Problems of Research of Islamic Literature in Kazakhstan

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Problems of Research of Islamic Literature in Kazakhstan
Farida K. Atabayeva, Muhammad-Hussain U. Alsabekov

KEYWORDS Spirituality. Kazakhstan. Muslim literature. Religion. Folklore.
ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the development of written and oral traditions of Kazakh religious literature during the XIX - early XX centuries. Under the religious literature is traditionally considered a great spiritual body of Islamic literature, covering both the actual theological literature - a lot of comments to the Holy Qur'an (Hadith), different interpretations of its provisions, the literature on Islamic jurisprudence (shari'at), and also the richest literature in its thematic diversity, content and form of fiction, which has its roots in the history of Islam and incorporates the philosophy of religion. The predominant focus is paid to the history of formation and development of Kazakh religious literature, its written and oral traditions.

Despite significant and important achievements of Kazakh folklore and literature it is obvious that there are many layers and periods in the history of folklore and literature, as well as genres, above all, folk that has not yet become an object of scientific analysis. Especially it concerns the period of the history of folklore and literature of the end XIX - early XX centuries. This was connected with a focused and systematic policy of the Communist Party and , as well as, was in the service of the state apparatus of the former Soviet Union, which had a goal to create a supranational unified ideology, based on the slogans of the ruling party, to force people to live the same standards imposed by the totalitarian regime. For fulfilling that it was necessary to make people forget the past: religion, history, culture, language, customs, etc. First of all, it concerned the traditional religions of the nations of the former Soviet republics, and everything connected with religion for example, literature, which always reflected directly or indirectly the religious beliefs of the people.

Religion is an essential component of the spirituality of the people. In this sense, the statements of Absattar Derbisali Haji, former chairman of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Kazakhstan, Supreme Mufti, Doctor of philological sciences, Professor about religion is actual and reasonably: "Culture, literature, arts, traditions and mentality of the Kazakhs ‘have grown’ from Islam ... Religion is the source of the spiritual heritage for us and at the same time the guarantor of life, peace and independence … as the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev had said: ‘We are the Turks, our religion is Islam’. Our spiritual heritage must been considered through the prism of this historical reality". [1]

Already in the IX century, many Turkic people were in the sphere of influence of the Islamic civilization. "The era of the Muslim Middle Ages in Central Asia and southern Kazakhstan is characterized by phenomena in the spiritual culture of the Turks, the synthesis of Islamic monotheistic doctrine, which mostly impacted on the ideological level in the works of akyns-zhyraus during the epoch of collapse the Golden Horde and formation of the Kazakh Khanate. The contents of Mahmud Kashgari’s and Yusuf Balasaguni’s works were related to to the philosophy and ideology of Islam - the consolidating state religion in the region. Ahmet Yasawi’s works represented a special type of spiritual philosophy and mysticism, called Sufism. In the works of Ahmet Yasawi and other Sufi were formed typological aesthetic principles of religious poetry, which eventually reflected in the literature of the Kazakh poets of religious orientation of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, namely the cultivation of the idea of the ​​Allah as the supreme soterological values ​​of personal salvation - enlightenment, ecstatic love to the Allah; perception of fate as the way to truth, the actualization of the concept of righteousness, the development of the eschatological doctrine "[2]. And most importantly, the contents and the leitmotifs of all the poetry of Ahmed Yasawi, as it known, were all-consuming love for the Allah.

"Diwani I-Lugat al-Turk (Arabic: ‘Compendium of the languages of the Turks’)" of Mahmud Kashgari - representing the encyclopedic historical and philological essay begins with the traditional praise of the Creator - Almighty Allah, and each part is thanking the Almighty Allah.

Holy Scriptures about the culture were recognized by Islamic scholars in the middle Ages and even before Imam al-Suyuti. That issue has been affected differently in modern science as well as in European and national.

There are numerous folk stories related to the topic of spreading (military campaigns of conquest and subjugation of the heathen nations, etc.) Islam in Asia. N.F. Katanov suggests two stories in two Tatar manuscripts found in the library of Tobolsk provincial museum. Name of the two works he united under the title "On the religious warriors followers of Sheikh Bahauddin against the natives of Western Siberia", which are legends about the Islamization of the people inhabiting the vast territories of West Siberia, much of which was the land inhabited by nomads - Turkic nomads [3].

