The Imperial titles on the coins of the Western Turkic Qaghanate



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Ass. Prof. Dr. Gaybulla Babayarov.

Al-Biruni Institute of Oriental Studies

of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan
The Imperial titles on the coins

of the Western Turkic Qaghanate
The formation of the Turkic (Türk) Qaghanate (552–744) in the second half of 6th century AD led to change of a political situation in the Eurasia steppes and its neighboring regions. The Ashina Turks became overlords of vast territories stretching from Mongolia (Orkhon) to the Northern Caucasus and the Black Sea. From that time onward the Turkic Qaghanate became a direct neighbour of the vast empires of Byzantium, Sasanian Iran and China. Türkic Qaghanate – has formed two parts: Türkic Qaghanate – it is the Central / Eastern Qaghanate or Eastern Türkic Qaghanate (552–630; 682–744), which capital was Ötüken in Mongolia and Western wing or Western Türkic Qaghanate (568–740), which capital was Suyab in Semirech’e (Kyrgyzstan).

The results of our last researches showed that in the 6th–8th centuries in Transoxiana (basin between Amu-darya–Syrdarya rivers and places surrounded them) found near 50 types Old Turkic coins with legends written in Sogdian (basically), Pehlewi (Middle Persian), Bactrian, Ancient Indian and Turkic-Run alphabets and more the 20 types of them belonged to the central kingdom of Western Turkic Qaghanate (Ashina dinasty). Other parts of them minted by local branches of the Qagahante: like Ferghana branch of Ashina dynasty (probably 630–750), Tutuks of Ferghana (7th–8th cc), Tegins of Chach (605-750), Tuduns of Chach (640-750), Sogdian-Turkic dynasty of Samarkand (7th–8th cc), Yabgus of Tokharistan (620–750), Tegin-Shahs of Kabulistan (640–843) and etc.

Abovementioned factors shows that in more 20 types coins, which minted in Chach reflected titles as qaghan, jabghu-qaghan and jabghu. On the pecularities (rulers names, paleographic and iconographic similarities, titles ierarchy, state symbols, the form of tamga/sign and etc.) of the most of them we can name these coins as “Coins of Western Türkic Qaghanate”.

Coins of local Turkic rulers of the Qaghanate on except of some coins of Ferghana and Sogd with title of qaghan other coins minted with titles as tegin, elteber, tudun (Chach), tutuq (Ferghana), yabghu, tegin, tarqan (Tokharistan), tegin (Kabulistan).

Some coins of the Qaghanate minted in Chach with imperial titles as qaghan, jabghu-qaghan and jabghu coined by central imperial Kingdom (by qaghans ownselves) and coins with other Old Turkic titles like tegin, elteber, tudun, tutuq and tarqan minted by representatives (prince of Ashina dynasty and officials) of local branches of Ashina dynasty. On the base of abovementioned factors we can conclude that the supreme rulers of Western Türkic Qaghanate minted only with imperial titles.

Our suggestion confirms by data of written sources in which titles as qaghan, jabghu-qaghan and jabghu described as main central titles of the Qaghanate; shad and tegin like titles of prince of the Ashina dynasty; elteber, tudun, tutuq tarqan and others as titles of officials of the Qaghanate. Additionaly, coinage style of the Western Qaghanate had some influence of Byzantine coinage tradition1 in part in iconography of Qaghanate coins described imperial images (portrait of double figures – emperor and empress, sitting figures on the throne) emperor of Byzantium.

Recently we read the Sogdian legends on the Pre-İslamic (the last quarter of 6th–the second qaurter of 8th centuries) coins of Chach, which minted by Western Turkic rulers as follows:


  1. ZNH pny żpγw krnw? 2 crδnk – «This is coin of Jabghu, essence (of) skillful (?)»3 (fig. I. 3);

2) pny żpγw kr? (short. krnw?) crδnk – «Coin of Jabghu, essence (of) skillful?»4 (fig. I. 4);

3) pny ’krt twrk x’γ’n – “The coin made by the Türk-qaghan”5 (fig. I. 7 – fig. II. 1-7);

4) βγу cpγw xγ’n ’yrpy ’šp’r’ – “Heavenly Ĵabghu-qaghan Elbi Ishbara” or cpγw xγ’n ’yrpy ’šp’r’sy (?) – “Ĵabghu-qaghan Elbi Ishbarasi (?)”6 (fig. I. 13);

5) cpγw xγ’n pny – «Coin of Ĵabghu-qaghan»7 (fig. I. 14);

