A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share similar climates, rain fall, soil types, and organisms



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Biomes

A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share similar climates, rain fall, soil types, and organisms. oceans-biomes-and-currents-2




tundra

taiga

tundra

arctic: cold and dry
http://www.brockmann-consult.de/iavisa-info-web/images/fallback-climate-zone-classification.gif



temperature deciduous and temperate grassland

temperate means

there are seasons



seasons – hot and cold



desert


savannah and rainforest




tropics: hot and rainy




seasons – hot and cold



arctic: cold and dry




sunlight amount (latitude) + earth’s tilt = seasons/climate

climate = temperature and precipitation

climate + vegetation = world biomes


oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

There are seven major land biomes and

two major water biomes in the biosphere.


salt water

1
marine biome m_biomes


2
freshwater biome


1
tundra biome - alpine and arctic


2
coniferous forest biome – Taiga/Boreal


3
temperate grassland biome


4
temperate deciduous forest biome biome_graph


5
desert biome


6
savanna grassland biome


7
tropical rainforest biome


8? Chaparral Biome: Mediterranean –

shrubby coastal area; hot dry summer,



mild wet winter; California, Chile, Italy


Biomes - 2world_biomes_map


http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/world_biomes.htm



http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/tundra_button_sml.gif

Tundra

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/deciduous_button_sml.gif

Deciduous Forest

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/savanna_button_sml.gif

Savanna

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/taiga_button_sml.gif

Taiga

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/chaparral_button_sml.gif

Chaparral

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/rainforest_button_sml.gif

Rainforest

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/grasslands_button_sml.gif

Grasslands

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/desert_button_sml.gif

Desert

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/alpine_button_sml.gif

Alpine







http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/desert_scrub_button.gif

Desert-scrub







biome triangle

biomes_no_am

Biomes - 3

tundra biome:tundra_location_map001



High latitudes – Siberia, Yukon

Below 67° latitude;

right below the arctic circle


flat sloped land plateaus

There are two types of tundra.




Glaciers - flat
Arctic tundra is near the poles.


mountain – steep sloped
Alpine tundra is above the tree line of tall mountains. http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/life/images/tundra_usgs_sm.jpg

http://www.sciencesource2.ca/images/quiz_mountains.jpg

12-20 inches of rainfall each year. globe-arctic

54°F in the summer and - 14°F in the winter perpetually cold and windy.globe-arctic

Biomes - 4http://www.nps.gov/grsa/naturescience/images/grsa-marble_mt_avens_primro.jpg

The tundra biome:


soil is poor and allows only for shallow rooted plants to grow such as mosses, grasses, and small shrubs – no trees. http://www.aitc.sk.ca/saskschools/arctic/plants/tundra_blooms.jpgglobe-arctic
Permafrost is the soil below the surface. It stays frozen year round. http://www.infoescola.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/permafrost.jpgglobe-arctic


The ground is frozen 2-3 inches below the surface year round, so it cannot support deep rooted plants.

Soggy/marshy – when it rains, there is nowhere for the water to go.



Animals include polar bears, caribou, fox, owls.http://www.canada-photos.com/images/500/bear-fight_67-65.jpghttp://www.educationalimages.com/it040017.jpgglobe-arctic



arctic_fox

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/snowy_owl_chicks.jpg

Biomes – 5


evergreen trees –

higher latitudes


There are three types of forest biomes: globe-arctic


trees that lose their leaves because of the seasons – middle latitudes
Coniferous – also called Taiga or Boreal

Temperate deciduous




tropical latitudes - hot and wet
Tropical rain
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/taiga_location_map001.gif



just below the tundra

45° – 60° latitude


Taiga biome:

mountains –

northern temperate areas




http://thebirdzoo.com/thebirdzoo%20images/wakely-mtn-fire-tower-view-.jpg

http://www.animalcorner.co.uk/biomes/graphics/boreal.jpg
oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

The coniferous forest biome:

also called the Taiga or Boreal.globe-arctic

14-30 inches of rainfall each year.globe-arctic

average temperatures are 57°F in the summer globe-arctic

and 14°F in the winter; long cold winters and




short growing season
short cool summers

Biomes – 6http://www.wildernessclassroom.com/www/schoolhouse/boreal_library/animals/photos/wolf_pack.jpg

The Taiga:

areas consist mainly of thick forests of cone bearing evergreen trees.globe-arctic

animals include squirrels, bears, wolves, mountain globe-arctic

lions, and moose.http://huntdrop.com/uploads/gamecams/monster-moose2.jpg

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-vrmkswv_2km/tvc-vrxo5bi/aaaaaaaaaa0/nnyrggwg3bi/s1600/brown-bears-fishing_6.jpg

temperate deciduous forest biome:http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/deciduous_location_map001.gif




middle latitudes

30° – 50° seasonal



http://biomesduff.wikispaces.com/file/view/temperate_deciduous_forest_pic_2.jpg/311494362/temperate_deciduous_forest_pic_2.jpg



