bone (awls, needles, atlatl spurs)
antler (wedges and flaking tools)
shell (beads and pendants)
hunting mammals (deer, antelope, and elk; rabbits too)
gathering plant (roots and berries)
aquatic foodstuffs. (fish - chub and suckers, and salmon)
winter/spring/summer/fall spent near river, probably in major canyons, especially at intersections of tributaries, larger side canyons and along rapids
uplands used only as special activity places, especially small hunting parties and lithic scatters where people made or re-sharpened tools
semi-subterranean houses first appeared during Vantage phase and diffused from here to south and to north
climate much warmer and drier than at present (called Altithermal period in other parts of the county, may have affected extent of forest and amount of available water.)
Some suggest that all people within the area to the south (Great Basin) moved north, east, or west. Those moving north entered the Plateau. Largest populations may have been in the northern Plateau where elevations higher.
Mazama ash fell 6700 B.P., effects unknown.
(LITHIC PERIOD) Old Cordilleran Culture Type (early)
dates 9000 B. P. to 4500 BP
1 semi-nomadic hunting and gathering. Unspecialized hunters/gatherers similar to those east of the Cascades (Plateau Windust and Cascade Phases).
2 Oriented to LAND RESOURCES
from Glenrose Cannery site: use of watercraft inferred, as well as fishing and shellfishing (but small number of sites known and only Glenrose has faunal remains, and those appear only late in period)
a pebble tools/choppers
b unifacial scrapers
c heavily weathered raw material
Large leaf-shaped knives (bigger than points and impossible to attach to spears. Sometimes they are sharper on one side).
occasionally (rare) contracting stem bifaces
e chipped crescents at some sites.
5 faunal assemblages are not known (except small sample at Glenrose) so subsistence unclear
6 Antler and bone wedges (at Glenrose only)
St. Mungo Phase and Mayne Phase Charles Culture Type (middle)
dates 4500 to 3300 BP (conservatively from 4300 to 3500 BP)
1) grew out of Old Cordilleran Culture - stone tools seem related
2) represents short seasonal stops (although Glenrose fauna indicate different seasons) where people camped at place of collecting and ate everything collected there (forager adaptations)
3) development towards the ethnographic cultural pattern
4) oriented toward riverine and maritime resources, emphasis on Salmon (remember that Glenrose and St. Mungo closer to the Bay then, than they are now)
5) faunal remains:
a fish (salmon 50% of fish and increases in % of fish throughout the phase, eulachon, sturgeon,
elk (most abundant at Glenrose and St. Mungo
c sea-mammals (seals)
d shellfish (bay mussel predominate; barnacles some),
e birds (duck and geese)
f salmon heads mean processed there (and are used to infer no storage capacity at Glenrose for the St. Mungo phase???)
6 shellfish and fish now make up 40% by weight of the site
a pebble tools (now only 10% as opposed to 44% of assemblage) at Glenrose cobble tools were 31% in Old Cord and 6% in St. Mungo)
b abrasive stones (17 whole at Glenrose; 18 other ground stone)
d bipolar cores
e shell tools (beads, adzes and knife blades of California Mussels (Mytilus californianus)
f stone beads (only few found at Glenrose, some at St. Mungo, lots at recent Crescent Beach excavation; might be a factor of screen size)
g incised, decorated schist/mudstone tablets
leaf-shaped (most common form, but most smaller than Old Cordilleran ones)
ground-stone points (2 at Glenrose, fragment of 3rd)
(no ground-slate KNIFE; that is Mayne Phase characteristic)
i Bone tools:
flesher? (from Glenrose and St. Mungo)
bone pendants (12 found at Glenrose, 13 at St. Mungo, none at Crescent Beach)
j antler tools (wedges, harpoons - bilateral and unilateral, barbed points, single anthropomorphic figure from Glenrose)
8 flexed burials (grave goods include only small shell disk beads and ocher; no labret wear)
9 evidence for cranial deformation and use of labrets questionable
(2 burials at Tsawwassen from St. Mungo phase deposits showed slight labret wear; labrets could have started as wooden ones).
10 Both phases are thought to be part of Charles Culture but a few objects are found in Mayne that are not found in St. Mungo
St. Mungo Phase: Mayne Phase No ground slate knives ground slate knives
No celts celts
No labrets labrets
No microblades microblades
11 all things found in Mayne Phase are found in the next Locarno Beach phase
12 Mayne phase may have been the beginning of Locarno Beach in the Islands, found there earlier, and spread to mainland.
Locarno Beach Phase Locarno Beach Culture Type (middle)
dates 3500/3300 to 2400 BP
so if find site with this radiocarbon date, then it is Locarno Beach.
i GULF ISLAND COMPLEX finely made small ground objects with no clear function (notched, stone sinkers) made of soapstone, coal, and bone (called Whatzits)
2) faunal remains:
a land mammals; not large % of fauna
salmon , ranging from 66 to 78% of large fish. few salmon heads Locarno Beach Site occupied in spring when no salmon available, yet salmon there.
discuss: taphonomy of salmon: ratio of head-to-body bones
starry flounder still important
herring (and surf smelt) are smaller fishes used in large amounts
d shellfish (mussel and barnacles; but for first time horseclam, butter clam, littleneck, and cockle
new manufacture styles:
lots of objects drilled using long, thin drills of uniform diameter (possibly fine reeds or bone) and objects often highly polished over whole surface
4) clay-lined depressions and alignments of vertically placed rock slabs
5) hot rock boiling technique implied from all the fire-cracked rock
sometimes associated with now-inland location and with deposits containing little shell or shell which is decomposed.
sites located away from Fraser River and may be focused on ISLANDs. This would support suggestion that Mayne Phase was start of Locarno Beach.
