Inthis chapter,the writer will giveexplanationsabout several theories that are usestoanalyzetheproblemsofthisresearch. First, thewriter isgoing toexplain about theelementsoffiction whichisdivided intocharacter,symbol andtheme.Second isthe basic theory ofpostcolonialism.Third isthepartsofpostcolonialismtheory itself,they are orientalism,othernessand hibridity.Inaddition, to make this researchcomplete stereotypestudiesandfilmstudies willalsobeelaborated bythewriter. 2.1ElementsofFiction
Inordertoreadafiction,thetechniquesoffiction areneeded todescribe itsbasic elements.The basicelementsoffiction aredivided into several basicelementssuchas plot,character,setting, point ofview, styleandlanguage,symbol,irony, andtheme.In thispaper,thewriteronlyfocusesandexplainsaboutthreebasicelementsfromthestory suchascharacter,themeandsymbol. 2.1.1Character
FoundedonDiYanni(2000, p.55), character means people imagery about how writers create, identify,and judge them. Characterisdivided into major characterand minorcharacter.Animportantfigureinthemiddleofanactionstoryorthemeiscalleda major character.Typically,the major characterisconsideredas protagonistcharacter thathasaconflictamongantagonistcharacter.
Meanwhile,aminor characterisasupportingcharacterwho partially servestoexplain themajor character.Mostly,themajor characterisalso called around characterwhich hasmany sides andcomplexcharacter.Ontheother hand,theminor characterisoften called aflatcharacterwhich isonlycharacterizedbyoneortwocharacteristic(Perrine,
Based onLaurencePerrine,asymbol means somethingmore than what itis,it could beinterpretedasanobject, aperson, asituation,anaction oranyother items that has meaningwithin the story and also representsother meanings(1998, p.182). The ability toilluminatesymbols isrequiredtounderstandtheliterature.Thereaders should beawareofsymbolicmeaningsthroughthesesuggestions:first,thestoryshould provide aclue(which isdetail) tobetaken symbolically.Asymbol isalways presentedwith a signal of emphasis,repetitionor position.Second, the meaningof a literary symbol should beformed and supportedbythecontext ofthewhole story.Third, anitemmust provide othermeaningfrom itsliterary meaning,inordertobecalled asasymbol.Last, asymbol mayhave over thanonemeaninganddeliver acluster ofmeanings.(Perrine,
AccordingtoDiYanniatheme isitsideaformulatedasageneralization(2000, p.86). Meanwhile,Perrine said that atheme isapart offiction which controlscentral idea or insight (1998, p.102).Commencingtothose authors,itcan beconcludedthat
happening throughout the story and the contentof the story itself. There are six principlesabout theme;first, theme should beastatementwhich consistsofsubject and predicate. Second,theme should beinageneral statement.Third, donotmake the generalizationgreater than theterm ofthestory. Forth, theme isidentifiedasacentral conceptofastory. Fifth, the view oftheme can bestated inmore thanone way.And last,do not useany familiarstatementforexample"don'tjudge abook byitscover". (Perrine,1998,p.l07-109) 2.2Postcolonialism
Accordingto Elleke Boehmer(2005), Postcolonialismis not an independent word, it is a combination word of 'Post'and 'colonial'.Inshort, Oxford English Dictionarysuggests'Post'means becomingsomethingthat is posted or after, while
'Colonial' means an exploitation of weak people by large power. As a result,
Postcolonialismmeans somethingthathappenedafter colonization. Thefieldof Postcolonialismitself has been gainingsince 1970s tothe present day, which covers historical,political, andculturalofthecolony betweentheWest andnon-West. Postcolonialismisrelated toliteratureandattempts tofocusontheeffects ofoppression by those who were under colonial rule. Thereforethe postcolonialismis not about physicalcolonialismanymore,butmoreemphasizesonourideologywhich iscolonized byalargepower,asdescribedinBoehmer'squotationbelow: "Postcolonialismisthusanameforacritical theoreticalapproachinliteraryandcultural studies,but also, asimportantly,designatesapolitics oftransformationalresistanceto unjust and unequal forms ofpoliticalandculturalauthoritywhich extends backacross thetwentiethcentury,andbeyond."(Boehmer,2006,p.340)
Inanotherword, Postcolonialismisacritical approachwhich discussesabout theforms of resistanceagainst the inequality,politically and culturally.Inaddition, below is Postcolonialcritics do,basedonBeginningTheorybyPeterBarry(1995):
1. They refuse universalismmade byLiberal Humanismusing canonicalWestern literatureand try toshow its limitationsof view. It isfocus on boundariesof culturalandethnicdifference.
2. The real purpose of postcolonial literature is to represent other culture in literatureasawayofachievingthisend.
3. Usually,literature often explains inexplicitlyand criticallysilent on matters relatedtocolonisationandimperialism.
5. Postcolonialcritics celebratehybridityand'culturalpolyvalency',which means thesituationofindividualsandgroups, aresimply mixed.Theyareblended into more than one culture. (for instance,the coloniser,through a colonialschool system,andthatofthecolonised,through localandoraltraditions).
6. Improvingapoint ofview, notonly for postcolonialliteratures,butinstate or marginality, plurality. Italso perceived'otherness' as source of energy and potentialchange.
Furthermorethistheory willconductthedetail examinationoftwopostcolonialaspects that the writer has mentionedbefore, they areothernessand hybridity.Othernessisa western philosophicalof thought about non-west,seeks to critique and reject other
which is known as the 'East'. Meanwhile,hybridityis apostcolonialthoughtfor
hegemonicideas ofculturalidentity such as racialpurity andnationality whichmixedintoanew culture.