7) βγу twn cpγw xγ’n – “Heavenly Tun Ĵabghu-qaghan” (Type I (pair portrait) – Type II (sitting ruler)8 (fig. I. 15-16);

8) βγу twwn xγ’n – « Heavenly Tūn (chief)-qaghan» (fig. I. 18);

9) prn βγу xγ’n “The divine, blessed Qaghan”. Type I (pair portrait – fig. I. 19); Type II (camel – fig. I. 24);

10) βγу prn xγ’n “The divine, blessed Qaghan” (fig. I. 20);

11) pny βγу xγ’n“Coin of Divine Qaghan” (fig. I. 21);

12) βγу xγ’n“The divine Qaghan” (fig. I. 22);

13) trδw x’γ’n – “Tardu qaghan”9 ((fig. I. 23) and so on.


  1. Coins with title “Qaghan”.

1.1. Coins with phrase “Türk-qaghan”.

In recent times, the finding of a new copy of the well-saved coin from an ancient ruin city of Kanka located in Chach (Tashkent) made us possible to prove the following coins:





Av. Rv. Av. Rv.


Av. Description of a prince with long hairs reached to the shoulders. His head a little bit looks to the right. It’s being known that the prince’s face is round, having large almond-shaped eyes and with a thin moustache. Rv. On the center the tamgha as in the earliest coins of the Western Turkic Qaghanate (with the title of Jabgu) in which described the prince and princess sitting with legs crossed. Sogdian legend is placed around it. The letter begins at against clockwise. Now, we try to read the legend as follows: pny ’krt twrk x’γ’n – “The coin made by the Türk-Qaghan”. D: 3,6 mm, W: 4 gr. FO: Kanka (Tashkent region), PS: Personal collection. The last quarter of 6th century – the first half of 7th century. Bronze (see. Fig. II–III)10.
The paleographic and iconographic features of these coins are considered to be the coins of the Western Turkic Qaghanate that belong to the earliest period of the Qaghanate. Significant part is that their mintage technique (for instance, their size) and paleography (the form of the mintage of Sogdian statements) is very closer to those of the coins of local dynasties ruled in Chach oasis. Especially, we can see the statements: pny ’krty c’cynk xwβw n/zyrt – “The coin made by the King of Chach Z/Nirt” (G. Babayarov’s reading) or “Yellow (= bronze?) coin issued by ruler of Čāč” (P. Lurje’s reading)11 on the surface of 6th–8th centuries made coins (with tamga ) belonging to the non-Turkic dynasty of Chach. And this also verifies that Western Turkic Qaghanate counted on local traditions during the mintage of their coins.

In this type coin the existence of “Turk-qaghan” phrase needs certain comments. Thus, its proved that more 20 types of coins there are Old Turkic titles of Jabgu, Jabghu-qaghan and Qaghan and also the names of the rulers and titles as Tardu Qaghan, Tun Jabghu-Qaghan, related to the Western Turkic Qaghanate 12, but the only the meaning of the phrase of Turk-Qaghan lasted to nowadays. Here is the most important point is that the phrase of “Türk-Qaghan” minted in the last quarter of the 6th century–the beginning of the 7th century AD. is not a title or the name of a ruler, but it should carry an ethnic or political meaning. That’s, here the name of the home dynasty that build the Türkic Qaghanate has a sign of being Turkic. Importantly, being differently from Turgesh Qaghanate (699–766) which minted its coins with the same standarts (with the statements (βγy twrkyš xxn pny “The coin of Divine / Lord Turgesh Qaghan”)13, the rulers of the Western Türkic Qaghanate sometimes minted coins with their names and sometimes with phrases explaining their ethnic origin.




    1. Coins with the phrase “Tardu Qaghan”



Av Rv Av Rv



Av. On the centre of an anchor-shaped tamgha Sogdian legend trδw «Tardu» is placed in one level (layer), Rv. On the center of an inscription here is the word xγ’n – «Qaghan» with Sogdian italics. D: 16 mm. W: 1.5 gr. FO: Kanka (Tashkent). PS: Personal collection - AK-1. The last quarter of VI c.–the beginning of VII c., Bronze.
1.3. Coins with the title Tūn-qaghan



Av Rv Av Rv



Av. On the left side: description of a man (Kaghan) with wide, round face. On the right side: description of a woman (Hatun) carrying triangle-shaped cap. Her eyes are almond-shaped. Both are looking to the straight. Rv. On the center the same tamgha as in the coins of Tun Yabgu-qaghan and Yabgu-qaghan but having a little bit difference. There is Sogdian letters on the surroundings of it. The letter begins at cloclwise 7 o’clock and is read: βγy twwn xγ’n – “The Divine Tūn-qaghan”. D: 20,4 mm, W: 2,3 gr, FO: Tashkent region. PS: Personal collection. NBU - III, No. 47. VII–VIII c. Bronze.