According to Muslim chronology, 797 was a year full of true friendship with Islam. In Bukhara, while Khan Abul Laith, with high guidance and permission of the founder of the dervish order Naqshbandi holy Ishan Khodja Bachau al-Haqq wa-d-Din gathered 366 sheikhs from all kinds of cities of Eastern and Western countries in the light of its various miracles and conversations became genuine followers of him. But these holy people lived, disparting in different years into three parts: one part was under the aegis of sheikhs and engaged in secret glorification of God and prayer, another part lived near Bukhara and taught people in the villages to science, third part waged war with the Gentiles for the faith. "When the time of the war for the faith had come, (followers) gathered in front of the holy Ishan Khodja Bachau al-Haqq wa-d-Din, and waited, in what direction will follow his highest designation. After the morning prayer the Khodja, turning his blessing face to sheikhs, said: "In many historical books I saw the following. When the Commander of the Faithfuls’ Ali went and permeated through Hindustan he preached Islam in Chin and Machin, i.e. in China: half of China converted to Islam, and half was laid under tribute. But a number of rebels revolted, fled the country of Targay Khan and escaped from the sword of Ali the Commander of the Faithfuls’, ran to the river, known among the Turks under the name of the Irtysh, and in Tajik Abi Jarus, flowing to the west. There were settled nomads: Hotan people and the people of Nogai and Kara-Kipchak. Going into their environment, they (i.e. who escaped from China by the sword of the Caliph Ali) stopped and began to live with them, but did not have true faith and true concepts - all of them were Tatars worshiping dolls (i.e. idols). Now, listen to my orders: invite (them) to practice the Islam; If they (your invitation) will not be accepted, then perpetrate them great war for the faith!" When they heard the orders of (Ishan Khoja Bachau al-Haqq wa-d-Din), above mentioned all 366 sheikhs got onto the horses and declared: " Your orders on our heads (i.e. willing to fulfill your orders)!" and all 366 sheikhs on their horses came to the Khan Sheibani in the steppes of Central Horde and became his guests. The fourth son of Jochi Khan Sheibani ruled the Kazakh steppe, between the Urals and the Syr Darya. "He learned about the circumstances of these holy people and expressed his unanimity, armed his 1700 heroes to a major war for the faith, went with them on horseback down to the river Irtysh and inflicted a great battle for faith. There were lived three different nations along the river Irtysh at that time: the first nation was Hotan, the second nation was Nogai and the third nation was Kara-Kipchak (and later others) the fourth nation was the fleeing rebels of Tarhan Khan, who arrived to live with them, the fifth nation was Ostyak people which were also helping them, participated in the battle, because they were of the same faith. The mentioned sheikhs united with Sheibani there and fought as true brave heroes. They destroyed a large number of Gentiles and Tatars fighting so that on the banks of the Irtysh there was not a ravine nor river, where they had fought, and they did not give Gentiles even the possibility to run (literally: the face of the earth became tight), but 300 sheikhs horsemen courted martyrdom from themselves, one fallen on land, others on the water someone in the swamp. Fugitives of Targay Khan returned and fled to China, Ostyak people fled into the forest, some of the people of Hotan, Nogai and Kara-Kipchak confessed the faith of Islam, and some, though saved sensible unharmed, after all, having encountered the wrath of sheikhs, partly weakened partly became mad and frightened, too, turned to the faith of Islam and could not run further. Ostyaks later became the Gentiles and lost their faith (i.e.Islam). Heroes of Sheibani Khan, 1448 people fell down and courted martyrdom; Sheibani Khan with the remaining 252 heroes went to the people of the Middle Horde in the steppe areas and there he was known as Wali Khan, i.e. saint Khan because he made great war for the faith with the Saints, and 300 sheikhs riders courted degree as martyrdoms. From survived 66, three riders were left there and began to teach the basics of the faith for those nations as Nogai, Hotan and Kara-Kipchak, who confessed Islam. The Khojas and sheikhs from Tobolsk, Tara, Tyumen and Tomsk belonged to their offspring. 63 rider went to Bukhara and reported their cases to Khoja Bachau al-Haqq wa-d-Din. Then there appeared the faith (Islamic), and opened the ways (so that) along the Irtysh where caravans passed and scientists, khojas and ishans run down there for the sake of teaching the faith; most of them were people who could do miracles" [4]. In addition, Ishan Khoja Devlet Shah, son of Shah Abd al-Wahhab, from Aspichap arrived there from Bukhara through that Irtysh. He visited nomadic Kalmyk lands and led Kalmyk Khan Huntaychzhi to faith (Islam), then came back there and on the banks of the Irtysh River opened 18 mausoleums. Many believers turned to him and became (his) sincere followers. Then Sheikh Iskander of Memlyan came from Khorezm and opened nine mausoleums. Among the first sheikhs was respected Sherpeti, the younger brother of Sheikh Nazar and Sheikh Biriya who came there for teaching the faith.

