Comparative Issues in Higher Education Policy Reform Peabody School of Education Fall 2004 lpo 3740 Wednesday 4: 10 – 7 pm payne 013 Stephen P. Heyneman Professor International Education Policy Department of Leadership



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Comparative Issues in Higher Education Policy Reform
Peabody School of Education
Fall 2004

LPO 3740

Wednesday 4:10 – 7 PM

Payne 013

Stephen P. Heyneman

Professor

International Education Policy

Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations

s.heyneman@vanderbilt.edu

Graduate Assistant: Marisa Pelczar

Marisa.p.pelczar@vanderbilt.edu



Introduction

As an institution, the university is about a thousand years old. Nevertheless, there are probably more students enrolled today, than all who have enrolled over the last 1,000 years. Clearly the university must be a different institution from what it once was.


But is it? Are there no functions that continue? Are all traditions abrogated in the face of technical and social change? Is the university totally different from what it has been in the past?
Clearly there are unprecedented pressures. Universities have to cope with mass enrollment. They have to make their curriculum relevant to global labor markets. They have to manage new technologies, and adhere to new criteria for equity and administrative efficiency. Managers of higher education institutions in the U. S. understand these pressures, but do managers in other parts of the world experience them as well? If pressures are international, then how have universities responded in other parts of the world? And if universities and higher education systems have been responding to many of the same pressures as in the U.S. have they found innovations that might be useful to adapt within the U. S.? Is it possible that higher education reforms are ‘tradable’, and might that ‘trade’ be in more than one direction?
This course is designed for those who want to know more about the international side of this important sector. It will be geared to those with an interest in higher education administration. But also welcome are students with interests in economic development, area and regional studies, and the disciplines of educational economics, sociology, and comparative education.
Course Syllabus
The course will be divided into three equal parts. Each part will be subdivided into smaller units.
Part one will concentrate on the origins of higher education. It will be used to ensure that all class members begin with a similar understanding of higher education principles and models. It will cover, albeit briefly, the development of higher education in Europe in the 12th Century and its influence on the Reformation. It will cover the beginning legal frameworks in the United States, Britain and the Commonwealth, Germany, France and Russia. At the end of Part I, students should have a basic introduction of the major 20th century models of university systems.
Part two will concentrate on the social and economic changes, which have placed new pressures on the university systems for revisions of their policies and structures. These will be divided into several general categories of policy changes: admissions and equity, governance, finance and efficiency in administration. The course will cover recent policy changes in Britain, Western and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. A special section will be devoted to developing countries in the context of policy reforms associated with loans from the World Bank. At the end of part two, students should have a general, but fairly comprehensive picture of the nature of the pressures on university systems around the world, and the degree to which they are comparable.
Part three of this course will include a discussion of the pressures on universities which are emerging now and which may precipitate a new set of reforms. This section will include issues of distance education, commercialization, Internet technologies, international trade and the concomitant pressure for local protection against ‘higher education imperialism’.

Requirements

Students will be expected to:




  1. Make one or more presentations to help generate a good discussion

  2. Contribute creatively and in an informed manner to class discussions on topical issues

  3. Submit a research paper covering a particular topic, and

  4. Take for a final ‘open book’ examination.

The final exam (35%) and the term paper (35%) will count for 70% of the total grade. Class presentation and discussions will count for 30%.


There will be no midterm. Since most of the grade will occur with products handed in at the end of the course, attention to detail throughout the semester will be essential for high performance.
Term papers and examinations will require the use of formal academic standards of citation and referencing. Students should be familiar with either the University of Chicago Manual of Style or the American Psychological Association manual. Inattention to bibliographic standards will reduce the grade on the paper or examination by one half of point. Here are their websites:
http://library.osu.edu/sites/guides/chicagogd.html
http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
Mastery of detail in the background reading is not required. Each article however, has a particular point. Students who have done very well in this class previously have read extensively and have learned to summarize the essence of the articles in a concise manner.
Class Methodology
Classes will combine lecture, discussion and small group exercises. Students are expected to contribute to class discussions by sharing their understanding of the readings, and by responding to questions set for debate. Students will take the lead in many classes by framing the discussion of readings or presenting cases for discussion. Students will learn how to use household survey data to economic estimate models that can be used for policy evaluation.


