1. Study your active vocabulary

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english lesson 2

Word Study

1. Study your active vocabulary:


to describe



to predict

Bashorat qilmoq


to generate

Yuzaga keltirmoq


to propose

Taklif etmoq


to apply

Murujat qilmoq


to improve

Oshirmoq, yaxshilamoq


to develop

Rivojlanmoq, rivojlantirmoq


to obtain

Olmoq, erishmoq


to provide



to offer

Taklif qilmoq


to confer

Maslahatlashmoq kengashmoq


to record

Yozmoq (ovozni)


to achieve

Erishmoq yetmoq


to complete

Oxiriga yetkazmoq


to award



to receive

Qabul qilmoq


to attain

Erishmoq,yetib olmoq


to earn

Ishlab topmoq


to concern



to compare


2. Recognize familiar words:

academic, qualified, continent, type, business, administration, period, dissertation, contribution, philosophy, methodology.

3. Give Uzbek/Russian equivalents of:



to develop new materials


to predict elements


to propose a hypothesis


to obtain results


to apply methods


1. steam is generated

2. methods are described

3. the applied equipment

4. education is offered

5. the awarded degrees

4. Find the synonyms:

to propose, to obtain, to write, to confer, to complete, to attain, to earn,

to change, to offer, to receive, to record, to award, to start, to modify

5. Form all possible combinations:

1. to award

1. methods

2. to offer

2. a course

3. to develop

3. a title

4. to complete

4. results

5. to achieve

5. a degree

6. Fill in the blanks:

Last month our laboratory developed a new technique _ obtained _ for studies of a two-phase system. The technique allowed us to obtain results ____ required by theory! The results __reported_ disagreed with earlier data __predicted_ by doctor D.

(obtained, required, reported, predicted)
Reading Practice

Text 1

1. Read the text to yourself and try to understand what it is about.

2. Scan through the text. Note all the words and phrases you don’t know.

Look them in the English-Russian-Uzbek dictionary.

3. Find the sentence where Participle II is used.

4. Give the written translation of the text.

Academic Degrees

An academic degree is a title awarded by a college or university for successfully completing a course of study, or for a particular attainment. Earned degrees are bestowed for completion of courses of study; honorary degrees recognize a certain attainment, not necessarily connected with an educational institution.

Degrees of various types and levels are currently conferred by almost 2,500 institutions of higher education in the United States, as well as by the principal universities in foreign countries. During the first two centuries of higher education in the United States (since 1642) few academic degrees were used, but during the last century, and particularly since 1900, they have multiplied along with the expansion of university curricula and specialized fields.

Academic darajalar

Ilmiy daraja - bu kollej yoki universitet tomonidan o'qish kursini muvaffaqiyatli tugatganligi yoki ma'lum bir yutuqqa erishganligi uchun beriladigan unvon. Olingan darajalar o'qish kurslarini tugatish uchun beriladi; faxriy darajalar ma'lum bir darajani tan oladi, albatta, bu ta'lim muassasasi bilan bog'liq emas.

Hozirda har xil turdagi va darajadagi darajalarni AQShning deyarli 2500 ta oliy o'quv yurtlari hamda xorijiy davlatlarning asosiy universitetlari beradi. Qo'shma Shtatlarda dastlabki ikki asrlik oliy ma'lumot olish davrida (1642 yildan) ozgina ilmiy darajalar ishlatilgan, ammo o'tgan asrda, xususan, 1900 yildan boshlab, ular universitet o'quv dasturlari va ixtisoslashtirilgan sohalarning kengayishi bilan birga ular ko'payib ketishdi.

5. Retell the text.

Text 2

1. Read the text and answer the questions.

Where and when was the first degree conferred?

Development Of Degrees

Academic degrees have been in use for about 800 years; the first one recorded was the Doctor of Civil Law conferred by the University of Bologna (Italy) in the middle of the 12th century. This was followed by the Doctor of Canon Law and Doctor of Divinity and, in the 13th century, by doctorates in medicine, grammar, logic, and philosophy. The use of degrees spread from Bologna to the other European universities. Originally the doctor’s and master’s degrees were used interchangeably, each indicating that the holders were qualified to teach, and the titles of Master, Doctor, and Professor were synonymous. On the other hand, the bachelor’s or baccalaureate degree (from Latin baccalaureus, a bachelor of arts) was used to indicate the entrance upon a course of study preparatory to the doctorate or mastership, and not achievement. Gradually, however, it came to mean successful completion of one level of study preparatory to a higher degree.