These names of historical figures of Islam were confirmed by two mentioned above manuscripts published by N.F. Katanov. At the end of one manuscript written: "This writing from Hass -΄Ainu wsa done by Mullah Halvet of Yarkand, rewrote it Kashshaf Abu Saidov".

Rich oral-poetic work of the Kazakh people for a long time was under the influence of Islam and the Muslim literature and borrowed a lot in the process of adaptation of ethnic, has brought into oral folklore of the people a lot of ideas, themes, motifs mostly dating back to the book of the Arab-Muslim origins. Characters of Kazakh folklore religious - are not only direct borrowings (translations) from the Arab-Muslim literature, but free transcriptions of stories extrapolated to the national environment, interpolated variants (modifications, national adaptation), or transformed images, adapted to national circumstances and mixed with the traditional Turkish-Kazakh legends. Concluding they are kind of symbiosis books of Arab-Persian culture and literature, which have penetrated into Kazakhstan, together with Islam, with Arabic script and with the Arabic and Persian languages.

It should be noted that the set of Koranic characters, plots, and those involved in the creative process of akyns (poets) were introduced on Kazakh soil is not by simply borrowing or literal translation, but was due to a deep creative rethinking the boundaries of traditional beliefs, was common among the people.


XIX century - a prolific and complex period of Kazakh literature, differ by variety of literary models. During this period, the creative people were not just as poets or writers, they played the role of public figures, expressing the aspirations and hopes of the nation. And Kazakh literature is rich with these poets. It was noticed in the spiritual life of the people. Therefore, as the most advanced members of the public who have received comprehensive knowledge - Russian and Muslim education - certainly to some extent influenced the minds and sentiments of the people. Thus, the change taking place in the social life in its turn, were reflected in folk art. The Soviet system and its totalitarian regime did not contribute to the full study of the works of religious content in the Kazakh literature. Therefore, we can safely say that the study of religious literature genres were under the censorship prohibition.

At the end of the XIX century under the rule of Russia, there were about 10 million Muslims Sunnis, who were divided into four main groups: the Tatar-Bashkir, Caucasian, Central Asian and Kazakh. The number of Muslims of Central Asian region, including Kazakhs, reached up to 5 million people.

At the time when the Islamic religion completely penetrated into all spheres of life of the ancestors of the Kazakhs (about the end of the tenth century), there was a need to revise the old legends and superstitions, as they contradict the new Muslim realities. You can change the religion and even language, but to change the customs and habits is very difficult, especially when they are merged with the mentality of the people. These beliefs seem to have arisen among the ancient Turks, at the time when they were vulnerable to natural elements and therefore worshiped the various forces of nature. Instead of the pagan rituals, people began to pray and numerous gods and spirits were replaced by one God.

The idea of ​​"knowledge" - originally a religious (in the Holy Qur'an) - defined mode of living arrangement of Muslims throughout the Ummah (Muslim community) for centuries. This stimulated the creation of Muslim secular and religious schools, the movement in science (theological and secular) and its unprecedented rise. The pursuit of knowledge, connecting with the religious impulse, guided pilgrims to the Hadj - in their many years of traveling around the country. It traces the origins and role of the "migration" processes in the international spread of themes and motifs, as well as the processing of religious poems and epos, i.e., the roots of cultural interaction with the Kazakh oral tradition of Arabic, Persian and Turkish literature were analyzed. The functionality of products in practical and spiritual life of the people was changed. From lust to the "alien" knowledge in the Islamic world are actively unfolding translation activities and develops a situation of multilingualism, the first two-and three-language manuscripts was the Holy Qur'an (with translation into Farsi, and then into Turkic).

