Variant №1. Translate into Uzbek

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Variant №1.

  1. Translate into Uzbek:


The term computer is used to describe a device made up of a combi­nation of electronic and electromechanical (part electronic and part mechan­ical) components. Computer has no intelligence by itself and is referred to as hardware. A computer system is a combination of five elements:

  • Hardware

  • Software

  • People

  • Procedures

  • Data/information

When one computer system is set up to communicate with another com­puter system, connectivity becomes the sixth system element. In other words, the manner in which the various individual systems are connected — for example, by phone lines, microwave transmission, or satellite — is an element of the total computer system.

Software is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. Without software instructions, the hardware doesn't know what to do.

People, however, are the most important component of the computer system: they create the computer software instructions and respond to the procedures that those instructions present.

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Variant № 2.

1. Translate into Uzbek:

Islam Karimov: the President of Republic of Uzbekistan (1)

Islam Abduganievich Karimov was born on January 30, 1938, in the city of Samarkand in the family of a professional worker. He is an ethnic Uzbek. He graduated from the Central Asian Polytechnical Institute and the Tashkent Institute of National Economy with diplomas in Mechanical Engineering and Economy.

In 1960 he began his working career in the ‘Tashselmash’ plant. Between 1961-1966 he worked in the Tashkent aircraft building plant, named after V.P. Chkalov as an engineer and a leading engineer-designer.

In 1966 he began working for the State Planning Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan, where he was promoted from Chief Specialist to First Deputy Chairman.

In 1983 I. Karimov was appointed as the Minister of Finance and in 1986 as Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers and the Chairman of the State Planning Committee.

Between 1986 and 1989 he worked as a First Secretary of the Kashka-Darya Regional Party Committee. From 1989 he was the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan (CC CPU).

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Variant №3.

1. Translate into Uzbek:


Software is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. Without software instructions, the hardware doesn't know what to do.

People, however, are the most important component of the computer system: they create the computer software instructions and respond to the procedures that those instructions present.

The basic job of the computer is the processing of information. Com­puters accept information in the form of instruction called a program and characters called data to perform mathematical and logical operations, and then give the results. The data is raw material while information is orga­nized, processed, refined and useful for decision making. Computer is used to convert data into information. Computer is also used to store information in the digital form.

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Variant №4.

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Computer engineering is now the most rapidly growing field. The electronics of computers involve engineers in design and manufacture of memory systems, of central processing units, and of peripheral devices. The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering; howev­er, the task of making computers more «intelligent» (artificial intelligence), through creation of sophisticated programs or development of higher level machine languages or other means, is generally regarded as the aim of com­puter science.

One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization. Engineers try to place greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and web browser, providers, link, WWW smaller chips. Another trend is towards increasing the speed of computer operations through the use of parallel processors and superconducting materials.

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Variant №5.

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The Main Parts of the System

There are many hardware pieces in a computer system. Some are: the system board, power supply, keyboard, mouse, hard drive, monitor and the video card' and its drivers.

The Case

The large metal box that is the main part of the computer is called the case. The case and its contents (power supply, system board, etc.) is called the system unit. The case has several functions:

  • Protects the delicate electronics inside.

  • Keeps electromagnetic emissions inside so your TV, cordless phone, and stereo don't go haywire when you power up the computer.

  • Can also hold the monitor.

Don't remove the case's cover unless you need to do something in­side the unit, and always replace the cover when you are done.

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Variant № 6.

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Information stored within an electronic computer is of two types: 1) data to be processed and 2) programming instruction. If we could look at a particular memory cell, or storage position, within a computer and find characters stored there, without special information we would have no way of knowing whether these stored characters represent data or programming instructions. This concept may seem strange. To understand it better, we need to know how the computer receives its instructions and carries out the various operations.

Computers with internally stored programming, select memory po­sitions one by one to determine their operations. The stored characters, as read from memory into the computer section, are interpreted by the machine as a specified operation. For example, memory position 129 may contain «W527».

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Variant №7.