The use of academic degrees spread to British universities from the Continent and was extensively developed, especially at Oxford and Cambridge universities.
Darajalarning rivojlanishi

Ilmiy darajalar taxminan 800 yil davomida ishlatilgan; birinchi bo'lib 12-asr o'rtalarida Boloniya universiteti (Italiya) tomonidan berilgan fuqarolik huquqi doktori. Buning ortidan kanon huquqi doktori va ilohiyotshunoslik doktori va 13-asrda tibbiyot, grammatika, mantiq va falsafa doktorlari o'rin olgan. Boloniyadan boshqa Evropa universitetlariga darajalardan foydalanish tarqaldi. Dastlab doktorlik va magistrlik darajalari bir-birining o'rnida ishlatilgan bo'lib, ularning har biri egalari o'qitishga yaroqli ekanligini va magistr, doktor va professor unvonlari sinonim bo'lganligini ko'rsatmoqda. Boshqa tomondan, bakalavr yoki bakalavr darajasi (lotincha baccalaureus, san'at bakalavri), doktorantura yoki magistrga tayyorgarlik kursiga kirishni emas, balki yutuqni ko'rsatishda ishlatilgan. Biroq, asta-sekin, bu yuqori darajadagi tayyorgarlikning bir bosqichini muvaffaqiyatli yakunlashni anglatardi.

Ilmiy darajalardan foydalanish qit'adan Britaniya universitetlariga tarqaldi va keng rivojlandi, ayniqsa Oksford va Kembrij universitetlarida.
2. Make sure you understand the following words and phrases.






to spread


to indicate






on the other hand

3. Read the text again and finish the sentence: Gradually the bachelor’s degree came to mean successful completion of one level of study preparatory to … .

Text 3

1. Memorize the following words and phrases.


Bachelor’s degree

– bakalavr darajasi


under designation

– присваиваемый



– учреждение, учебное заведение


in frequency

– по частоте


Business Administration

– управление бизнесом


to estimate

– устанавливать



– помимо


to represent

представлять, означать



– ежегодно

2. Read the text without a dictionary and answer the questions.


What do the Bachelor’s, Master’s and Doctor’s degree represent?


What is the best-known academic degree?


How Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees are awarded in frequency?


What are the two types of Doctor’s degrees in the United States?

Types Of Degrees

Bachelor’s degree.

The bachelor’s degree, usually representing completion of a four-year course of study on a collegiate level, is the oldest and best-known academic degree, particularly under the designation of Bachelor of Arts. Some varieties of bachelor’s, or baccalaureate degree is currently offered by about 750 institutions, most of which offer a Bachelor of Arts degree. Next in frequency and availability is the Bachelor of Science, of which the most frequent variety is the Bachelor of Science in Education. Other baccalaureate degrees offered by a large number of institutions are Bachelor of Education, Bachelor of Music, Bachelor of Business Administration, Bachelor of Divinity, and Bachelor of Home Economics. Most institutions offer more than one variety of baccalaureates, but about one tenth report use of the Bachelor of Arts only, regardless of the particular curriculum completed.

Currently about 900,000 baccalaureate degrees are awarded annually, about 46 percent to women. It is estimated that more than 12 million degrees have been conferred to date.

Master’s Degree.

The earned master’s degree in general represent one year of work beyond the baccalaureate, but in a few institutions or in a few fields it requires two years of graduate work. The most frequently awarded master’s degrees are Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Education, Master of Business Administration, Master of Music, and Master of Fine Arts. The Master of Philosophy degree is conferred on those who have completed all requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy degree except the doctoral dissertation. About 45 varieties of Master of Arts and 40 varieties of Master of Science degrees are reported. Currently 317,000 individuals receive the master’s degree annually, about 47 percent of them women. Nearly 3 million master’s degrees were awarded from 1880 to 1972.