For the Kazakh literature, going back to the roots of folklore and medieval Turkic literature, the second half of the XIX and beginning of the XX century was an important period. At that time, significantly enhanced educational, democratic trend in the literature of Central Asia. Also during this period the widest dissemination and popularity received works of religious themes - writing, folklore, as well as representing the epic book samples. But not only religious subjects. In the same period, there was particularly intense development of significant amount of oriental themes and motifs in the Kazakh folklore and literature. It was a fact of cultural life of the Kazakh society. It is necessary to particular role of "poets, scribes," who, along with their own works translated and converted eastern literary models to dastans, and not just transferred and also created their own works based on them, assisting to make a shape of the artistic and social consciousness of the Kazakh people. Now, that fact cannot remain in the shadows. Religious epics in the second half of the XIX and early XX centuries issued in book publishing houses in Kazan, Orenburg, Tashkent, Ufa, Semipalatinsk, and they were known as the kissa- hikayas, dastans among the people. They also firmly anchored in the repertoire of storytellers. In the history of the Kazakh literature epics occupy a significant place, which are mostly literary adaptations and translations of oriental fairy stories, legends and stories into the Kazakh language. In his article "From the history of Kazakh literature" M. Auezov wrote that there is "a whole galaxy of poets, scribes, who have mastered the epic book-eastern culture, in the "Nazir" spirit, to echo most of the topics and subjects of Arabic, Iranian and classical poetry, in addition using the stories of the people's heroic and lyrical and domestic poems, legends, legends of many peoples of the East. This includes a lot of the Arab-Iranian fabulous themes developed in the form of action-folk poems or novels, historical chronicles, biographies, parables, legends.

There are poets, scribes associated with the eastern classical literature and wrote almost exclusively on ancient book stories. These include Oraz Molda Maily Khodja, Madeli, Akylbek Sabal, Mauleki, Shadi-tore Makysh Kaltayev, Kashafeddin, Arip and others. Their works are mostly published in the XIX and early XX century and constitute, in total, more than 100 poems "[5]. Tatar scientist-literary critic F. Akhmetova-Urmanche said:"Books (Kitabi) are considered in fact almost all the epics because of their close association with individual works of writers and creators of kissa, retold and reprinted (mostly in Kazan) and known in the Turkic world as epics" in unison to saying of a classics of Kazakh literature Mukhtar Auezov [6].

Science has found that the world literature, representing the diversity of national literatures, interwoven with each other, is in a permanent relationship in their development process. Therefore, the version of Kazakh epos is known in the East, and works of classics of oriental literature are the result of original Kazakh national literature. In our opinion, it is unlikely all Kazakh epics written in the form of the eastern "nazir". Comparative analysis of some dastans shows that not all of them are nazirs in the direct sense of the term. The authors of these dastans often claim that they have shifted or rehearsed heard or read. As we know, "nazir" implies something more, since it must be present properties of the genre and dignity, to imitate the work. In addition, there is almost no indication of intentional sample in the Kazakh kissas and dastans that caused their appearance, which is characteristic to nazir. Besides, the Kazakh poets, scribes were more interested in the idea and the plot works, they were less cared for according to verse forms. Most dastans made in hendecasyllabic, octosyllabic and other forms of Kazakh folk poetry.

That is, "Narrators and akyns actively seeking new forms, can meet the growing social needs. This new form became epos with its polysemous, flexibility, virtually unlimited capacity to absorb new ideas and topics and organically enter other national art system. Thus, it is necessary to emphasize that the emergence and formation of dastan genre, rooting it as a genre form as a part of national folklore, of course, was due to the internal needs of the Kazakh society, although the emergence of the term itself and the concept of "dastan" in Kazakhstan was originally associated with the spread of the steppe works thematically, metaphorically and ideologically going back to Indo-Persian and Arabic folklore and literature"[7].