1.4. Coins with description of a horseman



Av Rv Av Rv


Av. The description of a horse rider. The horse is long to some extent. Rv. The tamgha as the same as in the coins of Tun Yabgu-qağan which have been foreseen. There is Sogdian legend around it as might be seen through the mirror at against clockwise. The letter begins at against clockwise 3 o’clock and is read: βγу prn xγ’n “The divine, blessed Qaghan”. D: 2-3 mm, W: 2,5-3 gr. FO: Tashkent region, PS: Personal collection.
1.5. Coins with double-humped camel



Av Rv Av Rv



Av. There is a description of a double-humped camel looking to the right. Rv. On the center the tamgha in the form of rhomb (square). Soghdian legend is placed around it. The letter begins at against clockwise and is read: prn βγy xγn – “The divine, blessed Qaghan”. D: 16,5-15,5 mm, W: 1,0 gr. FO: Kanka (Tashkent region), PS: Personal collection. VII-VIII c. Bronze.
1.6. Coins with a square on the center

Type I.



Av Rv Av Rv


Av. On the center there is a square hole. On the surroundings of it Soghdian legend is placed. The letter begins at against clockwise 10 o’clock and is read: prn βγy xγn – “The divine Qaghan”. Rv. There is Soghdian legend on the upper part of the hole. The letter begins against clockwise 1 o’clock. For now it can be read. D: 15 mm, W: 1,0 gr. FO: Tashkent region. PS: Personal collection -[int-1]. VII-VIII c.. Bronze.
Type II.



Av Rv Av Rv


Av. On the center there is a square hole. On the surroundings of it Soghdian legend is placed. The letter begins at against clockwise 10 o’clock and is read: βγy xγn - “The divine Qaghan”. Rv. Indistinct. There can not be found any sign. D: 20 mm, W: 1,64 gr. FO: Tashkent region. PS: Personal collection - [zeno.ru-7]. VII-VIII c.. Bronze.
II. Coins with title “Jabghu-qaghan”.

2.1. Coins of Tun Jabghu-Qaghan


Type I. Coins with pair portraits



Av Rv Av Rv


Av. On the left side there is the fıgure of a man (king), with a long hair, open forehead; wide and round face On the right side there is the triangle-shaped description of a woman (khatun) with a hat. The faces of both are round; the eyes are a little bit slanting like an almond. Rv. On the center there is few different-shaped tamgha and Sogdian legend is placed around it. The letter begins at against clockwise 5 o’clock and is read βγу twn cpγw xγ’n – “Heavenly Tun Ĵabghu-qaghan”. D: 21.7 mm, W: 3.0 gr, FO: Kanka (Tashkent). PS: Personal collection - A-1. The first quarter of VII c., Bronze.
Type II. The coins with description of a prince sitting on the throne.



Av Rv Av Rv


Av. The description of a prince with long hairs, holding a thing (a bird?) sitting cross-legged on the throne. His face looks to the right and there are descriptions of the half Moon and stars on the left and right sides. Rv. On the center the tamghasimilar to the below one and Sogdian legend is placed around it. The letter begins at against clockwise 5 o’clock and is read βγу twn cpγw xγ’n – “Heavenly Tun Ĵabghu-qaghan”. D: 2 cm, W: 2.3 gr, FO: Hanabad-tepe (Tashkent). The first quarter of VII c., Bronze.


    1. Coins with descriptions of a horse



Av Rv Av Rv

Av. The description of a horse turning to the right and there are descriptions of the half Moon and stars on the Horse. Rv. On the center the tamgha similar to the below one and Sogdian legend is placed around it. The letter begins at against clockwise and is read: βγу cpγw xγ’n ’yrpy ’šp’r’ – “Heavenly Ĵabghu-qaghan Elbi Ishbara” or cpγw xγ’n ’yrpy ’šp’r’sy (?) – “Ĵabghu-qaghan Elbi Ishbarasi (?)”. D: 17 mm, W: 1,5 gr. FO: Kanka-tepe (Tashkent). PS: Personal collection - D-3. The first quarter of VII c., Bronze.