Doctor’s Degree.

The doctor’s degree represents the most advanced earned degree conferred by U.S. institutions, or indeed by those of any country. In the academic sense, a doctor is an individual in any faculty or branch of learning who has attained to the highest degree conferred by a university. Doctor’s degrees in the United States are of two distinct types professional or practitioner’s degrees, and research degrees.

The former represent advanced training for the practice of various professions, chiefly in medicine and law. The principal ones are Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Dental science of Dental Surgery, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Doctor of Pharmacy, and Doctor of Jurisprudence. These degrees carry on implication of advanced research.

Quite different in character are the research doctorates representing prolonged periods of advanced study, usually at least three years beyond the baccalaureate, accompanied by a dissertation designed to be a substantial contribution to the advancement of knowledge. The most important of these is the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), which no longer implies knowledge of philosophy, but which represents advanced research in any major field of knowledge. In the early 1970’s 240 graduate schools offered it. It was first awarded by Yale University in 1861 to three young men. It was modeled on the doctorate conferred by German universities. For more than half a century prior to 1861, young men desiring the most advanced training in scholarship attended the principal German and occasionally other European universities to secure their Ph.D’s.

Second in importance and much more recent as a research degree is the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) currently offered by 108 institutions. It was first awarded by Harvard in 1920, but was preceded by the equivalent Doctor of Pedagogy first conferred by New York University in 1891. The only other earned doctorates of the research type currently conferred by 10 or more institutions are the Doctor of the Science of Law and the Doctor of Business Administration.

At present doctorates of the research type are earned by about 28,000 individuals annually, of which about 14 percent are women. Microfilm copies of about two thirds of the dissertations written for these degrees are available at a modest price.

Abstracts of them are published in the monthly issues of Dissertation Abstracts.
Darajalarning turlari
Bakalavr darajasi.

Odatda kollej darajasida to'rt yillik o'quv kursini tamomlashni nazarda tutadigan bakalavr darajasi eng qadimgi va eng taniqli ilmiy darajadir, ayniqsa San'at bakalavri nomi bilan. Hozirgi kunda bakalavr yoki bakalavr darajasining ba'zi navlarini 750 ga yaqin muassasalar taklif qilmoqda, ularning aksariyati san'at bakalavri darajasiga ega. Keyingi chastota va mavjudlik bo'yicha fan bakalavri bo'lib, ulardan eng tez-tez uchraydigan navi Ta'lim sohasidagi bakalavr hisoblanadi. Ko'p sonli muassasalar tomonidan taqdim etilgan boshqa bakalavriat darajalari: ta'lim bakalavri, musiqa bakalavri, biznes ma'muriyati bakalavri, ilohiyot bakalavri va uy iqtisodiyoti bakalavri. Ko'pgina muassasalar bir nechta turli xil bakalavrlarni taklif qilishadi, ammo ma'lum bir o'quv dasturidan qat'i nazar, faqat san'at bakalavriatining o'ndan bir qismidan foydalaniladi.

Hozirda har yili 900000 ga yaqin bakalavr darajalari, 46 foizga yaqini ayollarga beriladi. Bugungi kunda 12 milliondan ortiq daraja berilganligi taxmin qilinmoqda.

Magistrlik darajasi.

Umuman olganda qo'lga kiritilgan magistrlik darajasi bakalavrdan tashqari bir yillik ishni anglatadi, ammo bir nechta muassasalarda yoki bir nechta sohalarda ikki yillik bitiruv malakaviy ishi talab qilinadi. Tez-tez beriladigan magistr darajalari san'at ustasi, fan magistri, ta'lim magistri, biznes ma'muriyati magistri, musiqa ustasi va tasviriy san'at ustasi hisoblanadi. Falsafa magistri darajasi doktorlik dissertatsiyasidan tashqari falsafa doktori ilmiy darajasiga qo'yiladigan barcha talablarni bajarganlarga beriladi. San'at magistrining taxminan 45 navi va fan magistrining 40 turi haqida xabar berilgan. Hozirda har yili 317000 kishi magistr darajasini oladi, ularning 47 foizini ayollar tashkil etadi. 3 millionga yaqin magistr darajalari 1880 yildan 1972 yilgacha berilgan.