Angiosperms – flowers, fruits,

leaves fall off each year - litter





Biomes – 7oceans-biomes-and-currents-2http://0.static.wix.com/media/d6d1b9_b902d2b48a4d8fa15ae0867bd1acabb2.jpg_512

Temperate deciduous forest biome:globe-arctic

30-49 inches of rainfall each year.http://cf067b.medialib.glogster.com/media/68/68b687627799d7d51f41f48bc6cc127f312d2d54996def5c4e62baa75bdb85fe/white-tail.jpg

average temperatures are 83°F in the summer and 43°F in the winter. globe-arctic

forests lose their leaves every Fall globe-arctic

season which contributes to good soil.

variety of animal life.globe-arctic


thick soil for trees

Eastern Ohio

tropical rain forest biome:http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/rainforest_location_map001.gif

http://www.utc.edu/faculty/deborah-mcallister/imax/frog.jpg


tropics:

0° – 25° latitude



http://4e7221.medialib.glogster.com/media/e479002b2ffe694db4a353c73a484ced045485746c7059229d3aca3fa914f4c1/tropical-rainforest.jpghttp://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/rainforest.jpg

Biomes – 8http://www.wildernessclassroom.com/www/schoolhouse/rainforest_library/animal_images/macaw.jpg

The tropical rain forest biome:oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

contains more species than any other biome on the planet.globe-arctic

up to 160 inches of rainfall each year. globe-arctic




4-5 times the rain amount in Ohio
no seasons here. globe-arctic

average temperatures are 93°F in the day and globe-arctic

68°F at night.

top soil is very thin and poor for growing and farming because the rain washes the nutrients away – leaching; once trees are cut down, they do not grow back.globe-arctic

most species live up in the tree tops or canopyhttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/-1uwm32kprpy/tjk4m5lxzpi/aaaaaaaaaaw/f2m5kku0e4o/s1600/rainforest_layers.jpgglobe-arctic


270 feet tall

Is the rainforest the lungs

of the world?

Oxygen? Plankton?



http://www.buzzle.com/images/animal-kingdom/jaguar-1.jpg



130 feet tall



http://cincinnati.com/blogs/northeastnotes/files/2011/04/lvhcmhreptiles_51.jpg

65 feet tall



http://www.wildernessclassroom.com/www/schoolhouse/rainforest_library/animal_images/howler_monkey3.jpg


Biomes – 9

desert biome:http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/desert_location_map001.gif



https://www.windows2universe.org/earth/images/scorpion_sm.jpg


http://archive.bio.ed.ac.uk/jdeacon/desbiome/creosot3.jpg



subtropical high pressure - 30° Horse latitude

25° - 35° latitude

all the world’s desert are found at this latitude

The desert biome:oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

less than 10 inches of rainfall each year. globe-arctic

100°F in the summer and 45°F in the night. globe-arctic


cold at night nocturnal or diurnal
soil is very poor. globe-arctic

plants include cacti and wild-flowers.globe-arctic

most animals are nocturnal and include snakes, globe-arctic

lizards, small rodents, bats, and foxes.




http://o.quizlet.com/eeqs8e1wrxgmkyhdcs3mka_m.jpghttp://room42.wikispaces.com/file/view/desert-animals27.jpg/33446175/desert-animals27.jpghttp://3219a2.medialib.glogster.com/media/c8/c884236a650d0c93f5c3d28923afc24fb159d3e40c92272cc002baf2bd734feb/desert-animals7.jpg


Biomes – 10

Grassland biomes:oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

found between forests and deserts

generally flat - plains

two types - temperate and savannah
temperate grassland biome:http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/grassland_location_map.gif


Bread basket of the world:

The majority of the world’s food/grain is grown here!



http://www.flemmingbojensen.com/images/large/den051---wheat-field-storm---web.jpg

western Ohio – 38 inches of rain each year

The temperate grassland biome:oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

20-35 inches of rainfall each year average. temperatures 86°F in the summer and globe-arcticglobe-arctic


middle latitudes – 30° to 50°
32°F in the winter.

soil is rich and good for many plants animals globe-arctic




farmland - corn belt:

North America has the best soil for growing crops in the world! Why? Climate and seasons – cycles of life and death that build the soil, plus lots of water and sunlight


include prairie dogs, mice, and large grazing animals such as bison. http://i.ehow.co.uk/images/a07/1d/8e/animals-eat-plants-temperate-grasslands-1.1-800x800.jpg http://www.climatechangeconnection.org/impacts/images/gopher.jpg