    1. Coins with description of a horseman



Av Rv Av Rv



Av. The description of a horse rider. The horse is long to some extent. Rv. The tamgha as the same as in the coins of Tun Yabgu-qağan which have been foreseen. Sogdian legend is placed around it. The letter begins at against clockwise 4 o’clock and is read: cpγw xγn pny«The money of Ĵabghu-qaghan». D: 17-18 mm, W: 2,5 gr. FO: Tashkent region, PS: Personal collection.


  1. Coins with the title “Jabghu”

3.1. Coins with double-portraits



Av Rv Av Rv


Av. Description of a man (Kaghan) with a round face and long hairs reaching to the shoulder turns to the straight. Description of a woman (Khatun) with a little bit smaller face. And she wears a sharp cap with 3 horns. The eyes of both are quite slanting. There is the description of the Half Moon and stars on the man’s head. Rv. On the center the same tamgha as in the coins of Tun Yabgu Kaghan and Yabgu Kaghan. But tamgha is in a large diameter. Sogdian legend is placed around it. The letter begins at against clockwise 3 o’clock and is read ZNH pny żpγw kr / krnw? crδnk – «This is coin of Jabghu, essence (of) skillful (?)». D: 24 mm, W: 2,4 gr. FO: Kanka-tepe (Tashkent region), PS: Personal collection - A-31. The first half of VII c.. Bronze.


    1. . Coins with description of a prince and princess sitting with legs crossed



Av Rv Av Rv



Av. There is a description of a prince (Kaghan) (on the left) and princess (Khatun) (on the right) sitting with legs crossed. The prince, with long hairs holds an object (a bird?) in his left hand. Princess wears a sharp cap with 3 horns. Breasts and stomach resembles her pregnance. It shows that here it is imitated to the Lord (God) of wellfare – Umay (The protector of troop, children and pregnance) which is famous among the Turkic faith. Rv. On the center the same tamgha as in the coins of Tun Yabgu Kaghan and Yabgu Kaghan . But tamgha is in a large diameter. Sogdian legend is placed around it. Because of the letter is indistinct and beginning at against clockwise it can not be read at all. There is a Sogdian legend around it. The letter begins at clockwise 7 o’clock and is read: pny żpγw kr? (short. krnw?) crδnk – «Coin of Jabghu, essence (of) skillful?». D: 20-19 mm, W: 1, 4 gr. FO: Tashkent region, PS: Personal collection. The first half of VII c. Bronze.
* * *
On the basis of numerous findings of coins with rulers name, phrases and imperial titles: Tardu qaghan, Jabghu-qaghan, Tun Jabghu-qaghan, Jabghu, Tūn/Ton qaghan and etc. on the territory of Chach we can draw a conclusion that Chach was one of the earliest centuries for the mintage of coins related to the Western Türkic Qaghanate:

- In particular, the existence of coins with the imperial image (pair portrait, sıttıng ruler in throne) and the imperial title of qaghan / jabghu-qaghan / jabghu, and also with the legend «The coin of Jabghu-qaghan» shows that possibly these coins were minted by the Western Türkic qaghans;


- This enables us to attribute their coinage to one state-namely the Western Türkic Qaghanate (568–740), because the most part of the coins bear the name and the title of Tun yabghu-qaghan, as well as supreme titles of the Western Türks, such as Jabghu-qaghan and Jabghu14. Legends on two aforementioned types of coins with the Byzantine influence are read as pny żpγw krnw? crδnk – «Coin of Jabghu, essence (of) skillful (?)» and pny żpγw kr? (shorted krnw?) crδnk – «Coin of Jabghu, essence (of) skilful?». It is necessary to note that according to some researchers, after the formation of an independent Qaghanate in the Western wing that was not submitting the Eastern (Central) Türkic Qaghanate, the first ruler to take a title yabghu/jabghu was Istemi. If to identify names meeting in the Byzantine sources, such as ΣτεμβισχάγανΣιλζίβουλος, Διζάβουλος, Ζιέβηλ with the name of Istemi15, who he is junior brother of Bumin, founder of Türkic Qaghanate‚ and to take into consideration opinions of some researchers according to which they are forms reflecting a title yabghu/jabghu in Greek sources, then once again is approved a fact that at first stages Istemi had only a yabghu title16. It allows us to confirm the logicality of attributing the coinage of coins with a title yabghu/jabghu to Istemi;

- According to the new materials it was clear for us that the coins with Sogdian legends are read from Av side as trδw – «Tardu» and from Rv side as xγ’n «qaghan». Moreover, these coins were minted by the founder of the Western Türkic Qaghanate, Tardu Qaghan (576–603 AD);

