2 at the time of utterance

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The studies of Pragmatics are divided into two big schools------British & American School and European School which can be subdivided into France School, Prague School and Copenhagen School. British & American School is traditionally centering on studying the sentence structure and grammar, and their studies of pragmatics is also restricted to several definite topics such as deictic expressions, conversational implicature, presupposition, speech and conversation structure. Their studies belong to Micro-pragmatics. European School has a wide visual and understanding, and their studies even include conversation analysis, cultural anthropology, social linguistics and psycholinguistics during intercommunication. Their studies belong to Macro-pragmatics.


Temporal deixis function to locate points or intervals on the time axis, using the moment of utterance as a reference point. There are three types of the time axis:

1) before the moment of utterance,

2) at the time of utterance,

3) after the time of utterance.

The most basic temporal deictics in English are NOW and THEN.Temporal deixis depends on calendric notions .For instance, the English terms TODAY, YESTERDAY, and TOMORROW designate, respectively, “the period the time of utterance”, “the period of twenty-four hours which precedes the one including the time of utterance”, and “the period of twenty-four hours which follows the one including the time of utterance”. These terms’ meanings include both deictic information (past, present, or future) and non-deicitc information (“period of twenty-four hours beginning …”, etc)Also in temporal deixis used time forms like usually , already , rarely , always , seldom and etc.For example : 1) I often go to the market with my friends. 2) Usually he does his homework at night.
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