Materials

Materials for the course will be divided into four categories: required, recommended, case study and others as relevant background.




  • Required readings are in a classpak that can be purchased at Campus Copy.




  • Required readings are also available on electronic reserves


http://eres.library.vanderbilt.edu/
password = heyn3740


  • Recommended readings will be available on library (hard copy) reserves




  • Case study materials will be on library reserve.




  • Background materials will be available in the library, but not on reserve.


Honor Code
I support the Undergraduate and the Graduate Honor Codes. Students are expected to do their own work on all assignments. Any evidence of cheating on exams, the paper, or the statistical assignments will be reported to the Honor Council. Cheating includes but is not limited to copying the exams of other students, plagiarism, and having others estimate and/or interpret your statistical models on the statistical assignments.
Questions and logistical problems? Ask:
Marisa Pelczar Marisa.p.Pelczar@vanderbilt.edu


Expected Results

At the end of the course, students should be able to identify particular pressures experienced by university systems in different parts of the world, the degree to which different historical origins guide university responses, and the differences in the policy innovation in one part of the world over another.


At the end of the course, students should be able to place the university systems in the U.S. in comparative perspective. They should be able to identify areas of policy innovation where US universities may play a leading role, and other areas where U.S. universities may, in one way or another, be behind by comparison to other parts of the world. Lastly, students should have a fairly keen sense of the coming issues where new pressures may make new policy reforms necessary.

Part I Principal Origins and Models of Higher Education




Part II: Current Reform Issues in Higher Education Management and Finance




Part III. Future Issues


Requirements
Oral Presentation
Each student will be asked to read and help summarize the background material relevant to the session topic, present the major issues, and open up questions for discussion.

Term Paper

Each student will choose a topic for a research paper. Topics should be approved by September 14. A detailed outline of the paper will be due by September 28, and the final draft due by December 7th.

Topics may be taken from the following:


  • Special policy reform themes: e.g.: admissions procedures, financial diversification, privatization, student loan schemes, student affairs, etc.




  • A national reform program assisted by lending of the World Bank




  • Particular regional reforms in Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, etc.



Final Examination

A final essay examination will be designed to incorporate the most important themes of the course. Students will be permitted to take the examination in the privacy of their homes.



General Contribution to discussion

Higher education reform includes issues which value-laden, strongly held and sometimes contentious. The discussions in class will maximize the importance and sensitivity of these issues by encouraging formal and informal debate. Students will be expected to be well prepared from the reading material, participate actively, and be constructive in their style of discourse.



Readings: (Required readings can be found in both e-reserve format and in the coursepak; recommended readings are found only on e-reserve)
Section I Origins and Models

August 31st , September 7th , September 14th and September 28th

Required:


Altbach, Philip G., “Patterns in Higher Education Development: Towards the Year 2000,” pp. 21 –36 in Morsy, Zaghloul and Philip G. Altbach (eds.) Higher Education in an International Perspective: Critical Issues. New York: Garland Publishers, Inc., 1996.