At the time, MO Auezov, assessing the work of the Kazakh poets, scribes, wrote: "There is a whole galaxy-scribes, poets who have mastered the book of eastern epic culture and in the spirit of nazir rehash the vast majority of themes and subjects of Arabic, Iranian classical poetry and, moreover, a smaller number of topics and stories of people's heroic and lyrical and domestic poems, legends of many people of the East. These include the "Shahnameh", "Yusuf Zuliha", "Shahmaran" a huge number of lyrical and domestic poems, like "Layla-Majnun", "Seiful-Muluk", "Boz zhigit", "Ziyad", "Shakir Shakrat" "Munlyk Zarlyk", a lot of the Arab-Iranian fabulous themes developed in the form of action-folk poems or novels, historical chronicles, biographies, parables and legends "[8].

Kazakh edition of the pre-Soviet period, as well as a huge manuscript heritage, show a breadth of subjects and a variety of genres works of religious subjects. This is a purely religious literature, and various kissas epics and hikayas were created on the basis of Muslim stories, apocryphal stories of the Holy Qur'an, epics, legends, historical content about the exploits of Islamic caliphs. All of them were imbued with the general Muslim idea and subjects.
During the Soviet period in the history of Kazakhstan all the literature associated with the religion of Islam and the Muslim culture was classified in the category of the reactionary and forbidden to study. However, such Kazakh scientists, literary scholars of the older generation, as M.O. Auezov, A.Baitursynov, H.Dosmukhamedov, B.Kenzhebaev, E. Ismailov, I.Duisenbaev, H. Suinshaliev, A. Konyratbaev, R. Berdybai, S.Mukanov, B. Shalabayev, A. Derbisalin, S.Satpayev, N. Kelimbetov, Z. Akhmetov, M. Bozheev, K.Zhumaliev and others considered these questions in their research at various times. As for the religious epos, it should be noted that V.V. Radloff was the first one who divided them from the Kazakh literature, who paid them special attention. A. Baitursynov analyzed religious works on the basis of their functionality. Halel Dosmukhamedov also highlighted the works of religious subjects in an independent kind. M.O. Auezov, pointing to the different genres of works on oriental themes, standed out among them, in particular, action poems and religious and heroic legends. Sabit Mukanov, for example, extracted from works on borrowed themes, texts narrating the exploits of Muslim heroes and leaders who are fighting in order to spread Islam. B.Shalabaev studying the works of eastern subjects classified them as: loving and living, adventure, fairy-tale and legendary religionye. Z. Akhmetov and Mikhail Bozheev in their works also isolated religious epics of the total composition of the epics [9].

One of the most difficult problems in the theory of literature is to determine the literary genre. There is a special research area, exploring this important theoretical problem at different levels. It dates back to antiquity, to the work of Aristotle's "Poetics". However, so far there is no unity among the literati in the definition of many aspects of the genre. Even more difficult is the situation in a certain genre of spiritual (religious) literature. Literature is not only a chronicle of the history of the people, it is like a mirror reflecting the corresponding period. And from this point of view of religious works in the Kazakh literature of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, in the period, which occupies a special place in the history of the people naturally have their genre features. According to the academician S. Kaskabasov "Genre folklore is a story of transformation techniques to work and ways of functioning, the manner of execution. In other words, poetics, social and everyday function, i.e., the purpose of the folklore set it apart from the literature and is characterized by folklore genres "[10].

Subject basis of kazakh religious dastans only associated with Islam. And ethnic works created on the subjects of other religions, practically does not occur among the Kazakh epos. To implement the basic idea - dissemination, promotion and strengthening of Islam in the poems are widely used ancient stories inherent in the mythology and folklore of the people of East and West, as well as the legends and stories, common in the Islamic world. There is a multi-aspect and in the study of genre forms and varieties (V.Zhirmunsky, B.Tomaszewski, Yu.Tynyanov [11], V.Shklovsky, L.Timofeev, G. Gachev, V. Kozhinov [12], G.Pospelov, N. Gulyaev, G.Abramovich, A.Gajiyev, M.Ovsyannikov, L.Schepilova, S.Kalacheva, P.Roshchin, I.Volkov, I.Astakhov, A.Esalnek, L.Chernetc, B. Khalizev, S.Faryno, A.Esin, O.Krivtsun, V.Novikov, Z.Kabdulov[13], S.Kaskabasov[14], N. Tamarchenko, V.Tyupa, S.Broytman, S.Zenkin, V.Meshcheryakov, I. Kuzmichev, N.Leiderman, N.Barkovskaya, N.Bussova, Warren and Uellek, Jonathan Culler, D. Fedotov, S.Ananiev, A.Temirbolat, M.Meshcheryakov). Cornerstone in all research activities is the formulation of Bakhtin's genre as "type of thematic completion."