- The existence of various types of coins minted with tamghas and title qaghan is related to the ruling family, rulers of the Western Türkic Qaghanate. The fact that during the reign of such qaghans as Ch’ulo (*Chura; 603–610), Shih-kuei (611–618), Tun Yabghu (618–630) and Ashina Khelu (*Ulugh, 651–657) the ties between the centre of the Western Qaghanate in Yettisu (Semirech’e) and Chach had strengthened and once the residence of the Western Qaghanate was located in the northern part of Chach oasis (Ch’ien-Ch’üian – «Thousand Sources»/Ming-bulaq) perhaps had led to the minting of coins by Western Türkic rulers. The following facts – described in Chinese chronicles – also contribute to this conclusion: the Western Türkic ruler Ch’ulo qaghan (603–610) had established two small Qaghanates in his state and one of them was located in the north of Shi-guo (Chach Kingdom) and ruled all the lands in Hu (the settled oasis of Central Asia). Tun Yabghu-qaghan (618–630) had moved the residence of the Western Türkic Qaghanate to the territory of Chach Kingdom, particularly, to the district of Ch’ien-Ch’üian (Ming-bulaq) and also, one of the Western Türkic qaghan’s residences was established in Chach Kingdom in 650s by Ashina Khelu (Ulugh)17;

- It is evident that the rulers of the Western Türkic Qaghanate differing from the ones of the Eastern (Central) Qaghanate (Orkhon valley / Mongolia) carried with themselves the title «Yabghu-qaghan» (in Chinese sources as She-hu Ke-khan) and this also proves that the coins with legends «the coin of Jabghu-qaghan» of the Western Türkic rulers belong to them. And among the findings there are significant numbers of various types of coins with legend βγу twn cpγw xγ’n – “Heavenly Tun Ĵabghu-qaghan”, the mints which, perhaps, directly related to the famous ruler of the Western Qaghanate, Tun Yabghu-qaghan (618–630).



- In addition, it is known by Arabian geographers that there was a city named Jabghukath (literally «the city of Jabghu»)18 which was placed in two farsahs from Binkath, the capital of Chach, established during the period of the Qaghanate. In our opinion, the construction of this fortified city was related to one of the Western Türkic qaghans. According to some scholars, Jabghukath (“Town of Jabghu”) was a winter residence of Tun Yabghu-qaghan19;

- These tamgas () can be accepted as variants of tamgas with the shape of a “mountain goat”/arkhar () of those depicted on the stelas of the Türkic Qaghanate in the Orkhon valley (Mongolia). In our opinion those tamgas went through the following paths: > / / /20. As discussed above in the note, the differences between the tamgas () in the Chinese chronicles21 and those appearing on coins might be explained as resulting from the different techniques involved with rendering a sign with a pen as opposed to stamping it on metal. Besides that, according to well-documented traditions among Central Asian nomads, a tribe or group that has separated from another group distinguishes itself by adding to the original sign, thereby creating a distinct tamga. That is to say the main tamga is preserved with the addition of some new characteristic. After a fashion, a ‘new’ sign is thereby created. This is also the case with royal dynastic tamgas. The similar tamghas except the coins of Chach can be met also in the coins of Ferghana valley ( / ), Penjikent (Sogd) () and in some of the Old Turkic coins (especially with countermarks) of Tokharistan ( / ), belonging to 7th–8th centuries AD22. We think these tamghas are the stylized variants of tamghas of the founder of Ashina dynasty from which came out the qaghans of both Qaghanate.

So, the Western Türkic Qaghanate had its specific fiscal system, where the rulers minted their own coins (with the imperial titles of “Jabghu”, “Jabghu-qaghan” and “Qaghan”, the ethnopolitical name of “Türk-qaghan” and with the names of “Tardu qaghan”, “Tun Jabghu-qaghan”) in Chach region and gained state symbols relatively to Old Turkic traditions. On the base of written and numismatic sources, it’s shown that the Western Qaghanate passed three steps as Yabghu, Yabghu-Qaghanate and Qaghanate.







Резюме
Ғ. Бобоёров


Ғарбий Турк хоқонлиги тангаларидаги империал унвонлар
Ғарбий Турк хоқонлиги томонидан 20 дан ортиқ типдаги танга Чоч (Тошкент) воҳасида зарб қилинган бўлиб, уларда хоқон, ябғу-хоқон (жабғу-хоқон ва ябғу (жабғу) каби империал унвонлар ўрин олган. Улардан аксариятининг ўзига хос жиҳатлари (ҳукмдорлар исми, палеографик ва иконографик ўхшашлик, унвонлар кетма-кетлиги, ҳокимият рамзлари, тамға шакли ва ҳ.к.)дан келиб чиқиб, мазкур тангаларни “Ғарбий Турк хоқонлигининг хос тангалари” деб аташ мумкин.