Brennan, J. and T. Shah, “ Higher Education Policy in the United Kingdom,” pp. 290 – 315 in Goedegebuur et. al. (eds.) Higher Education Policy: An International Perspective.
Clark, Burton and Ted Youn, “ Continental and British Models of Academic Organization, “ in Youn, Ted and Patricia Murphy, (eds.) Organizational Studies in Higher Education. New York: Garland Publishing, 1997.
Finegold, David, “The Changing International Economy and Its Impact on Education and Training,” pp. 57 – 83 in Finegold et.al.(eds.) Something Borrowed Something Blue Something Borrowed Something Blue? A Study of the Thatcher Government’s Appropriation of American Education and Training Policy Oxford Studies in Comparative Education (part one) Vol. 2 (2),
Franckmann, E. and E. de Weert, “ Higher Education Policy in Germany,” pp. 132 – 62 in Goedegebuur et. al. (eds.) Higher Education Policy: An International Perspective.
Geiger, Roger, “The Institutional Fabric of the Higher Educational System, ‘ In Burton Clark and Guy Neave, eds. (1992) The Encyclopedia of Higher Education, pp. 1031 – 1047.
Halsey, A. H. “ British Universities and Intellectual Life,” pp. 502 –13 in Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.) Education, Economy and Society.
Heyneman, Stephen. “Economic Reform and the International Trade in Education Reform,” Prospects XXVII no. 4 (December, 1997), pp. 501 – 31.
Husen, Torsten, “The Idea of a University: Changing Roles, Current Crisis and Future Challenges,” pp. 3 – 21 in Zaghloul Morsy and Philip G. Altbach, eds. (1996) Higher Education in International Perspective, New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1996.
Johnson, Jean, “Trends in Higher Education Science and Engineering,” International Higher Education No. 24 (Summer, 2001), pp. 4-5
Jones, Hywel Ceri, “ Promoting Higher Education’s Contribution to the Developing European Community,” pp. 191 – 203 in Morsy and Johnstone (eds.) Higher Education in an International Perspective.
Kaiser, F. and Guy Neave, “Higher Education Policy in France,” pp. 104 –32 in Leo Goedegebuur, Frans Kaiser, Peter Maassen, Lynn Meek, Frans va Vught and Egbert de Weert (eds.) Higher Education Policy: An International Perspective, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1994.
Kaye, Tony and Greville Rumble, “ Open Universities: A Comparative Approach,” pp. 46 – 59 in Morsy and Altbach (eds.) Higher Education in an International Perspective

Lange, Thomas Rethinking Higher Education: On the Future of Higher Education in Britain. London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 1998.


Kivinen, Osmo and Risto Rinne, “Changing Higher Education Policy: Three Western Models,” pp. 169 – 78 in Morsy and Altbach (eds.) Higher Education in an International Perspective.
Perkins, Harold, “The Historical Perspective,” in Burton Clark, ed. (1984) Perspectives on Higher Education: Eight Disciplinary and Comparative Views, pp. 17 – 55.
Perkins, Harold, “The History of Universities,” in Altbach, ed. (1991) International Higher Education: An Encyclopedia, pp 169 – 204.
Porter, Paige and Lesley Vidovich Globalization and Higher Education Policy Educational Theory 50 No. 4 (Fall, 2000) pp. 449 – 465.
Thelot, Claude, The Organization of Studies in the French University System. Washington D.C.: The World Bank, November, 1998.
Recommended:
Ashby, Sir Eric, “ On Universities and the Scientific Revolution,” pp. 466 – 477 in Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.) Education, Economy and Society
Bowman, Mary Jean, “The Land Grant Colleges and Universities in Human Resource Development,” Human Resource Development (mimeo)
Brian, David Robertson and Jerold L. Waltman, “The Politics of Policy Borrowing,” pp. 25 – 49 in David Finegold, Laurel McFarland and William Richardson, Something Borrowed Something Blue? A Study of the Thatcher Government’s Appropriation of American Education and Training Policy Oxford Studies in Comparative Education (part one) Vol. 2 (2), 1992.
Clark, Burton R. Places of Inquiry: Research and Advanced Education in Modern Universities Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995
Clark, Burton R., “ The ‘Cooling Out’ Function in Higher Education,” pp. 513 – 27 in Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.) Education, Economy and Society
Ginzberg, Eli, “Education and National Efficiency in the USA,” pp. 68 – 80 in A.H. Halsey, Jean Floud, and C. Arnold Anderson, Education, Economy and Society, New York: Free Press, 1961.

Goldschmidt, Deitrich, “Teachers in Institutions of Higher Education Learning in Germany,” pp. 577 89 in Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.) Education, Economy and Society.