7) only one hand maul found at any site, so difficult to say what the role of woodworking is.
Western Red Cedar just arrived and probably not crucial until next period. Mitchell suggests that leather clothing used during Locarno Beach. No cedar? Are wedges in Locarno Beach used for splitting planks?
8) no evidence of plank houses (one "pit house" feature at Crescent Beach),
cairn burials are found
burials with labrets thought to mean achieved status rather than inherited (ascribed) status
no head deformation in Locarno Beach
10) difference in Locarno Beach from St. Mungo
a the addition of ground stone tool types (starting to use cedar?)
b increases in both bone and ground stone tools in LB phase.
c increase dependence on processing of salmon in LB phase.
Locarno Beach people were starting to process large numbers of salmon for storage. And they stay at one site longer than the people of the previous St. Mungo Phase.
microliths/microblades may have been used for salmon processing
ground slate may have been used for salmon processing,
b microblades (less common than in Locarno beach, may be screen-size problem)
c slate points (less numerous than chipped stone points)
thought to be both points and parts of composite harpoon valve.
d slate knives
....very rare in islands
....and found in earlier contexts in island sites.
e celts/adze blades both small (like Locarno Beach), and large ones.
f hand mauls nipple-topped, plain and grooved conical top mauls
g disc beads of shell or shale.
h labrets and earspools all shapes represented (T-shaped, button, pendulant, composite, and novice)
j stone sculpture large seated human figurine bowls, sculptured heads, faunal effigies, decorated bowls
k perforated stones large stones with holes in center or at one end.
2) BONE TOOLS
NO COMPOSITE TOGGLING HARPOONS!
l Needles (with eyes, large and small)
n harpoon points (all unilaterially barbed) line attachment features differ
o unilaterally barbed antler points found only in Marpole
p antler wedges
3) METAL TOOLS
q native copper ornaments (rare)
same as earlier phases
deer, elk, seals, salmon, starry flounder, herring, birds
heads of salmon used to suggest processing site, as opposed to winter village.
evidence of storage: pits, heads of fish, specialized seasonal sites.
C) burials (many indications of ascribed (inherited) status)
2 skull deformation
D) house outlines and post molds
San Juan Phase Gulf of Georgia Culture Type (late)
dates 1500/1100 BP to contact with Eurasian traders
description most of what we know about this phase is based on comparisons with cultural materials known at Eurasian contact.
1 Relatively rare, small, triangular chipped basalt point (bows and arrows?).
2 thin, triangular, ground-slate points
3 thin slate knives (abundant at Fraser River, only few on islands)
4 Dominance of bone and antler objects
a bone unipoints and bipoints for fishing
b antler wedges
c small composite toggle harpoons
5 sea-mussel points toggle harpoons
6 numerous wood working tools:
- flat-topped mauls
- large well-made celts
7 irregularly shaped abrasive stones
8 weaving tools (blanket pins, combs, and spindle whorls)
9 some flexed burials (but most inferred to be above ground as ethnographic observation),
10 head deformation common.
11 winter villages with plank houses and post molds
12 summer camp sites
13 emphasis on fishing
Reef net fishing??
weirs, dams, and traps
14 trench embankment sites
thought to indicate defense and fortification
Frenchman Springs Phase Age: 4500-2500 B.P.
Beginning of phase marked by significant changes in artifact assemblages and settlement patterns, perhaps caused by climatic shift to mesic environment. Beginning of ethnographic pattern.
chipped stone technology
1 (overall much less significant to overall tool assemblage, and quality is inferior)
2 (Basalt less frequently used, mostly chert)
Rabbit Island stemmed points (contracting-stemmed)
wood technologies (some mats, cordage in Vantage area)
hunting mammals (deer, antelope, elk, and rabbit)
(sheep may have been important)
gathering plant (seeds, roots and berries) (grinding and pounding equipment suggests this is even more important)
aquatic foodstuffs. (fish, but evidence not strong for large numbers)
river mussels (may significantly increase in importance)
River settlements consist of small, aggregated pit house sites arranged in linear fashion along the river.
uplands use changes significantly. Now have grinding tools in upland sites, indicating that people spent more time there and put more effort into activities at that location. Find base camps, extractive camps, and quarry sites.
climate much cooler and moister, changing vegetation in uplands to ones that were more productive. This period not as cool and moist as during Windust phase, but much more moist than Cascade Phase.
Moist conditions may have changed river hydrology in Snake River valley, eroding terraces with sites from Frenchman Springs (Tucannon). Few river sites found.
Cayuse Phase Age: 2500-350 B.P. (A.D. 1600)
Phase divided into early and late at 950 B.P. (A.D. 1000) when small points increase in number and site of villages increase.