Nonushtadan so‘ng buvim bizga biror yumush buyurib, o‘z xonasiga yo‘l olardi. Juda yaxshi bilardikki, ana shu yumushni bajarib bo‘lsakkina, undan ertak eshitishimiz mumkin. Bunga amakimning bolalari, hattoki, qo‘shni bolalar ham odatlangan edi. Ba’zan ularning onalari buvimning oldiga «Falon ishni bitirib qo‘ysa, keyin ertak aytib bering» kabi shikoyatlar bilan chiqib ham turishardi.
Buvim ertak aytib beribgina qolmay, matodan turli xil o‘yinchoqlar yasashni ham o‘rgatardilar. Biz, bolalar bunga shu qadar qiziqardikki, hattoki yasayotgan o‘yinchoqlarimizni bir-birimizdan qizg‘anardik.
Bola ulg‘aygan sari ko‘p narsalarga qiziqishi ortib boradi. Ana shunday paytda unga ertaklar aytib berish ham xalq pedagogikasidan foydalanishning bir ko‘rinishidir. «Zumrad va Qimmat», «Uch og‘ayni botirlar», «Yoriltosh» kabi o‘zbek xalq ertaklarida doimo ezgu istak, ezgu harakatlar tarannnum etilgan. Ertaklar — yaxshilikka yetaklar, deydi xalqimiz.
Farzandingizga uxlashi oldidan ertak aytib bergan bo‘lsangiz uning shirin tushlar ko‘rishiga zamin yaratgansiz. Zamonaviylikni qarangki, ertakchi momolar o‘z o‘rnini “ertakchi kompyu¬ter”larga bo‘shatib berish arafasida turibdi. Texnika asrining «sharofati» bu. Shu sababli, bolalarni momolarining ertaklari emas, balki kompyuterdagi jangari o‘yinlar qiziqtirishiga texnikani aybdor sanasak, to‘g‘ri bo‘larmikin? Nima bo‘ldi? Onajonlaru buvijonlar ertak aytishdan charchadilarmi? Yoki aytilajak ertaklar tugab qoldimi?
Bolasi uchun kitob sotib olayotgan yoki vaqt ajratib kitob o‘qib berayotgan ota-onalarni kam uchratayapmiz. Ertadan kechgacha ishda bo‘lib, bolasi tarbiyasini o‘zining yaqin insonlariga ishonadigan ota-onalarni tushunish mumkindir. Lekin uy bekasi bo‘lgan onajonlarimiz “ayollar gurungi”ga vaqt topadilaru, farzandlariga ertak aytib berishga vaqtlari yo‘q. Ayrim ota-onalarning bolasi qo‘liga pul tutqazib, “Bu pulga kitob yoki daftar sotib ol” deb emas, “kamroq ishlat” degan tanbeh bilan kiraverishiga “Games ”—(o‘yin) deb yozilgan maskanga kuzatib qo‘yganining bir men emas, siz ham shohidi bo‘lgansiz, albatta. Yoki endigina tili chiqayotgan o‘g‘liga, biror she’rni emas so‘kinishni o‘rgatib zavqlanayotgan otaning qilig‘iga nima deysiz? Bu masalalar yechimi yuqoridagi mushohadalar bilan barham topib qolmaganidek, ota-onalarning beparvoligi ham o‘zlariga “qimmat”ga tushishi mumkin.
Psixologlarning ta’kidlashicha, bola 3—7 yoshdaligida har narsaga qiziquvchan, eslab qolish qobiliyati kuchli va taqlidchi bo‘ladi. Ayniqsa, u ko‘rgan kinosining, multfilm va eshitgan ertaklarining qahramonlariga o‘xshashga harakat qila boshlaydi.
Xalq pedagogikasida og‘zaki ijod namunalarining tutgan o‘rni beqiyos. Bu bo‘yicha juda ko‘p izlanishlar olib borilgan. Har birimizning hayotimizda bu pedagogikaning ta’siri juda katta ekanligini inkor etib bo‘lmaydi. Xo‘sh, zamondoshlarimiz bu haqda qanday fikrdalar.