Halsey, A. H. “The Changing Functions of Universities,” pp. 456 – 66 in Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.), Education Economy and Society
Heyneman, Stephen. “Education in the Europe and Central Asia Region: Policies of Adjustment and Excellence,” pp. 1-37 in F.J.H. Mertons (ed.) Reflections on Education in Russia. Amersfort: Acco, 1994.
Heyneman, Stephen. Issues of Education Finance and Management in Europe and Central Asia and in OECD Countries,” Washington DC: World Bank, HRO Working Paper # 26, 1994
Heyneman, Stephen. “The Transition from Party/State to Open Democracy: The Role of Education,” International Journal of Educational Development 18 No. 1 (1988), pp. 449 – 66
Judge, Harry, Michel Lemosse, Lynn Paine, and Michael Sedlak, The University and the Teachers: France, the U. S., England. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education vol. 4 (1/2), 1994
Levi, Edward, Point of View: Talks on Education, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1967, in particular: chapter 3, on the “Choices for a University”, pp. 31 – 42.
Meek, L. “Higher Education Policy in Australia,” pp. 13 – 49, in Goedegebuur et. al. (eds.) Higher Education Policy: An International Perspective.
Olmedilla, Juan M. Moreno, “Tradition and Change in National Examination Systems: A Comparison of Mediterranean and Anglo-Saxon Countries,” pp. 135 – 47 in Eckstein and Noah (eds.) Examinations: Comparative and International Studies.
Articles from Comparative Education. Edited by Ken Kempner, Marcela Mollis, William G. Tierney. ASHE Reader Series. Massachusetts: Simon and Schuster: 1998.
Altbach, Philip. “Patterns in Higher Education Development: Towards the Year 2000.”

Epstein, Erwin. “The Problematic Meaning of “Comparison” in Comparative Education”.

Kogan, Maurice. “Comparing Higher Education Systems.”

Noah, Harold. “The Use and Abuse of Comparative Education.”

Nakayama, Shigeru. “Independence and Choice: Western Impacts on Japanese Higher Education.”

Neave, Guy and Gary Rhoades. “The Academic Estate in Western Europe.”



Section II: Reform of Higher Education Management and Finance


October 5th , October 12th , October 26th, November 2nd, November 9th.

Required:


