CITY OF MELBOURNE PLANNING SCHEME HERITAGE REVIEW
NORTH AND WEST MELBOURNE
1.0 Project Scope
This project is a continuation of a process of re-assessment of heritage buildings located in North and West Melbourne within the City of Melbourne. The heritage significance of buildings and streetscapes in these areas were assessed in a study prepared by Graeme Butler & Associates in 1983-5. In 1993, the gradings of a portion of these buildings and streetscapes were reviewed as part of the North & West Melbourne Structure Plan.
More recently, in 1999, D graded buildings located outside Heritage Overlay precincts and all E and F graded buildings were re-assessed by Allom Lovell & Associates. The geographical scope of the project included all areas outside the capital city zone, i.e. South Melbourne, South Yarra, East Melbourne, Kensington, Carlton and Parkville, in addition to North and West Melbourne. Also as part of that study, the grading system used by the City of Melbourne was reviewed, and buildings in the project brief re-assessed against the revised criteria.
In 2000 the City of Melbourne engaged Allom Lovell & Associates to undertake the present study. The aim of the project was to review and assess a further 246 heritage buildings located in North and West Melbourne in preparation for a proposed amendment to the City of Melbourne Planning Scheme. The principal objective was to review the gradings of the buildings against the revised grading system prepared in the 1999 study, and, on the basis of this, provide recommendations for their continuing Planning Scheme protection.
A second stage to the project was undertaken in 2002, when the project brief was extended to include an additional 6 buildings. Also required was further clarification or justification for the re-grading of 36 buildings reviewed in the first stage.
The total number of heritage buildings within the project brief (both stages) is 252. Most of these were buildings had already been identified in the original 1983-5 study: a small number (2) were not previously assessed either as part of the original study or the later reviews.
A list of all buildings assessed in this project is included in Appendix A.
Four specific tasks were outlined by the Council. These were:
Gather relevant information from all appropriate sources including Council, Heritage Victoria, National Trust, Hotham History Project (North Melbourne Library) and the State Library of Victoria.
Produce a list of recommended gradings. This includes a recommendation of “No change to current grading” or “not recommended for any grading” if this decision is made.
Produce a supplement to the existing Building Identification Forms in the North & West Melbourne Conservation Study, to include a recent photograph and an explanation of the recommended grading (including retention of existing grading).
Produce a summary report of the project which outlines the methodology of revising gradings and include as an attachment a schedule of all sites inspected with recommended grading of each.
A copy of the project brief is included in Appendix B.
Each building on the list of places supplied by the Council was visited, photographed and surveyed from the street, and a grading based on the grading definitions as set out below was applied. Based on the existing ‘Building Identification Forms,’ and on the street survey, the list of buildings was revised. Buildings which had been listed individually but which formed part of a terrace or pair were combined as one listing, while some which had formerly shared a ‘Building Identification Form’ were listed separately.
The initial phase of assessment occurred on site, when a ‘first cut’ assessment was made of each building. In most cases, these initial gradings did not change, but in a number of cases, further comparative analysis against buildings of a similar type or period, usually within the same area, led to a change in grading of some individual buildings.
Many buildings were on the borderline of one grade or another, particularly in the case of C and D grade. As a general principle, where alterations are reversible, such as replacement of external cladding or windows, the building was, on balance, given a higher grading than a building which had been so altered that its appearance had fundamentally changed and where later works are not realistically reversible. In both cases, however, if a building made an important contribution because of historical, scientific or social reasons, this contribution was balanced against a diminished architectural condition, particularly if the building was in a prominent location or was reinforced by a group, in which case it may have qualified for a higher grading than if it had been assessed on architectural quality alone.
Similarly, if a building was fairly intact and of high aesthetic value but was geographically isolated, it may also have attracted a higher grading than one which had been considerably altered, as it may have made an aesthetic contribution to the immediate locality, or be a local landmark or part of people’s mental maps of the area and with which they identify.
A number of factors informed the final assessment. The integrity of the fabric and the nature and potential reversibility of any alterations were considered along with the overall aesthetic and historical significance of the place within the local context. Issues of streetscape and setting were also taken into account. By weighing up all the factors a decision was arrived at with regard to grading.