Literary genres are formed in the process of artistic development of oral and written works. Genre works traditionally determined by the following main features, combining the works of one of the genre - the content and form. However, each of them has a relatively genre division relating to other arts, i.e. by type (e.g., folk poetry and literature, poetry and prose) and nature (e.g., epic, lyric, drama). The differentiation of works of art understanding of their relationship was at a standstill. In this regard, the terms "Genre", "Type", "Nature", "Variety" have not yet found its precise definition. Therefore, the use of one term over the other is still continued.

That is, the speech is about that in the literary kind - epic, lyrics, drama, in its turn, are divided by genre principle. And in this regard, we can conclude the following: the genre - is different facets composing the content. Genres (especially the content of the genre) are not logically divided types, located within the borders of each kind, a division of art into genres and types doesn't occur on the "same logical space", but occurs on each "space" for different reasons.

Thus, in the Soviet period, the Muslim literature was mainly analyzed in terms of its genre specificity and limited in other opportunities because of the existence of the ban on religion.

Yet special monographs on the subject were only the beginning of the 90s of the twentieth century, when the collapse of the Soviet Union occurred and formed independent republics of Central Asia. Since that time, the scientific circulation for the first time entered the body of Qur'anic themes and images that are one of the most popular among Muslims and adequately represented in the Kazakh religious literature and oral tradition.

Since independence, Kazakhstan has started the collection and publication of works of a religious nature, scientific research and publication appeared. Scientists B.Azibaeva [15], M.Abduov [16], A. Zhaksylykov [17], U. Kalizhan [18], F. Zhumazhanov [19]engaged on focused study of religious epics and as well as many other works were considered as valuable achievements in this area.

B.U.Azibaeva in her work "Kazakh dastan epic" devoted one of the chapters to dastans of religious subjects, M.Abduov specifically has studied them in his monograph "Qazaqtyng dіni eposy" ("Religious Kazakh epos"). But both authors have studied all the works of this kind from the position of folklore science. From monographic studies of recent years, the width coverage of different aspects of the problem was highlighted in the work of A.Zhaksylykov "The images, motifs and ideas from the religious contents in the works of Kazakh literature" [20], as well as in works of A.Abdirasilkyzy, U.Kalizhan, Esirkepova, I. Zhemeney and others.
History of spread of preligious literature in Kazakhstan, as well as the processes of creating their own original literature in this direction is closely linked with the penetration and spread of Islam in Central Asia.

Islam in Kazakhstan has 1200 year history [21]. According to various sources the beginning of the penetration of Islam in the territory of modern Kazakhstan was laid already in the VIII century, i.e., after a short, by historical standards, after its approval in Arabia. According to Kazakh scientist-orientalist M. Abuseitova "the first contacts with the Arab-Muslim Turks ... occurred in 751 in Semirechie region during Talas battle. The first Turkic ruler who converted to Islam and declared it the official religion of the state, was "Abd al-Karim Satuq Bograkhan (901-955), Allah have mercy on him and peace be upon his soul in Paradise!, who was the founder of Qarakhanid powers in Central Asia" [22].

There are a lot of historical data, which are contained in the writings of medieval Arab and Turkic scholars, the writings of Russian Orientalists-turkologists of pre-Soviet period, the works of foreign European scholars on Islam, in the writings of contemporary scholars, which refers to the penetration of Islam in Central Asia, including the Kazakh steppe .

Since the penetration of Islam in Kazakhstan, Kazakhs, like many other people of the Caucasus, the Volga region and Central Asia, used the Arabic alphabet in writing, the Arabic language was used as a literary among the clergy and the educated elite, and was the only language for worship and spiritual formation, contributed to the development of Islamic culture. There were a large printed materials in Arabic, almost equal to the printed materials in the Tatar language[23]. Collections of library funds and museums in Kazakhstan show how widely was spread books in Arabic and Persian languages in Kazakh society, they mainly were concentrated in Muslim educational institutions - libraries of meqtebs and madrasahs, which had been opened at mosques. The literature (scientific, theological, fiction) in old Turkic (dzhagatay - chagatai), the so-called medieval "Turks" was distributed in large amount, and later, towards the end of the nineteenth - early twentieth century, there was a diverse Muslim spiritual literature in Kazakh, Tatar and other Turkic languages.