Albornoz, Orlando, “Autonomy and Accountability in Higher Education,” pp. 36 – 46 in Morsey and Altbach (eds.) Higher Education in an International Perspective.
Brown, Michael A. and David M. Wolf, “Allocating Budgets Using Performance Criteria,” pp. 173- 89 in Altbach and Johnstone (eds.) The Funding of Higher Education: International Perspectives.
Colcough, Christopher, “Diversifying the Funding of Tertiary Institutions: Is the Bank’s Agenda the Right One,” in Lene Buchert and Kenneth King (eds.) Learning From Experience: Policy and Practice in Aid to Higher Education.
Dogramaci, Ihsan, “ Sources of Revenue,” pp. 71 – 83 in Altbach and Johnstone (eds.) The Funding of Higher Education: International Perspectives.
Eicher, Jean-Claude and Thierry Chevailler, “Rethinking the Financing of Post-Compulsory Education,” pp. 90 – 111 in Morsy and Altbach (eds.) Higher Education in an International Perspective.
Furstenbach, John, “ University Strategies for the Third Stream of Income,” pp. 45 – 61 in Altbach and Johnstone (eds.) The Funding of Higher Education: International Perspectives.
Hazeu, Cornelius A. and Peter A. Lourens, “Changing Patters in the Funding of University Education and Research: the Case of the Netherlands,” pp. 189 – 207 in Altbach and Johnstone (eds.) The Funding of Higher Education: International Perspectives.
Heyneman. “Uses of Examinations in Developing Countries: Selection, Research and Education Sector Improvement,” International Journal of Educational Development 7 No. 4 (1987), pp. 251 – 63.
Heyneman, Stephen and Ingemar Fagerlind (eds.) University Examinations and Standardized Testing: Principles, Experience, and Policy Options Washington D.C.: The World Bank, 1988 (chapters on England, the U.S., Australia, Japan and China).
Johnstone, Bruce D. and Pretti Shroff-Mehta Higher Education Finance and Accessibility: An International Comparative Examination of Tuition and Financial Assistance Policies Center for Comparative and Global Studies in Education State University at Buffalo, New York. February, 2000.
Johnstone, Bruce D., “The Costs of Higher Education: Worldwide Issues and Trends for the 1990s,” pp. 3 – 25 in Philip G. Altbach and D. Bruce Johnstone, The Funding of Higher Education: International Perspectives, New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1993.
*Johnstone, Bruce D. “The Fiscal Future of Higher Education: Austerity and Accessability” Pullias Lecture Series On Higher Education, September, 15, 2003. (Marisa: copy waiting for you on my desk)
Johnstone, D. Bruce with Alka Arora and William Experton, The Financing and Management of Higher Education: A Status Report on Worldwide Reforms, Washington D.C.: World Bank, 1998
Johnstone, D. Bruce, “Higher Education in the U. S. in the Year 2000,” pp. 178 – 191 in Morsy and Johnstone (eds.) Higher Education in an International Perspective.
Leonteva, M. Tjeerd Plomp and J. M. Voogt, “Examination Practices in the Russian Federation: Present Situation and Perspectives for Development,” pp. 51 – 61 in Joke Voogt and Tjeerd Plomp (eds.) Education Standards and Assessment in the Russian Federation. Acco: Amersfoort, 1998.
Massey, William F. and Michael C. Hulfactor, “Optimizing Allocation Strategy,” pp. 25 – 45 in Albacht and Johnstone (eds.) The Funding of Higher Education: International Perspectives.
Mauch, James E. and Daniel S. Fogel, “Issues in Funding Higher Education in Eastern Europe,” pp. 207 – 37 in Altbach and Johnstone (eds.) The Funding of Higher Education: International Perspectives.
McFarland, Laurel, “Top-up Student Loans: American Models of Student Aid and British Public Policy,” pp. 49-69, in Finegold et. al. (eds.) Something Borrowed, Something Blue (part two), (see reference above).
Muhle, Eduard (ed.) Perspectives on the Reform of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Conference held by the German Rectors’ Conference at the Villa Vigoni, Menaggio, Italy, 1993. Bonn: Hochschule Rektoren Konferenz, 1994
Pascoe, Susan and Robert Pascoe, Education Reform Australia, 1992 – 1997: A Case Study, Washington D.C.: The World Bank, 1998.
Psacharopoulos, George, “The Future of Higher Education Financing,” pp. 61 – 71 in Altbach and Johnstone (eds.) The Funding of Higher Education: International Perspectives.
Sadlak, Jan, “The Development of Higher Education in Eastern And Central Europe and the Aftermath of Recent Changes,” pp. 157 – 69 in Morsy and Altbach (eds.) Higher Education in an International Perspective.
Thompson, Quentin, Trends in Governance and management of Higher Education, Washington D.C.: The World Bank, November, 1998.
Travernier, Karel, “Are University Finding Systems in Need of an Over-Haul?” pp 83 – 101 in Altbach and Johnstone (eds.) The Funding of Higher Education: International Perspectives.
Tilak, Jandhyala B. G. “The Privatization of Higher Education,” pp. 59 – 72 in Morsy and Altbach (eds.) Higher Education in an International Perspective.
Tilak, Jandhyala BG, On Pricing Higher Education New Delhi: University Grants Commission, 1995
Walford, Geoffrey, “The Reform of Higher Education”(U.K.) pp. 186 – 201 in Madeleine Arnot and Len Barton (eds.) Voicing Concerns: Sociological Perspectives on Contemporary Education Reforms Triangle Books Ltd.:Wallingford, Oxfordshire, 1992.
West, Edwin G. Britain’s Student Loan Scheme in World Perspective: A Critique London:

Institute of Economic Affairs, 1994.


Wilson, Brian G., “Higher Education Funding in Australia,” pp. 253 – 71 in Altbach and Johnstone (eds.) The Funding of Higher Education: International Perspectives.
World Bank Higher Education: Lessons of Experience Washington D.C.: World Bank, 1994
Recommended:
Heyneman, Stephen and Angela Ransom, “ Using Examinations and Testing to Improve Educational Quality,” pp. 105 – 121 in Max A. Eckstein and Harold J. Noah, Examinations: Comparative and International Studies Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1992.
Heyneman, Stephen P. Russia: Education in the Transition. Washington D.C.: World Bank, 1994 (section on higher education).
Merrill Lynch, The Book of Knowledge: Investing in the Growing Education and Training Industry. San Francisco: Merrill Lynch, 1999.
Noah, Harold J. and Max A. Eckstein, “The Two Faces of Examinations: A Comparative and International Perspective,” pp. 147 – 171 in Eckstein and Noah (eds.) Examinations: Comparative and International Studies.
Plomp, Tjeerd and Joke Voogt, Entrance to Higher Education: Problems and Dilemmas with the Transition from Secondary to Tertiary Education in the Russian Federation Twente: University of Twente, Faculteit der Toegepaste Onderwijskunde, 1994. (mimeo).
Boyer, Ernest L., Philip G. Altbach and Mary Jean Whitelaw, The Academic Profession: An International Perspective. Princeton: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1994.
Hanson, Katharine H. and Meyerson, Joel W. International Challenges to American Colleges and Universities: Looking Ahead Phoenix, Arizona: Oryx Press and the American Council on Education,1995