Biomes – 11

savanna grassland biome:http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/savanna_location_map.gif



http://wesbiomes.weebly.com/uploads/8/8/8/3/8883471/2569808_orig.jpg


tropics to subtropics

0° to 30°





http://img.ehowcdn.com/article-new/ehow/images/a07/j1/0a/endangered-plants-animals-african-savanna-800x800.jpg

The savanna grassland biome:oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

60 inches of rainfall each year.globe-arctic

average temperatures are 93°F in the summer globe-arctic




no seasons
and 61°F in the winter.

tropical grassland with scattered clumps of globe-arctic




small trees – shallow dirt
trees.

savannas of Africa are inhabited by some of the most diverse groups of large herbivores in the world such as zebras, giraffes, and elephants. http://www.giraffeworlds.com/images/giraffe_in_savanna_biome_600.jpgglobe-arctic




Lots of rain (leaching/erosion) washes away the nutrients in the dirt and causes it to be bad for growing.






Biomes – 12http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/4/0/d/1194985474293452798dolphin_enrique_meza_c_02.svg.hi.png

The largest biome in the world is the marine biome. It based on salt water and contains all oceans and seas. Marine biomes can be divided into three zones depending on the biotic factors.




top - surface
planktic - floaters or drifters


middle
nektic - swimmers


bottom
benthic - bottom dwellers
http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/4/0/d/1194985474293452798dolphin_enrique_meza_c_02.svg.hi.png

Water absorbs light, so sunlight can penetrate only about 200 m below the ocean’s surface. Because photosynthesis requires light, most marine producers are found near the surface. http://www.oceanclassrooms.com/resources/images/moodlecourses/ms101/unit5/3-14.jpg



Phytoplankton are the base of the marine food web. They are one of the most important life forms on planet earth!!!
Biomes – 13 http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/4/0/d/1194985474293452798dolphin_enrique_meza_c_02.svg.hi.png

Marine organisms that float or drift with the currents are called plankton. They are the most abundant form of life in the marine biome. Plankton range from microscopic algae to animals and organisms as large as jellyfish. Microscopic producers called phytoplankton produce the majority of oxygen in the atmosphere. Microscopic consumers are called zooplankton.http://www.whoi.edu/cms/images/mediarelations/cmarz_550_121461.jpghttp://www.co-creatinghealth.com/images/foodchain.jpg




Most zooplankton are immature or larval forms of much larger animals.

http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/science/files/2013/03/phytoplankton.jpg
http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/4/0/d/1194985474293452798dolphin_enrique_meza_c_02.svg.hi.png

Animals that actively swim, rather than drift with the currents are called nekton. Nekton include all swimming forms of fish, whales, and squid. All nektons are predators.



http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01500/bait-ball-dolphins_1500165i.jpghttp://animals.y2u.co.uk/photo/animal_kingdom_shark_01.jpg


Biomes – 14

Plants and animals living in or on the sea floor are called benthic. These include kelp (tall algae plants) crabs, snails, sea urchins, star fish, and flounders. Benthic organisms may either be:http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/4/0/d/1194985474293452798dolphin_enrique_meza_c_02.svg.hi.png




motile - move around on the bottom like snails, worms, and crabs

sessile - stationary their whole life like corals and clams

Or



infauna - live in the sediments like clams and worms

epifauna - lives on the sediments at the bottom like crabs and corals

Or



deposit feeders - moves to decaying organic stuff on the bottom

suspension feeders - food comes to it, eats food that falls to the bottom, often generates currents so the food moves to it

Or



detritus feeders



http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/374/383660/fg15_09.gif

Biomes - 15http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/4/0/d/1194985474293452798dolphin_enrique_meza_c_02.svg.hi.png

Marine biomes can be also be divided into various

zones depending on the abiotic factors.


manatees, seals, sea lions

intertidal zone - where the ocean meets the land;

may be above water part of the day when the tide


Brackish water – salt water mixing with fresh water
is out; includes rocky shores, mud flats, and sandy

beaches



650 ft




barrier reefs
neritic - water gradually deeper up to 200 m deep on the continental shelf; lots of sunlight with diverse and colorful life


pelagic zone – open water

oceanic zone - past the continental shelf to the




middle of the ocean – no current, no life,

like a desert


deep water of the open ocean; includes gyres and the Sargasso Sea

http://marinebio.org/oceans/deep/zones.jpg

benthic - sea floor;




bottom
from the upper edge of the intertidal zone to the bottom of the deepest ocean waters

phototrophic zone –

light, photosynthesis

abyssal zone - dark

Freshwater zones: (biotic and abiotic areas)




Littoral Zone – shallow bank area




Limnetic Zone – open water
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-kd0j7rbcxds/tfmwd3xj6ui/aaaaaaaaabm/6kdiaan636e/s1600/50-18-lakezonation-l.gif




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