Revised Heritage Grading System
As part of the broader review of E and F graded places undertaken in 1999, the City of Melbourne’s gradings were reviewed as the definitions did not adequately reflect current approaches to the notion of “significance.”
The criteria in use by the City of Melbourne had been derived from various conservation studies undertaken in the 1980s, and revealed a strong architectural bias and other inconsistencies. The accepted criteria for assessment of cultural significance are aesthetic, historic or scientific significance and social value, as set out in the Australia ICOMOS Burra Charter (1999). Although it was outside the scope of this process to revise the gradings for A and B grade buildings, the criteria for assessment of C and D grade buildings were reviewed to reflect more accurately these accepted criteria. Previously, buildings graded C were deemed to ‘make an architectural and historic contribution’, while recognising alterations which may have occurred. Likewise, D graded buildings had been defined as ‘representatives of particular periods or styles’, a criterion which did not explicitly acknowledge historic or scientific significance or social value. The criteria for an E grading was somewhat similar, but allowed for geographic isolation of the building, while the F grading, given in some conservation areas only, acknowledged only social significance.
The revised definitions set out below apply to the buildings included in the broader review. These revised definitions give greater recognition to historical and social significance and have reduced the number of levels from six to four.
A Buildings are of national or state importance, and are irreplaceable parts of Australia's built form heritage. Many will be either already included on or recommended for the Victorian Heritage Register or the Register of the National Estate.
B buildings are of regional or metropolitan significance, and stand as important milestones in the architectural development of the metropolis. Many will be either already included on or recommended for inclusion on the Register of the National Estate.
C buildings demonstrate the historical and social development of the local area and/or make an important aesthetic or scientific contribution. These buildings comprise a variety of styles and building types. Architecturally they are substantially intact, but where altered, it is reversible. In some instances, buildings of high individual historic, scientific or social significance may have a greater degree of alteration.
D buildings are representative of the historical, scientific, architectural and social development of the area. They are often reasonably intact representatives of particular periods, styles or building types. In many instances alterations will be reversible. They may also be altered examples which stand within a group of similar period, style or type or a street which retains much of its original character. Where they stand in a row or street, the collective group will provide a setting which reinforces the value of the individual buildings.
It should be noted that the old definitions and six-tier system of gradings still applies to all buildings not reviewed as part of the broader project.
The following definitions of “aesthetic,” “historic,” and “social” value are based on those in the Australia ICOMOS Burra Charter (1999) and are provided to assist in the interpretation of information contained in the ‘Building Identification Forms.’
The aesthetic value of a place is derived largely from the form, scale, colour, texture and material of the fabric. The clearest examples of places of aesthetic value are those which are good examples of their architectural type or style. Aesthetic value will be enhanced by a high degree of intactness, that is, a building which has undergone little alteration to the original physical fabric or which has been restored. It should be noted that the assessment of the aesthetic value of a building was based primarily on its appearance from the street.
The historic value of a place is derived from its association with a historic event, phase, figure or activity. Historic value can sometimes be quite specific, such as the association of a particular building with an important person or company, or it may be more general, and demonstrative of the broader history of the municipality. An example of the latter are the numerous houses in Melbourne’s inner suburbs which are associated with speculative building activity during the nineteenth century Boom period, an important phase of development of these areas. In some cases, alterations to buildings will be of historic value themselves, if they demonstrate the influence of an event, phase, figure or activity on the fabric of the place.
It should be noted that whilst every building has a history, historical significance does not necessarily follow. If buildings are taken as documents of the history of the area, in many instances their history may straightforwardly be an iteration of the overall historical development of the area. In some instances it may be more specific in relation to the historical themes associated with the area. Hence, where a building has undergone extensive alterations, this may outweigh the historical value of the place.
A place has social value if it has become a focus of cultural sentiment or identity in the local context. Examples of types of buildings which are important because of their social value, could include local institutions and meeting places such as churches, schools, parks, theatres, town halls and shops. Places which are local landmarks may also often have social value.