Хоқонликка бевосита ва билвосита алоқадор сулолаларга оид тангалар эса хоқон унвонли Фарғона ва Суғднинг айрим тангаларини истисно қилганда, тегин, элтабар, тудун (Чоч), тутуқ (Фарғона), ябғу, тегин, тархон (Тўхористон), тегин (Кобулистон) унвонлари билан зарб қилинган.

Бу каби омиллар Ғарбий Турк хоқонлигининг бош ҳукмдорлари ўз тангаларини фақатгина империал унвонлар билан зарб қилдирган мазмунидаги фикрга асос беради.

Г. Бабаяров

Имперские титулы на монетах Западно-Тюркского каганата
В Чачском (Ташкентском) оазисе Западно-Тюркским каганатом было чеканены свыше 20 типов монет, на значительной части которых заняли такие имперские титулы, как каган, ябгу-каган (джабгу-каган, жабгу-каган) и ябгу (жабгу). Исходя из присущих им особенностей (имена правителей, палеографическое и иконографическое сходство, последовательность титулов, форма тамги и др.), данные монеты можно назвать “Собственные монеты Западно-Тюркского каганата”.

Монеты династий, непосредственно и косвенно связанных с Каганатом, если не учитывать в качестве исключения некоторые монеты Ферганы и Согда с титулом каган, в основном чеканились с титулами тегин, эльтебер, тудун (Чач), тутук (Фергана), ябгу, тегин, тархан (Тохаристан), тегин (Кабулистан).



Подобные факторы дают основания сделать вывод, что верховные правители Западно-Тюркского каганата чеканили свои монеты только с имперскими титулами.


1 It is however necessary to notice, that the Byzantine traditions on coins of the Western Türkic Qaghanate are not merely copied from their analogues, but had been processed on a Türk basis. It is well traced in the coins' iconography. The aforementioned type of coins with a direct portrait are an exception to this rule as they are very similar to the coins of Byzantine: they have similarity in headdress, a Greek cross (gammadion) and ethnic shape of the governor's face (fig. I. 1-2). In our opinion, coins of this type were one of the very first coins of the Western Türkic Qaghanate. Other types of the coins, for example, the ones with a pair portrait, preserve a specific Byzantine plot, but in the same time the faces of the governor and governess are clearly mongoloid (a roundish face, narrow eyes), and the portrait have definite old Türk features (long hair, absence of headdress of the governor, a tricorn headdress of the governess). One of the important features of the Western Türkic coins is the replacement of the cross which was present on the analogous Byzantine coins with a crescent moon and a star that took the important place in views Old Türks and other people of the Central Asia/ Thus it is possible to state that the rulers of the Western Türkic Qaghanate in their own coinage, after having borrowed from the Byzantine traditions, step by step changed their design on the ethnic basis more and more. First they borrowed the obverse design of Byzantine coins, and merely put their tamga on the reverse (fig. I. 1-2). Later they just used the borrowed plot (scene), with such new features as depictures with the appearance and traditions relating with ancient mythological thoughts specific for the Ancient Türks (See fig. I. 3-4, 6, 15, 17-19) (Babayarov G., Kubatın A. Byzantine impact on the iconography of stern Turkic coinage // Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. Vol. 6 (1). Budapest, 2013. P. 47–58).

2 krnw – may be from Sogdian krnw’k / krnw’n “skilful” (See Gharib B. Sogdian Dictionary. Sogdian – Persian – English. Tehran, 1995. P. 193).

3 The inscription with Sogdian letters on these kind of coins was suggested to read by E.V. Rtveladze as following: pny ’wstnk nwsknw s... – “The coin of Avst(a)n(a)k, the King of Nush/skan (?)” (Rtveladze E.V. Drevnie i rannesrednevekovye monety istoriko-kul’turnykh oblastey Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 2002. Т. 1. S. 265-266; Rtveladze E.V. Istoriya i numizmatika Chacha (vtoraya polovina III-seredina VIII v. n.e). Tashkent, 2006. S. 92). A few later it was read as in the form of: ZNH pny tδwnk č[’č]ynk - “This coin belongs to the Tudun of Chach” (Shagalov V.D., Kuznetsov A.V. Catologue of coins of Chach III - VIII A.D. Tashkent, Fan, 2006. P. 81).