Xudoyberdi TO‘XTABOYEV, O‘zbekiston xalq yozuvchisi:
— Adabiyot fanida xalq og‘zaki ijodini to‘laqonli o‘rganib bo‘lmasligi sababli, afsona, ertak, doston va qadriyatlarni o‘rganadigan alohida qo‘shimcha darslar tashkil etilsa, qaniydi. Ertak to‘qish, laparlar yod olish, turli xalq qo‘shiqlarini o‘rganish darslarda o‘quvchilarga vazifa qilib berilsa, buning ta’sir kuchi oshadi. Bola nafaqat ertak eshitishni, balki o‘zi ham ertak to‘qib, hikoya qilib berishni o‘rganadi. Natijada fikr doirasi kengayib, nutqi ravonlashadi.
Gulnora KATTAXO‘JAYEVA, o‘qituvchi:
— Rivoyat aytib, o‘quvchilarimning bunga munosabat bildirishini vazifa qilib berdim. Keyingi darsda bir o‘quvchim vazifani bajarmabdi. U rivoyatni yaxshi tushunmabdi. Shunda men qaerdadir xato qilganimni angladim va keyingi safar ertak, rivoyat aytilgach, shu yerning o‘zida fikr so‘rashim kerakligini yoki tasavvuridagi ertak qahramoni tasvirini qog‘ozga tushirib kelishni vazifa qilib berish kerakligini tushundim.
Gulbahor CHORIYEVA, uy bekasi:
— Qizim o‘rtog‘ining kitobini o‘g‘rilab keldi. Unga bu ishi noto‘g‘riligini uqtirdim va “Sharq xalqlari ertaklari” degan kitob olib berdim. Qizim ertaklarni hali maktab yoshiga yetmagan ukasiga ham o‘qib berardi. Hozir opa-uka ertakdagi voqealar va qahramonlar haqida bemalol bahslashishadi. Ba’zida esa bizning harakatlarimiz, gaplarimizni ertak qahramonlariga qiyoslashadi. Ularning ertak bilan hayotni solishtira olishayotgani ijobiy voqea deb o‘ylayman.
Darhaqiqat, bola ertak, rivoyat, masal kabi xalq og‘zaki ijodi namunalari vositasida oq va qorani, yaxshi-yomonni ajratishni o‘rganadi. Misol uchun, darsda “Zumrad va Qimmat” ertagidan so‘ng o‘qituvchining “Kimga o‘xshashni xohlardingiz?” degan savoliga sinfdagi barcha qizaloqlar «Zumradga» deb javob berishadi.
Demak, ular Zumradning ijobiy fazilatlar egasi ekanligini anglab yetishgan. Ba’zan onaning erkatoy, tantiq qizini yoki o‘sma qo‘yayotganda qoshiga o‘smani chiroyli qo‘ya olmagan qizni Qimmatga qiyoslasangiz uning jahli chiqadi. Aksincha, Zumradga qiyos etilgan qizlar hech qachon hijolatda qolmaydilar. Mana shu emasmi, ertakning bolalarga ta’siri? Qanchalik band bo‘lmaylik, farzandimizni yonimizga olib birgina ertakni aytib berishga, u bilan dildan so‘zlashishga, uning qalbidagi orzulari qay tomonga qanot qoqayotganligi haqida bilishga vaqt topa olishimiz kerak. Ana shu topgan vaqtingiz siz bilan bolangiz orasidagi mustaqil munosabatni yanada mustahkamlaydi.
...Bolangizga yoki nabirangizga bir ertakni takror hikoya qilib bermoqchi bo‘lsangiz, u buning eski ekanini eslatib qo‘yadi. Siz boshqasini boshlaysiz. ...Bir bor ekan, bir yo‘q ekan, qadim o‘tgan zamonda bir maqtanchoq g‘oz bo‘lgan ekan... Shu joyda yana to‘xtashga majbur bo‘lasiz. U sizga bu ertakni muallimasi hikoya qilib berganini ta’kidlaydi. O‘ylanib qolasiz, qaysi ertakni aytsam ekan-a. Agar aytilguvchi ertaklar nihoyalangan bo‘lsa, o‘tgan hayotingizdan ertaklar to‘qing, shunda ham o‘tmishni yodga olasiz, ham bolangizni yangi ertakdan bahramand qilasiz.
Are there no more Fairy Tales?
02/20/08, 3:32 pm
After breakfast, our grandma used to assign us some house chores and go to her own room. We knew very well that we could listen to her fairy tales only after we had finished our chores. My uncle’s children and even neighboring kids were accustomed to this tradition. Sometimes, their mothers even came to my grandma complaining and saying something similar to: “Would you please tell a fairy tale if they finish their tasks?”
My grandma not only told fairy tales, but also taught how to make different types of toys from cloth. We, the kids, were so fond of it that we did not even want to share the toys we made.