Alterations which are considered to be reversible are those which are largely superficial and which do not affect the basic structure of the building, or its intrinsic decoration (such as polychromatic brickwork). These alterations would include removal of verandahs and their decoration, removal of decoration generally, over-painting of face brickwork, re-cladding of roofs and walls and replacement of windows, doors and fences. Reinstatement of missing elements to a known earlier state can enhance the appearance of a building and increase its contribution to a streetscape. Reinstatement of missing elements as set out above is generally straightforward.
Alterations considered to be irreversible are those which alter the fundamental nature of the building, and would include such things as major alterations to the roof form, major alterations to the composition of the façade, especially alterations to the position of openings, as opposed to simple bricking up, or alterations which compromise the pattern of bi- or polychromatic brickwork, and additions which obscure or disguise the original form of the building. Additionally, where a building has been subject to a large number of individual alterations, the alterations as a whole could sometimes be considered irreversible or unrealistic where they have resulted in considerable diminution of heritage value.
It is important to note that with regard to the assessment of altered buildings, a simple quantification of alterations and consideration of their reversibility does not necessarily translate to an assessment of significance. Where significance is not high, any lack of integrity becomes a more important consideration when considering significance.
Contribution to the Character of the Street
Streetscape contribution refers to the degree to which a building contributes to the predominant nature of the street. For instance, a streetscape might be characterised by consistency of form, scale, height, setback and materials, or the buildings may have common architectural details creating a visual connection between them. Alternatively, a mixed streetscape might be demonstrative of the historic development of the area and be demonstrative of a particular period, phase or type of development.
Where a building has been assessed as having made a minimal contribution to a streetscape, there are several possible reasons. In the case of a building which was considered to be a stylistic anomaly, an inter-War house in an otherwise Victorian streetscape, for example, it was more likely to be graded if it was considered to be a good individual example of the type or style regardless of its setting. Buildings which had suffered a particularly high degree of alteration (see above) were often of little individual value as well as making little or no contribution to the streetscape.
5.0 Sites Recommended for Individual Statutory Heritage Protection
Of the 252 buildings or groups of buildings assessed, 247 (98%) were afforded a grading. Of these, 110 were graded D, 126 were graded C, 6 were graded B, 5 were graded A while 5 were not graded. A list of all buildings and their gradings, alphabetically arranged by street, forms Appendix A to this document.
New ‘Building Identification Forms’ were prepared for all buildings. Each form contains the following information: building name, address, building type, period and date of construction, grade, previous grade and streetscape grading. A recent photograph is also included. The streetscape gradings were transferred directly from the previous studies and were not reviewed. The intactness and condition of each building were rated good, fair or poor. The assessment of intactness was directly related to the assessment of reversibility of alterations, and the degree to which the building continues to contribute to the streetscape. The assessment of condition was a consideration of the degree of dilapidation which the building exhibited and which was frequently reversible.
Each form also includes a brief history of the building (for methodology see below), a physical description of the exterior, a statement of significance and a grading review. The statement of significance is a concise statement showing in which way the building accords with the relevant assessment criteria.
Each ‘Building Identification Form’ includes an outline history of the building which was largely focussed on the date of construction and early owners / occupants. Constraints of time and budget dictated the following methodology. Where the construction date could be ascertained from a search of the Sands & McDougall Directories, no further research was undertaken. Where the Sands & McDougall Directories were inconclusive, a search of the City of Melbourne rate books available at the State Library of Victoria was undertaken. This collection is incomplete, and for most areas no twentieth century rate records were available. Where appropriate, this information was augmented by primary source material and secondary source material including published local histories. In some cases, where it was readily available, material from the City of Melbourne’s Building Applications Index was used.
It should also be noted that the historical information provided for many buildings is not much more than a short statement of the first occupier and, if known, owner. This does not necessarily mean that these buildings, usually residential properties, are not significant, rather it merely confirms that much of urban history is just that – a record of the developing nature of the communities which make up the municipality. These buildings demonstrate this aspect of the municipality’s history and are of value for this reason. In the broader context they are also of value in illustrating the history and development of Melbourne as a city. Where historical research has revealed buildings to have particular historical associations with prominent local people or groups, this has been elucidated.