4 This type of coins were first checked in the 1980’ths by V. A. Livshits ve E.V. Rtveladze and Livshits read these as (k’w)yrδn kprnw xwb – “Kaviradn - the King of Kabarna” (Rtveladze E.V. Numizmaticheskie materialy k istorii rannesrednevekovogo Chacha // ONU, 8. Tashkent, 1982. C. 35; Rtveladze E. V. Pre-Muslim Coins of Chach // Sılk Road Art and Archaeology, 5. Kamakura 1997/98. Р. 317, Pl. II, 8). But, by comparing some of the coins it’s been proved that this kind of readings were false.

5 Trying to prove the coin E.V. Rtveladze in his first works read as: c’cnk xwβ twrk? “Turk? – the King of Chach” (Baratova L. Alttürkische Münzen Mittelasiens aus dem 6.-10. Jh. N. Chr. Typologie, Ikonographie, historische Interpretation//Archalogische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan. Band 31. Berlin, 1999. P. 247). But, in his last readings he approved as: twrkš c’cnynk mr’yw – “Turkesh – the King of Chach” (Rtveladze E.V. Drevnie i rannesrednevekovye monety ... S. 259).

6 E.V. Rtveladze tried to read this kind of coins on the basis of the letters on the coins that are indistinct and gave proof as follows: č’... (perhaps č’čynk – belonging to Chach) and xwβ “the King” (Rtveladze E.V. Istoriya i numizmatika Chacha ... S. 64-65; Shagalov V.D., Kuznetsov A.V. Catologue ... P. 101). But, we have gained these experience of reading after working on the lots of copies that are well-saved and by comparing them.

7 It is more than 30 years yet after these type of coins had been found. When it was firstly written about these (in the 80’ths) it was considered that they belong to one of the groups of the coins (Kabarna coins) that read as ’yk/wrtw [M]R’y – “The King Daivurtu” (see. Rtveladze E.V. Pre-Muslim Coins ... Р. 325, Pl. I, 8-9). However, in his last researches E. V. Rtveladze reads the legend in this type of coins as: xnknw xwβ… and stoppes at the view that the existence of a plae name of kprnw (Каbarna) on it is very probable (Rtveladze E.V. Istoriya i numizmatika Chacha … S. 62-63). Later E.V. Rtveladze proposed to read the legend as: pny xwβw xnβ’z/n – “The coin of the King xnβ’z/n” (Shagalov V.D., Kuznetsov A.V. Catologue ... P. 93).

8 Type I. According to E.V.Rtveladze this type of legend in the coins was read in his new book named «The history and numismatics of Chach» (The second half of III c.–the middle of VIII c. A.D.) as: ysβr β’γ’δwr ywLk (?) – «Ishbara Bagadur İylig?» (Rtveladze E.V. Istoriya i numizmatika Chacha … S. 64-65). According to it, these coins should be related with İrbis Ishbara Djabgu-han (640-641) the ruler of Western Türkic Qaghanate. However, E.V. Rtveladze finally now is proposing the following reading: [ZNH] pny tδwn šwγ’... – “[This] coin belongs to the Tudun of Sh/Savga[r]” (Shagalov V.D., Kuznetsov A.V. Catologue ... P. 85); Type II. This kind of coins were first read by E.V. Rtveladze as follows: β... (kp)rnw (?) xwβ? – “B… The King of Kabarna (?)» (Rtveladze E.V. Istoriya i numizmatika Chacha ... S. 35; Rtveladze E.V. Pre-Muslim Coins ... Р. 325, pl. I, 10). And in his last researches he suggests to read the phrases as following: č’čynk MR’Y ’w’βh ? – «The King of Chach’w’βh ?” (Rtveladze E.V. Istoriya i numizmatika Chacha … S. 61-62); Type II. According to E.V. Rtveladze this type of legend in the coins was read in his new book named «The history and numismatics of Chach» (The second half of III c.–the middle of VIII c. AD.) as: ysβr β’γ’δwr ywLk (?) – «Ishbara Bagadur İylig?» (Rtveladze E.V. Istoriya i numizmatika Chacha … S. 64-65). According to him, these coins should be related with İrbis Ishbara Djabgu-han (640-641) of the Western Türkic qaghan. However, E.V. Rtveladze finally now is proposing the following reading: [ZNH] pny tδwn šwγ’... – “[This] coin belongs to the Tudun of Sh/Savga[r]” (Shagalov V.D., Kuznetsov A.V. Catologue ... Р. 85).

9 These type of coins has been read as γwβw “King” in Sogdian due to fact that have not been found more clear types (Rtveladze E.V. Numizmaticheskie materialy ... S. 37).

