Chapter2 theoretical background

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In this chapter, the writer will give explanations about several theories that are uses to analyze the problems of this research. First, the writer is going to explain about the elements of fiction which is divided into character, symbol and theme. Second is the basic theory of postcolonialism. Third is the parts of postcolonialism theory itself, they are orientalism, otherness and hibridity. In addition, to make this research complete stereotype studies and film studies will also be elaborated by the writer.
2.1 Elements of Fiction

In order to read a fiction, the techniques of fiction are needed to describe its basic elements. The basic elements of fiction are divided into several basic elements such as plot, character, setting, point of view, style and language, symbol, irony, and theme. In this paper, the writer only focuses and explains about three basic elements from the story such as character, theme and symbol.
2.1.1 Character

Founded on DiYanni (2000, p.55), character means people imagery about how writers create, identify, and judge them. Character is divided into major character and minor character. An important figure in the middle of an action story or theme is called a major character. Typically, the major character is considered as protagonist character that has a conflict among antagonist character.

Meanwhile, a minor character is a supporting character who partially serves to explain the major character. Mostly, the major character is also called a round character which has many sides and complex character. On the other hand, the minor character is often called a flat character which is only characterized by one or two characteristic (Perrine,

1998, p.78).

2.1.2 Symbol

Based on Laurence Perrine, a symbol means something more than what it is, it could be interpreted as an object, a person, a situation, an action or any other items that has meaning within the story and also represents other meanings (1998, p.182). The ability to illuminate symbols is required to understand the literature. The readers should be aware of symbolic meanings through these suggestions: first, the story should provide a clue (which is detail) to be taken symbolically. A symbol is always presented with a signal of emphasis, repetition or position. Second, the meaning of a literary symbol should be formed and supported by the context of the whole story. Third, an item must provide other meaning from its literary meaning, in order to be called as a symbol. Last, a symbol may have over than one meaning and deliver a cluster of meanings. (Perrine,

1998, p.185-187)

2.1.3 Theme

According to DiYanni a theme is its idea formulated as a generalization (2000, p.86). Meanwhile, Perrine said that a theme is a part of fiction which controls central idea or insight (1998, p.102). Commencing to those authors, it can be concluded that

theme is the underlying idea from the entire story in general. It enlightens what is really

happening throughout the story and the content of the story itself. There are six principles about theme; first, theme should be a statement which consists of subject and predicate. Second, theme should be in a general statement. Third, do not make the generalization greater than the term of the story. Forth, theme is identified as a central concept of a story. Fifth, the view of theme can be stated in more than one way. And last, do not use any familiar statement for example "don't judge a book by its cover". (Perrine, 1998, p.l 07-109)
2.2 Postcolonialism

According to Elleke Boehmer (2005), Postcolonialism is not an independent word, it is a combination word of 'Post' and 'colonial'. In short, Oxford English Dictionary suggests 'Post' means becoming something that is posted or after, while

'Colonial' means an exploitation of weak people by large power. As a result,

Postcolonialism means something that happened after colonization. The field of Postcolonialism itself has been gaining since 1970s to the present day, which covers historical, political, and cultural of the colony between the West and non-West. Postcolonialism is related to literature and attempts to focus on the effects of oppression by those who were under colonial rule. Therefore the postcolonialism is not about physical colonialism anymore, but more emphasizes on our ideology which is colonized by a large power, as described in Boehmer's quotation below:
"Postcolonialism is thus a name for a critical theoretical approach in literary and cultural studies, but also, as importantly, designates a politics of transformational resistance to unjust and unequal forms of political and cultural authority which extends back across the twentieth century, and beyond." (Boehmer, 2006, p.340)

In another word, Postcolonialism is a critical approach which discusses about the forms of resistance against the inequality, politically and culturally. In addition, below is Postcolonial critics do, based on Beginning Theory by Peter Barry (1995):

1. They refuse universalism made by Liberal Humanism using canonical Western literature and try to show its limitations of view. It is focus on boundaries of cultural and ethnic difference.

2. The real purpose of postcolonial literature is to represent other culture in literature as a way of achieving this end.

3. Usually, literature often explains inexplicitly and critically silent on matters related to colonisation and imperialism.

4. The questions of cultural diversity are led and analysed regarding their treatment in relevant literary works.

5. Postcolonial critics celebrate hybridity and 'cultural polyvalency', which means the situation of individuals and groups, are simply mixed. They are blended into more than one culture. (for instance, the coloniser, through a colonial school system, and that of the colonised, through local and oral traditions).

6. Improving a point of view, not only for postcolonial literatures, but in state or marginality, plurality. It also perceived 'otherness' as source of energy and potential change.

Furthermore this theory will conduct the detail examination of two postcolonial aspects that the writer has mentioned before, they are otherness and hybridity. Otherness is a western philosophical of thought about non-west, seeks to critique and reject other

which is known as the 'East'. Meanwhile, hybridity is a postcolonial thought for

hegemonic ideas of cultural identity such as racial purity and nationality which mixed into a new culture.

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