The grading review states whether it has changed or if its previous grading has been confirmed, and gives a short justification, also based on the assessment criteria, of the revised grading. This section also describes any alterations and refurbishment works which have been made to the building since the previous study. Where any such changes have affected the grading of the building, or where they have been particularly appropriate or inappropriate, this is noted. It was also evident that many buildings in the study had undergone substantial refurbishment work since the previous study, with one of the most common works undertaken being the reinstatement of missing verandahs or verandah elements, which in most cases had enhanced the appearance, streetscape contribution and heritage value of these buildings. Other works which were noted included removal of non-original cladding, removal of over-painting from polychromatic or other face brickwork and, more commonly, construction of timber picket fences.
To ensure consistency of the application of the grading system, the grading review process was two-fold: firstly, the buildings were re-assessed against the definitions and secondly, were assessed against comparable examples. Criteria for comparison included age or period, type and/or scale and integrity, or a combination of these. A brief list of comparable buildings (with the same grading) is provided on the ‘Building Identification Form.’
As part of the second stage of the project a re-assessment, or further justification, was required for 36 properties whose grading was revised downwards and a brief explanation included on the ‘Building Identification Forms.’ No further justification or clarification was required by Council for buildings whose grade was revised upwards.
The outcome of the process of review of buildings whose grade was revised downwards is as follows:
Previously A and B buildings
Buildings included in the project brief which were previously graded A and B were compared with similar examples in the study area and re-assessed against the Council criteria. The threshold for B-grade is comparatively high (relative to other municipalities), allowing only for buildings which are ofregionalor statesignificance and which are ‘important milestones’ in the architectural development of Melbourne. None of the buildings reviewed which were previously graded B were considered sufficiently architecturally significant to meet this threshold. Mostly they are nineteenth century commercial buildings which, although distinctive in their streetscapes or are good examples of their type, were not considered to be “of regional or state significance” or “important architectural milestones.” Thus, buildings which are clearly of ‘high local’ significance architecturally or historically but do not quite meet the B-grade criteria are therefore graded with the other comparable, though in many cases less architecturally distinguished, C grade buildings. In effect they were not downgraded, rather they were re-graded against the applicable criteria.
Additionally, as stated previously, the A & B definitions have not been revised and still focus narrowly on architectural significance, and therefore do not accommodate buildings which may have high historical, but lower aesthetic, significance to the City of Melbourne.
For the same reasons, none of the buildings reviewed which were previously graded A and whose grading was changed were considered to have met the threshold for A-grade criteria. Again, whilst these buildings are architecturally distinctive none were considered to be of “national or state importance” or “irreplaceable parts of Australia’s built form heritage.” Instead they more appropriately correspond with B or C grade criteria.
A brief list of comparable examples for previously A and B grade buildings whose grading was revised is provided in each case on the ‘Building Identification Form.’
A change of grading for buildings previously graded C does not necessarily equate to a downward grade in level of significance, more typically it reflects a change in the definitions of C and D grade criteria and the reduced number of grading tiers.
C grade buildings are defined as those which ‘demonstrate the historical and social development of the local area and/or make an important aesthetic or scientific contribution,’ while D buildings are ‘representative of the historical, scientific, architectural and social development of the area’ or are buildings whose physical fabric has been altered but which ‘stand within a group of similar period, style or type or a street which retains much of its original character.’
In the reassessment process, it was considered that buildings previously graded C and which were re-graded to D better corresponded to the definition for D grade buildings, as they are either somewhat altered or representative of their type and/or development of the area, or they are located in a context of similar buildings which, as a collection, reinforce the value of the individual buildings. Again, comparable D grade examples are listed on the ‘Building Identification Forms.’
6.0 Sites Not Recommended for Individual Statutory Heritage Protection
Of the 252 buildings or groups of buildings assessed, 5 were not recommended for individual Heritage Overlay protection. These buildings have either been substantially altered or had been demolished since the original survey. With respect to altered buildings, the number and extent of alterations was taken into account in addition to the reversibility of the individual alterations.
7.0 Recommended Heritage Controls
All buildings reviewed as part of this project which have been graded D or higher are recommended for statutory protection in the form of Heritage Overlay controls in the City of Melbourne Planning Scheme (Clause 43). The buildings are listed in Appendix A.