10 Photos and detailed representations showed in the article presented in some articles, monography and catalogues, published by the author. On this reason in this article is presented photos and detailed representations of all exemplar of coins with phrase “Türk-qaghan” found till contemporary period.

11 Babayarov G. Drevnetyurkskie monety Chachskogo oazisa (VI–VIII vv. n.e). – Tashkent, 2007. S. 74.

12 Babayar G. Köktürk Kağanlığı sikkeleri Katalogu - The Catalogue of coins of Turkic Qaghanate. Ankara:TİKA, 2007. S. 19-22.

13 Smirnova O.I. Svodnyy katalog sogdiyskikh monet. Bronza. Moskva, 1981. S. 61; Thierry F. Sur les monnaies des Türgesh // Coins, Art and Chronology. Ed. M. Alram and E. Deborah. Wien, 1999. Р. 321-322

14 Babayar G., Kubatin A. K voprosu monetnogo chekana Zapadno-Tyurkskogo kaganata (na osnove numizmaticheskikh materialov Tashkentskogo oazisa) // Tyurkologiya. № 6. Turkestan, 2005. S. 97-105; Babayarov G. Drevnetyurkskie monety ... S. 26-29.

15 Moravcsik Gy. Byzantinoturcica. II‚ Berlin‚ 1958. P. 130‚ 275‚ 291; Dobrovits M. Silsiboulos // Archivum Ottomanicum. Edited by Gy. Hazai. 25 (2008). Harrassowitz Verlag – Wiesbaden, 2008. P. 70-73

16 Chavannes E. Documents sur les Tou-Kiue (Turks) occidentaux. SPb., 1903, P. 226-228; Moravcsik G. Byzantinoturcica. II, Berlin, 1958. P. 130.

17 Bichurin N.Y. Sobranie svedeniy o narodakh, obitavshikh v Sredney Azii v drevnie vremena. Т. I. М.- L., 1950. S. 279, 283, 289.

18 al-Istakhri, Abu Ishak al-Farisi. Viae regnorum, ed. M.J. de Goeje, BGA, pars 1. Lugduni-Batavorum: E.J.Brill, 1967. P. 345; Hudud al-‘Alam, the regions of the world, a Persian geography, translated and explained by V. Minorsky. London, 1970. P. 117, 357.

19 Baytanaev B.A. Voprosy lokalizatsii Nudjiketa // Novye issledovaniya po arkheologii Kazakhstana/ Trudy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii “Margulanovskie chteniya - 15». Almaty, 2004. S. 67–70, prim. 25.

20 Babayarov G. The Tamghas of the Co-rulering Ashina and Ashida Dynasties as Royal Tamgas of the Turkic Kaghanate // Traditional Marking Systems: A Preliminary Survey (International Seminar and Exhibition. Seals‚ symbols and tamghas). Edited by Joam Evans Pim, Sergey A. Yatsenko, Oliver T. Perrin. London; Dover, Dankling Books, 2010. P. 394­395; Babayarov G. Kubatin A. K voprosu o genezise tamg na monetakh Zapadno-Tyurkskogo kaganata // Materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii: “Arkheologiya Kazakhstana v epokhu nezavisimosti: itogi, perspektivy», posvyashennoy 20-letiyu nezavisimosti Respubliki Kazakhstan i 20-letuyu institute Arkheologii im. A.Kh. Margulana 12-15 dekabrya 2011 g., g. Almaty. Тom II. Almaty, 2011. S. 295-303).

21 Zuev Yu.A. Tamgi loshadey iz vassal’nykh knyazhestv // Novye materialy po drevney i srednevekovoy istorii Kazakhstana. Alma-Almata. Izd-vo AN KazSSR, 1960. s. 132.

22 Rtveladze E.V. Istoriya i numizmatika ... S. 87-88; Ilyasov J.Ya. On a number of Central Asian Tamghas // Silk Road Art and Archaeology. Vol. IX, Kamakura, 2003. Р. 157, pl. II, 11; , Zeymal’ E.V. The Circulation of Coins in Central Asia during the Early Medieval period (Fifth-Eighth Centuries A.D.) // Bulleten of the Asia Institute. New series. Vol. 8. Bloomfield hills, 1994. Р. 258, fig. 5, 8; Babayarov G., Kubatin A. Tamgi kak istochik po istorii vzaimootnasheniy Chacha I Tokharistana v rannem srednevekov’e (na osnovee numizmaticheskogo materiala) // O’zbekiston tarixi‚ №1‚ 2010. S. 3­13.




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