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The mouse

The mouse works by sliding it around (ball down) on a flat surface. The mouse does not work if you hold it in the air like a remote control! The desktop is fine, but a ready-made mouse pad is the best surface to roll the mouse on. Its surface is flat and usually somewhat textured. If a surface is too smooth or rough, the ball inside can slip. As you glide the mouse, the ball inside moves in the direction of your movement. You will see the arrow on your screen moving in unison. The arrow is called a pointer, and the most important part is the very tip of its point. That's the only part the computer pays attention to. To use the mouse, slide it on the mousepad until the poin­ter's point is on something, like a button or an icon. Then:

Click - position the mouse pointer over an element and press and release the left mouse button one time.

Double-click - same as above except press the mouse button twice in quick succession without moving the mouse between clicks. It may take a little practice to not twitch the mouse when you first start double-clicking. Usual­ly you double-click on an icon to start the program.

Drag - position the mouse pointer over an element, press and hold the left mouse button, and drag the mouse across the screen. The pointer moves, dragging the element. At the desired location, release the mouse button. The pointer lets go of whatever it was dragging,

An excellent way to practice using the mouse is to play the Solitaire game that comes with Windows.

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Variant № 8.

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Your computer is not complete without the monitor, a TV-like de­vice that usually sits on top of the computer. The monitor displays text cha­racters and graphics. It allows you to see the results of the work going on inside your system unit. The image that you see is made up of tiny dots called pixels. The sharpness of the picture depends on the number and size of these pixels. The more pixels, the sharper the image. This is called resolu­tion.A display adapter card is actually what builds the video images; the or simply displays them. The display adapter for your system is either onto the system board or is an expansion card plugged into your board.

If you sit in front of a monitor for long periods of time, eye strain can be reduced if you follow a few guidelines:

  • Use the computer in a room with even lighting. Adjust the controls en the monitor to vary the contrast and brightness of the display to suit the lighting in the room.

  • Keep the screen clean,

  • Adjust your chair so that you are looking down at the screen at a slight angle

  • Turn the monitor away from windows and bright lights to avoid glare.

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Variant №9.

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The keyboard

You communicate with your computer with the keyboard. With it, you type instructions and commands for the computer, and information to be processed and stored. Many of the keys on the keyboard are like those type­writer; letter keys, punctuation keys, shift keys, tab, and the Your keyboard also has many specialized keys.

The instruction manuals for most software applications contain sec­tion describing the functions of each key or combination of keys,

The floppy drive

Floppy drives provide a way to pass files to and from the hard drive or to and from another computer. At Gateway 2000, we install either of two types of floppy disk drives:

  • 3.5-inch 1.44MB drives, usually drive A:

  • Combo drives (includes both a 3.5-inch 1.44MB drive and a 5.25-inch 1.2MB drive, called drive A: and drive B: respectively).

The drives can read and write on floppy diskettes. If you put a brand new diskette into the drive, the computer cannot read it. You have to format it first.

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Variant №10.

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The hard drive

Unlike the floppy drive, the hard disk drive is inside the computer's case and you cannot see ft. Usually it is referred to as drive C:. Hard drives also hold a lot of data. The smallest hard drives Gateway 2000 offers hold more information than 100 floppies! The size of a hard drive is measured in megabytes, or MB for short.

The CD-ROM drive

The CD-ROM drive installed in your Gateway 2000 computer is similar to the one(s) you might have in your home or car. It can play music CDs as well as read software program CDs and the new Kodak photo CDs.

The amount and variety of material you can access with CD-ROM is amazing, particularly when you realize that a CD disc holds over 600MB of data! As far as your computer is concerned, the CD-ROM is just another hard drive, except that, although you can read from it, you can't save any­thing to it.

To operate the drive, press the Eject button to open the tray. Put a CD in the tray (label side UP!) and gently start to push the tray in. The motor takes over and pulls the tray the rest of the way in.

You can play ordinary music CDs if your system has speakers or if you plug earphones into the jack in the front of the drive.

3. Write a short essay: Uzbekistan.

Variant №11.

1. Translate into Uzbek:

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