Congenital anomalies (developmental defects),
deformities and chromosome disorders
Wounds, injuries and poisoning
312. As can be seen in the above table, for nearly all types of afflictions, there has been an updated trend in the incidence among children. One of the reasons for this rise is the fact that medical institutions for children have begun to carry out preventive check-ups for children of the prescribed age.
313. The State programme for the reform and development of health care in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2010 calls for annual preventive check-ups for children beginning in 2006, with subsequent treatment of any cases thus detected.
314. The steps taken in the field of mother-and-child health have made it possible to stabilize the number of premature births. In 2005, the percentage of children with low birth weights was 5.05 per cent, as against 5.25 per cent in 2004.
315. The maternal mortality rate in 2005 was 40.2 per 100,000 live births, 5 per cent lower than in 2003.
316. According to provisional data, during the first three months of 2006 the maternal mortality rate was 43.9 per 100,000 live births, as against 48.9 per 100,000 live births in the same period in 2005.
317. Haemorrhaging during delivery is the leading cause of maternal death in pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperal period, followed in second place by pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, with abortion third, miscellaneous reasons fourth, and extragenital diseases fifth.
318. One of the main reasons for the high level of maternal mortality is the poor health of women of reproductive age. There is also a lack of obstetrician-gynaecologists.
319. To tackle these problems, the State programme for the reform and development of health care in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2010 envisages a series of measures. Specifically, from this year preventive check-ups are being carried out for women of reproductive age, with subsequent follow-up and treatment.
320. In order to upgrade the skills of obstetrician-gynaecologists, advanced training courses are being held, with visits by specialists from national health-care institutions (National Scientific Research Centre for the Protection of Mother and Child Health, Almaty State Institute of Postgraduate Medical Training) to regions with high maternal mortality rates. Beginning in 2005, for the first time, specialists were trained in other countries. During the period under consideration, 20 physicians and 20 nurses underwent a half-year course in the best paediatric and obstetric institutions in Israel.
321. To strengthen facilities and equipment at obstetric institutions, it is planned to make special-purpose transfers to the provincial budgets and the budgets of the cities of Astana and Almaty. By 2008, all paediatric and obstetric institutions will be provided with medical equipment and supplies meeting established standards.
322. Special attention is paid in Kazakhstan to the implementation of the Committee’s recommendation in paragraph 57 of its concluding observations relating to the reduction of teenage pregnancy and abortion rates. Teenage abortions undermine reproductive health by producing inflammation of the reproductive organs and sterility. They also adversely affect subsequent pregnancies and births, increasing the risk of miscarriage and maternal and perinatal mortality.