Doktorlik darajasi.

Doktor darajasi AQSh muassasalari yoki haqiqatan ham har qanday davlat tomonidan berilgan eng ilg'or darajani aks ettiradi. Akademik ma'noda, shifokor - bu universitet tomonidan berilgan eng yuqori darajaga erishgan har qanday fakultet yoki ta'lim sohasidagi shaxs. Qo'shma Shtatlarda doktorlik darajasi ikki xil professional yoki amaliyotchi darajalari va tadqiqot darajalari.

Birinchisi, asosan tibbiyot va huquqshunoslik bo'yicha turli kasblar uchun malaka oshirishni anglatadi. Asosiylari tibbiyot doktori, stomatologiya fanlari doktori, stomatologiya jarrohligi doktori, veterinariya shifokori, farmatsevtika doktori va huquqshunoslik doktori. Ushbu darajalar ilg'or tadqiqotlarning natijalarini beradi.

Xarakteri jihatidan bir-biridan farqli o'laroq, ilm-fanni rivojlantirishga katta hissa qo'shish uchun mo'ljallangan dissertatsiya bilan birga, odatda bakalavrdan kamida uch yil o'tib, uzoq muddatli rivojlangan tadqiqotlarni ko'rsatadigan ilmiy-tadqiqot doktorlari. Ulardan eng muhimi, falsafa doktori (Ph.D.), u endi falsafa haqidagi bilimlarni nazarda tutmaydi, ammo har qanday yirik bilim sohasida ilg'or tadqiqotlarni namoyish etadi. 1970-yillarning boshlarida 240 aspirantura taklif qildi. Birinchi marta 1861 yilda Yel universiteti tomonidan uchta yigitga topshirildi. Bu Germaniya universitetlari tomonidan berilgan doktorlik asosida yaratilgan. 1861 yilgacha bo'lgan yarim asrdan ko'proq vaqt mobaynida stipendiya bo'yicha eng yuqori malakaga ega bo'lishni istagan yigitlar asosiy nemis va vaqti-vaqti bilan boshqa Evropa universitetlarida qatnashib, doktorlik dissertatsiyalarini himoya qildilar.

Hozirda 108 ta muassasalar tomonidan taqdim etilgan Ta'lim doktori (Ed.D.) ilmiy daraja sifatida ahamiyat jihatidan ikkinchi va yaqinda ikkinchi o'rinni egallaydi. Birinchi marta Garvard tomonidan 1920 yilda mukofotlangan, ammo oldin unga 1891 yilda Nyu-York universiteti tomonidan berilgan teng keladigan pedagogika doktori berilgan. Hozirda 10 va undan ortiq muassasalar tomonidan berilgan ilmiy tadqiqot turlari bo'yicha doktorlik dissertatsiyasining yagona yagona fanlari doktori. Yuridik va biznes ma'muriyati doktori.

Hozirgi kunda ilmiy tadqiqot fanlari doktorliklarini har yili 28000 ga yaqin kishi oladi, ulardan 14 foizga yaqini ayollardir. Ushbu darajalar uchun yozilgan dissertatsiyalarning uchdan ikki qismining mikrofilm nusxalari o'rtacha narxda mavjud.

Ularning tezislari Dissertatsiya tezislarining oylik sonlarida chop etiladi

3. Report on the type of degrees.
Conversational Practice
Topic: “Post Graduate Education”

1. a) Remember some of the words and expressions to read the dialogue.

1. Mechanical Engineering

– машиностроение

2. to bring up

– воспитывать

3. to have a good reputation

– иметь хорошую репутацию

4. to apply

– написать заявление

5. to attract

– привлекать (поступить)

6. to take a course

– обучаться (по специальности)

7. to undertake

– заниматься

b) Read the dialogue and answer the questions.


Taking a Course


Hi. I am Elspeth Burud. I am from Norway. But now I am at Sunderland University, Mechanical Engineering course.


Hi, I am Lindy King. Home Country is Australia. And now I am at King’s college, London.

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