As a child grows, his/her interests grow too. Telling the child fairy tales at such times is a way of using pedagogy. In Uzbek, in people’s fairy tales such as “Zumrad and Kimmat,” “Three Friends-heroes,” and “Yoriltosh,” there are always sincere wishes and noble actions promoted. Our people say that fairy tales lead to better things.
If you tell a fairy tale to your child before he/she goes to sleep, then you have provided the foundation so they can envision sweet dreams. Take the modern times - the fairy tale telling grandmas are giving up their place to the “the fairy tale telling computers.” This is the “byproduct” of a century of technology. Is it right to blame technology for children not being interested in their grandmothers’ fairy tales, but in warfare computer games? What happened? Are mothers and grandmothers tired of telling fairy tales? Or are there no more fairy tales left to tell?
Today we rarely see parents buying books for their children or taking some time out to read a book for their children. One can understand the parents who work all day long and trust their children’s upbringing to their close people. But some housewife moms find time for their “women talk” but do not have time to tell fairy tales to their children. Not only me, but you too witnessed parents giving money to their children and instead of saying “Buy a book or a notebook with this money,” they comment “spend less” and see them off to the places with a sign “Games” at the entrance. Or what do you say to the father who is excited by teaching how to curse to his child who just learned to speak? As these issues are not resolved with the abovementioned discussions, the “ignorance” of parents also may result in “expensive” burdens on them.
According to psychologists, when a child is at the ages of 3-7, he/she has an interest in everything, possesses strong memory and likes to imitate. Especially, he/she starts to imitate the heroes of movies and cartoons he/she has watched or the fairy tales he/she has heard.
The role of oral folk arts in national pedagogy is incomparable. There were many studies carried out in this field. We cannot deny the importance of this pedagogy’s influence on the lives of every single one of us. Well, what do our contemporaries think on this issue?
Hudoyberdi Tohtaboev, the Uzbek National Writer:
- Because it is impossible to fully study the oral folk arts in literature classes, it would be great if there were organized additional courses on learning specifically legends, fairy tales, poems and traditions. Its influence would have been even more powerful if writing fairy tales, learning national and other songs by heart were given to children as homework. The child learns not only to listen to the tales, but also to write one and tell it to others. As a result, it will broaden their world outlook and develop their speech.
Gulnora Kattahodjaeva, a teacher:
I told a story and gave a task to my students to provide their feedback on it. In the next class, one of the students did not do his homework. He said that he did not understand the story. Then, I realized that I had made a mistake, and decided that next time after telling the story I need to ask for their opinions right away or ask them to draw how they imagine the story heroes.
Gulbahor Chorieva, housewife:
- My daughter has stolen a book from her friend. I told her that it was the wrong thing to do, and bought her a book titled “Fairy Tales of the Eastern People.” My daughter used it to read fairy tales to her younger brother, who did not even go to school yet. Now sister and brother easily discuss the events and heroes of the tale. And sometimes they compare our actions and words with those of the tale heroes. I think it is a good thing that they are able to compare fairy tale with reality.
It is true that with stories of oral folk arts such as fairy tales - legends the child learns to differentiate white from black, good from evil. For example, after reading the “Zumrad and Kimmat” fairy tale, when the teacher in class asks children “Who did you like best?” every single girl in the class says, “Zumrad.”
This means that they have understood that Zumrad possesses positive traits. Sometimes when you call a spoiled girl or the one who cannot properly dye her eyebrows with usma [a small green plant that is used in Uzbekistan for dyeing eyebrows, which gives them a dark greenish grey color] Kimmat, she will get very upset. On the contrary, girls who are called Zumrad never feel weird. Isn’t this an influence of the fairy tale on children? It does not matter how busy we are, we have to find time to tell a fairy tale to our children, to have hearty talks and to know the direction of their dreams. And that specific time will strengthen independent relationship between you and a child.
When you try to retell one fairy tale to your grandchild, he/she reminds you that it has already been told. You start another one…Once upon a time there lived a very boasting goose… Here you will have to stop again. He/she [your grandchild] will tell you that his/her teacher had told them this story. You will start thinking [about] which fairy tale to tell. If there are no more tales left to tell, make up your own tales from your life experience; with this you will both remember your past and satisfy your child with a new fairy tale.
This Uzbek resource offers an English to Uzbek/ Uzbek to English search feature, and includes a downloadable PDF version.
