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Branches of Comparative Typology as to two plans of language



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Referati mavzu Badiiy gimnastika mashg‘ulotlarini tashkil qilis, onun ustuvorligi fuarolik zhamiyatin, 4-mavzu, 02. GLOSSARIY, 01 MARUZA MATNI 763c0d098935187e80a0a1cf77c41178, [Muhin YU.N., Gabushin V.N., Unegova T.A.] Geometr(BookFi), Аттестация Баённома феврал 2022 йил, YUPITER SAYYORASI, TARIX ALISHER NAMOZOV, Xalqaro tijorat arbitraji, Xalqaro tijorat arbitraji, Xalqaro tijorat arbitraji, 3032100793, akmaljon
2.Branches of Comparative Typology as to two plans of language 
Formal typology
deals with the units of expression plan of the language which 
belongs to various levels of language hierarchy. 
The ultimate goal of Formal typology is identifying formal universals. The major 
tasks of Formal typology embrace but are not limited to the following:

reveal external or formal features of the language;

establish common principles of thescript, e.g. graphic systems, alphabets, 
thesystem of transcription signs, punctuation;

establish formal structures of the syllable, composite words, word 
combinations;

establish theformal structure of the sentence etc. 
Semantic typology
is a branch of Comparative Typology studying thesemantic 
structure of the language and related to the units of content plan. The ultimate goal 
of Semantic typology is identifying semantic universals which are directly related to 
the deep structure of the language. Other issues considered in the frames of Semantic 
typology are: identifying aims and problems of Semantic typology, defining 
different semantic fields for comparative analysis, grouping words on the basis of 


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semantic signs, defining semantic fields in different languages, creating criteria to 
define semantic categories, elaboration of the principles of compiling semantic 
comparative dictionaries and many others. 
Some scholars debate that there is no need to distinguish Semantic typology into 
a separate branch as similar issues are studied under the scope of Lexical typology. 
The major difference between the two seems to lie in the following: Semantic 
typology operates with the units of theemic level and is indifferent to theethic 
identity of compared languages. 
 
3.The comparison may be of two types: 
substantial 
and 
non-substantial. 
Under 
substantial comparison,
linguists mean comparison of some concrete 
things or objects, e.g. sounds, digits, numbers, etc. Under 
non-substantial 
comparison,
linguists mean comparison of systems and their elements. 
At the early stages of development of typology as a science, the major role is 
longed to the substantial comparison, which is considered primary. Yuri 
Rojdenstvenskiy‘ wrote "...in General Linguistics the relations between language 
systems based on substantial features. The languages were considered cognate 
because the linguists found principal similarity in their substance: sound and 
content». Non-substantial comparison played a significant role in shaping 
Comparative Typology as an independent science. 
There are two approaches to language description: 
internal 
and 
external. 
Internal approach
deals with the comparison of the systems of any concrete 
language. It is inner comparison within one concrete language. 
External approach
deals with the cross-language comparison.
Comparative Typology may compare language systems 
panchronically 
though they are living or dead; besides, it may compare language systems 
s
ynchronically 
and 
diachronically. 
The diachronic approach
is a stative study of a certain period. 
The 
synchronic approach 
is a dynamic one. 

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