Lenn, Margarie Pearce, Johnson, Miasia E. and Miller, Bradley D. (eds.) Quality Assurance of Higher Education and Professional Practice in the Global Context Washington D.C.: Center for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, 2001.


Selvaratnam, Viswanathan, Innovations in Higher Education: Singapore at the Competitive Edge. Washington DC: World Bank Technical Paper number 222, Asia Technical Department Series, 1994.
Seville, Adrian and James Tooley, The Debate on Higher Education: Challenging the Assumptions, London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 19

Articles from Comparative Education. Edited by Ken Kempner, Marcela Mollis, William G. Tierney. ASHE Reader Series. Massachusetts: Simon and Schuster: 1998.


Carnoy, Martin. “The Political Economy of Education.”

Psacharopolous, George. “Higher Education in Developing Countries: The Scenario of the Future.”

Acker, Sandra. “New Perspectives on an Old Problem: The Position of Women Academics in British Higher Education.”

Altbach, Philip and Lionel Lewis. “The Academic Profession in International Perspective.”

Clark, Burton. “Work.”

Clark, Burton. “Places of Inquiry.”

Hountondji, Paulin. “Producing Knowledge in Africa Today.”

Kempner, Ken and Makino Misao. “Cultural Influences on the Construction of Knowledge in Japanese Higher Education.”

Twombly, Susan. “Culture and the Role of Women in a Latin American University.”

Altbach, Philip. “The Dilemma of Change in Indian Higher Education.”

Levy, Daniel. “the Decline of Latin American Student Activism.”

Mollis, Marcela. “The Paradox of the Autonomy of Argentine Universities”

Schwartzman, Simon. “Latin America: Higher Education in a Lost Decade.”

Tierney, William. “Cultural Politics in a Latin American University”

Altbach, Philip. “Higher Education in Advanced Developing Countries.”

Cerych, Ladislav. “The Policy Perspective.”

Kent, Rollin. “What is Changing in Mexican Public Universities in the Face of Recent Policy Initiatives for Higher Education?”

Easton, Peter and Steven Klees. “Conceptualizing the Role of Education in the Economy.”

Saha, Lawrence. “Universities and National Development: Issues and Problems in Developing Countries.”

Freeman, Kassie. “Equality of Higher Education in Post-Communist Hungary and Poland.”

Fry, Gerald and Ken Kempner. “A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.”

Levy, Daniel. “Latin America’s Private Universities: Western Impacts on Japanese.”

Atteh, Samuel. “The Crisis in Higher Education in Africa.”

Ordorika, Imanol. “Reform at Mexico’s National Autonomous University: Hegemony or Bureaucracy.”

Schwartzman, Simon. “Policies for Higher Education in Latin America: The Context”

Singh, Jasbir Sarjit. “Higher Education and Development: The Experience of Four Newly Industrializing Countries in Asia.”

Wu, Wen-Hsing, Shun-Fen Chen and Chen-Tsou Wu. “The Development of Higher Education in Taiwan.”


Section III: Future Issues

November 16th, November 23rd. November 30th, December 7th.


Required:

Ascher, Bernard “Education and Training Services in International Trade Agreements,” Remarks prepared for the Conference on Higher Education and Training in the Global Marketplace: Exporting Issues and Trade Agreements, Department of Commerce, May 10, 2001