OVERVIEW & NOTES
This is an article about current story telling culture in Uzbekistan.
Story telling, before children go to bed, used to be a common culture in Uzbekistan. However, this trend seems to be disappearing due to some reasons. These reasons are believed to be either economic or social. This article discusses this and other reasons and interviews people from three different people: an Uzbek National Writer, a teacher and a mother of two kids.
Read each question and type your response in the box provided. Click CHECK at the bottom of the screen to view the model response.
According to the author, why grandmothers and/or mothers are making so called 'ertakchi kompyuterlar' responsible to tell stories?
According to the author, Uzbek mothers and grandmothers seemed to have tired of telling fairy tales.
At first, emerging 'technologies' were to be blamed. However, the author further implied a different cause for the problem.
In the pschycologists' opinion, what is the benefit of fairy tales for the development of 3 to 7-year-old children?
Children can remember the characters from the stories they read, and they will start trying to look like them.
Read the pschyologists' views on development of 3 to 7 year-old children.
What effects did fairy tales bring into Gulbahor Choriyeva’s children’s life?
Her children started relating the characters encountered in the fairy tales they read into real life and comparing their characters and behaviors with their own.
A mother, Gulbahor Choriyeva, bought a story book for her daughter. Did her daughter read it or not?
What is the author's attitude toward working mothers and housewives in terms of their approach to story telling?
Working mothers are busy, and this is understandable, as the author puts. However, she believes that the housewives can spend more time with their children instead of having 'animated discussions' with other (neighborhood) women.
The author's opinion about the working mothers and housewives.
The writer wishes that literature classes spent more time covering traditional stories, epic poems and legendary tales in high schools.
Read the views of the National Writer of Uzbekistan.
There are many traditional fairy tales Uzbek children get to know from their grandparents, parents or siblings. The most common ones are «Zumrad va Qimmat», «Uch og‘ayni botirlar», «Yoriltosh». They all, as other tales, promote honesty, dignity, humility and friendship.
You can read some other Uzbek tales with English translation from the following webstie
(1933 yilda tug‘ilgan)
O’zbek bolalar adabiyotining ko‘zga ko‘ringan vakili Xudoyberdi To‘xtaboev 1933 yilda Farg‘ona viloyatining O’zbekiston tumanida tug‘ildi. Uning bolalik va o‘smirlik yillari urush davriga to‘g‘ri keddi, ota-onadan erta yetim qoldi. Yozuvchi o‘rta maktabni tugatib, ToshDU filologiya fakultetining logika-psixologiya bo‘limiga o‘qishga kiradi. Talabalik yillaridanoq badiiy ijodga qiziqadi. Xudoyberdi To‘xtaboev oliy o‘quv yurtini tugatgach, «Toshkent haqiqati», «Qizil O’zbekiston» ro‘znomalarida, «Guliston», «Gulxan», «Sharq yulduzi», «Yosh kuch» oynomalarida, «Kamalak» nashriyotida ishladi, «Oltin meros» respublika jamg‘armasiga rahbarlik qiddi. Adib ijodining dastlabki davridanok hajvga, kulgiga moyil hikoya to‘plamlarini, qissa va romanlarini yaratdi. Uning birinchi hikoyalar to‘plami «Shoshqaloq» 1961 yilda e’lon qilindi. Xudoyberdi To‘xtaboev Hamza nomidagi Davlat mukofoti, «O’zbekistonda xizmat ko‘rsatgan madaniyat xodimi» (1982) unvoni sovrindori, O’zbekiston xalq yozuvchisidir (1991).
Asarlari: «Sehrli qalpoqcha» (Bu asarda voqealar qahramon tilidan bayon etilgan), «Sariq devni minib» (1968, jami 24 tilga tarjima qilingan), «Sariq devning o‘limi» (1973), «Besh bolali yigitcha» (1976), «Qasoskorning oltin boshi» (1981), «Yillar va yo‘llar» (1983), «Sehrgarlar jangi yoki shirin qovunlar mamlakatida» (1986), «Mungli ko‘zlar», «Sir ochildi» (1964), «Omonboy va Davronboy sarguzashti», «Jannati odamlar» (1996), «Shoshqaloq», «So‘qmoqlar» va boshq.
... ota-onalarning beparvoligi ham o‘zlariga “qimmat”ga tushishi mumkin.
A word "qimmat" is translated as 'expensive' into English. However, in this context it means 'cost dearly'. So the whole sentence can be translated as "... parents' indifference can cost dearly".