Kazakh oral poetic creativity for centuries developed under the direct influence of Islamic ideas. Over thousands of years the nomadic folklore of the Great Steppe absorbed the spiritual heritage of the literature of the Muslim East and fully experienced the beneficial effects of the Muslim spiritual culture. It is generally accepted that the Turkic tribes of early and late Middle Ages had the closest contacts with the Arab East. Since the penetration of Islam on the territory of Kazakhstan in the VIII-IX centuries BC, and then in the late Middle Ages, and especially in the nineteenth century, throughout the Steppe was a process of intense Islamization of Kazakh folklore, which flowed into the general Muslim cultural treasury. It is appropriate in this context to cite the opinion of the famous Russian scientist-orientalist A. Krymsky, who rightly consideres that "oral literature of every nation is too far from all the original, but mostly they became the international treasure: one nation borrows from another, from the neighbor, from the far neighbor and etc. Each folklore, whether it be small-Russian, Russian, Slavic, and in general any European and Asian, has the most diverse origin "[24].

If religion is essentially seeks to ensure that in every soul and in society generally, reigned peace and harmony, and also literature, ultimately, has as its purpose to help a person overcome the conventions of the world and to achieve freedom in the shower. "The belief that the spread of Islam among the Kazakhs largely contributed to their love of poetry, is very true. Whatever spread among the people, it can be a success only as a piece of literature, only when it finds any literary form. If it is only pure propaganda without poems, short stories, artistic expression, then the people did not listen to and understand them"[25].

Islam brought with it a great civilization and a new culture. And in the literature of the people who have taken this belief, there are new trends, there have been qualitative changes. It is known that those pearls of high literature of the Muslim East, who joined the gold fund of world literature, were under the influence of Islam.


The studies on the effects on the shapes Kazakh culture phenomenology of the Holy Qur'an are actual today, which was virtually all-embracing, all-pervasive.

To understand the real logic of the development of written and oral traditions of Kazakh religious literature is needed research in different directions, reflecting the proceeds of historically complex and many-centuried processes as the Islamization and Europeanization, and the processes of cultural interaction in general. One of the most important aspects of the consideration of the religious history of the Kazakh literature and folklore to 1917 is related to Islamization, more precisely penetration into the Kazakh society and the impact on the Kazakh literature and culture of the Scriptures of Muslims - the Qur'an.

The Kazakh folklore and literary criticism, in our opinion, is long overdue problem of defining the genre peculiarities of religious writings. First of all, it concerns the genre of religious epos.

The stories of folklore are considerably important for study of the history of penetrating Islam, captured a huge number of legends and stories, in varying degrees, affecting the subject of this article.


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2. Zhaksylykov AZh 1999. Obrazy, motivy i idei s religioznoj soderzhatel'nost'ju v proizvedenijah kazahskoj literatury. Tipologija, jestetika, genezis. Almaty: Kazak universiteti.

3. Katanov NF 1904. O religioznyh vojnah uchenikov shejha Bahauddina protiv inorodcev Zapadnoj Sibiri. Kazan'.

4. Ibid.: P. 21-22.

5. Aujezov MO 1959. Mysli raznyh let. Alma-Ata: Nauka.

6. Ahmetova-Urmanche F. 2004. O sovremennom sostojanii dastanov. Tatar fol'klor mәs'әlәlәre. Kazan: Fiker.

7. Azibaeva BU 1998. Kazahskij dastannyj jepos. Almaty: Gylym.

8. Aujezov MO 1959. Mysli raznyh let. Alma-Ata: Nauka.

9. Radlov VV 1870. Obrazcy narodnoj literatury tjurkskih narodov, zhivushhih v Juzhnoj Sibiri i Dzhungarskoj stepi. Chast' Z. Kirgizskie narechija. StPb.; Aujezov MO 1959. Problemy izuchenija istorii kazahskoj literatury. Almaty: Gylym.

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