Breslin, Megan J. “Planet University” University Business (January/February, 1999), pp. 29 – 39
Contreras, Alan L. “International Diploma Mills Grow with the Internet,” International Higher Education No. 24 (Summer, 2001), pp. 5 – 6.
Cowen, Tyler and Sam Papenfuss, “ The Economics of For-Profit Higher Education,” Fairfax, Virginia, Department of Economics, George Mason University, 1999 (mimeo).
Currie, Janice and Lesley Vidovich, “Privatization and Competition Policies for Australian Universities,” International Journal of Educational Development 20 No. 2 (March, 2000), pp. 135 – 153.
Heyneman, Stephen P. “Educational Qualifications: the Economic and Trade Issues,” Angela Little (ed.) Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice (special issue on Globalization, Qualifications and Livelihoods) vol. 7 No. 3 (forthcoming, October, 2000)
Heyneman, Stephen. “The growing international commercial market for educational goods and services,” International Journal of Educational Development, 21, 2001, pp. 345-359.
Rui, Yang “China’s Entry into the WTO and Higher Education”, International Higher Education No. 24 (Summer, 2001), pp. 9- 10.
Shumar, Wersley, College For Sale: A Critique of the Commodification of Higher Education. London: Falmer Press, 1997. Chapters 4 and 5.
Whitty Geoff and Sally Power, “Marketization and Privatization in Mass Education Systems,” International Journal of Educational Development 20 No. 2 (March, 2000), pp. 93 – 109.
WTO. U.S. Proposal to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Higher (Tertiary) Education, Adult Education and Training, December, 2000.
Recommended:
Shumar, Wersley, College For Sale: A Critique of the Commodification of Higher Education. London: Falmer Press, 1997. Chapters 3 and 6.
Tooley, James, Education Without the State. London: Institute of Economic Analysis, 1996. (Chapter 6: The Learning Society and the Market).
Tooley, James, The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. Washington D.C.: International Finance Corporation, 1999 (Part II, factors for success, Part IV, regulation and investment climate, and Part V, Conclusions and policy proposals).
Articles from Comparative Education. Edited by Ken Kempner, Marcela Mollis, William G. Tierney. ASHE Reader Series. Massachusetts: Simon and Schuster: 1998
Buchbinder, Howard. “The Market Oriented University and the Changing Role of Knowledge.”

Habermas, Jurgen. “The University in a Democracy—Democratization of the University.”

Ben-David, Joseph and Awraham Zloczower. “Universities and Academic Systems in Modern Societies.”

Geiger, Roger. “Public and Private Sectors in Higher Education: A Comparison of International Patterns.”

Tilak, Jandhyala. “The Privatization of Higher Education.”

Torres, Carlos Alberto. “The Capitalist State and Public Policy Formation: Framework for a Political Sociology of Educational Policy Making.”


Additional reading:
Boyer, Ernest L., Philip G. Altbach and Mary Jean Whitelaw, The Academic Profession: An International Perspective. Princeton: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1994.
Hanson, Katharine H. and Meyerson, Joel W. International Challenges to American Colleges and Universities: Looking Ahead Phoenix, Arizona: Oryx Press and the American Council on Education,1995

Lenn, Margarie Pearce, Johnson, Miasia E. and Miller, Bradley D. (eds.) Quality Assurance of Higher Education and Professional Practice in the Global Context Washington D.C.: Center for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, 2001.


Selvaratnam, Viswanathan, Innovations in Higher Education: Singapore at the Competitive Edge. Washington DC: World Bank Technical Paper number 222, Asia Technical Department Series, 1994.
Seville, Adrian and James Tooley, The Debate on Higher Education: Challenging the Assumptions, London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 19
World Bank Documents
Since 1994, most internal documents of the World Bank are made available to the public. A list of the documents on education will be distributed in class. This list consists of about 600 titles in three categories:
Loan appraisal reports. These are official loan proposals, approved by the government and the Board.
Economic, sector and research documents. These are reports for the generation of discussion on specific issues, but which carry no direct obligation on the bank or its member states.
Policy papers. These are documents, widely discussed with borrowers and other development assistance agencies, and approved by the Board.
Any document can be obtained through the World Bank Web Site under ‘Infoshop’. Documents may be read on line for free, printed out (one page at a time) for free, or ordered at a cost of about $20. If there is any problem in accessing World Bank documents, please contact:
Hanna Jude

Information Officer, InfoShop

World Bank

1818 H Street, N.W.

Washington D.C., 20433

Tel: 202 473 - 1194

Fax: 202 614 – 1194

Email: hjude@worldbank.org






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