature, anemia, increased pigmentation of skin, enlarged liver and spleen, impaired reproductive 
function, impaired wound healing, and immune deficiency.Excess - suppresses copper and iron 
absorption. 
Sodium.
What it does - a systemic electrolyte, and essential in regulating ATP with potassium. 
Important for nerve function and regulating body fluid levels.Deficiency - hyponatremia - causes 
cells to malfunction; extremely low sodium can be fatal. Excess - hypernatremia - can also cause 
cells to malfunction, extremely high levels can be fatal. 
Iodine.
What it does - required for the biosynthesis of thyroxine (one type of thyroid 
hormone).Deficiency - developmental delays, enlarged thyroid gland (in the neck), 
and fatigue.Excess - can affect the function of the thyroid gland. 


 
 
Homework: 1. Task. Answer following questions. 
1.What is Nutrition? 
2.Nutrition – is useful or harmful?
3. Why is nutrition important for healthy life? 
2.Task. Give the definition following words. (paraphrase) 
Fiber 
Chloride. 
Magnesium. 
Sodium. 
Iodine. 
Zinc 
Calcium. 
Iron. 
HOME ASSIGNMENT 

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