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China Hands-On Unit Study Guide
Chapter 19

  1. Like ancient Greece, China’s geographic ___________________ made it difficult to govern as one unified state.

  2. Explain the ways in which Inner China is different (contrast) from Outer China. In which ways do they compare?____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  3. Most of ancient Chinese history involves only Inner / Outer (circle one) China.

  4. Vegetation in the over 500,000 miles of the stony ______________ Desert is sparse. Sparse means ____________________________________________.

  5. Explain the two ways people use the Sungari River (specifically) of the Northeastern Plain for economic purposes. _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  6. Huang He means ____________________. What is so dangerous about the Huang He River? Be specific. ___________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________Chiang Jiang means _______________________. What are several reasons why the Chiang Jiang is less dangerous than the Huang He? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________.

  7. Geography affects diet. What types of foods did the inhabitants of Outer China eat regularly, and why did they eat those foods? _____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What types of foods did the inhabitants of Inner China eat regularly, and why did they eat those foods specifically? ___________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 20

  1. “Ancient China was not one country, but a number of clans, led by warrior kings. One clan that became powerful enough to control all of ancient China and start a ______________________ was the ________________________ whose capital city is in what is now called Anyang.

  2. Like the ancient Egyptians, the Shang buried their Kings with and near valuable vessels and containers of food, as well as treasures such as weapons, carved ornaments, pottery, stone sculptures, and chariots because they believed in the idea of a(n) _________________________.

  3. Similar to the governmental system we studied in the Greek unit called __________________, the Shang passed down power/leadership through their family.

  4. Prisoners captured during wars with opposing clans often became forced _____________ or _______________________________.

  5. The armies of the Shang were so powerful because their nobles had weapons made of __________________________. This metal is made of _______________ and _________________.

  6. There were six social classes in Shang society: ____________________, _____________________, _________________, __________________, _____________________, and __________________; the largest social class were the _______________________.

  7. Shang kings often gave nobles ___________ ______________ to symbolize power and favor with the king.

  8. What is ancestor worship? __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________

  9. Why did the ancient Chinese engage in this practice? ____________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  10. The Shang used ________________ __________________ as a way to communicate and get advice from their ancestors.

  11. The ancient Chinese spoke different languages from place to place, but the people of the upper classes all ___________________________________________ which helped to unify the Chinese people.

  12. What were common Chinese beliefs about jade? _________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________

  13. What were the three major reasons it is believed that the Shang eventually lost power? A) ____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________B)______________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________C) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

  14. The ancient Shang royal city was lost for thousands of years because of a geographical factor. What was this geographical factor? ________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

  15. Which dynasty lasted longer: the Shang or the Zhou?____________________________________ The Shang lasted about __________ years from ______________ to ______________, yet the Zhou dynasty lasted about _________ years from _______________ to ___________________.

Chapter 21

  1. The three most influential Chinese Philosophies, or schools of thought, of _____________________, ________________________, and _______________________ influenced ideas about peace and societal order during a time of chaos and disunity called the ______________ ___________ period which lasted from about _________________ to __________________.

  2. The Zhou claimed that they were given the approval of Heaven to overthrow the Shang and rule China. This idea is called the _________________________________ and meant _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

  3. _________________________, the first ruler of the Zhou dynasty, was considered a just and able leader.




  1. The transition from ____________________ to the Warring States period in China can be compared to the transition from ___________________ to ____________________ in ancient Greece.

  2. Many teachings of Kongfuzi, otherwise known as __________________, by Westerners, are collected in a book called ___________________________.

  3. What are some of the major beliefs of Confucianism? ____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  4. What is filial piety? __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________

  5. What are civil servants? ____________________________________________________________________

  6. How were civil servants usually hired before the Han dynasty as contrasted to how they were hired during and after the Han? ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________

  7. Taoism (Doaism) is based on the teachings of _____________________ who is said to be the author of ____________________________________.

  8. What were the major beliefs/teachings of Taoism? ______________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  9. Taoism’s most important influence on Chinese culture was in the areas of ____________, _________________________, and _______________.

  10. What were the major beliefs/teachings of Hanfeizi’s Legalist system of government? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  11. What strategies did Zheng Qin use in order to conquer rival states and gain control of all of the land that would become China? _______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________

  12. The Emperor of Qin, _____________________________, adopted the _______________________ system of government.

  13. The Emperor of Qin wanted to unify China by standardizing money, weights, and measures. What does each of these mean? A) _____________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________B)_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________and C)_________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________

  14. When the Emperor of Qin went on inspection tours to make sure his orders were being obeyed, he often performed sacrifices and erected stone tablets that told of his achievements much like the rules of ancient _________________________________________.

  15. What did the Emperor of Qin do to protect his empire and citizens along the northern border? ___________________________________________________________________________

  16. How did the Emperor of Qin deal with Confucian scholars and others who opposed his ideas and policies? _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  17. It is said that Qin Shihuangdi died on a quest for ___________________________.

  18. The most amazing part of Qin Shihuangdi’s tomb was the more than 6,000 ________________________________________ that were buried there.

Chapter 23

  1. Although the harsh rule of Qin only lasted about 14 years, the subsequent rule of the ____________ dynasty lasted over 400 years under the system of mostly _________________ ideas. Leadership under this dynasty is called ancient China’s _________________________.

  2. This dynasty had a large and well-organized army because they required all men from age ________ to _________ to serve 2 years in the army. They also made many advances in technology such as the invention and use of A)_____________________________ B)_____________________________________________ C)_____________________________________________, D)________________________________________, and E)_____________________________________________.

  3. Farmers were helped by agricultural innovations such as the A)_______________________, B)______________________________________, and the C)__________________________________________.

  4. Under the Han, the Chinese came up with the widespread production of ______________ that was perfect for the inked writing called __________________________________.

  5. What were the four major innovations in medicine (explored in out text) under the Han? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  6. Under the Han, ancient scientists invented a device to detect earthquakes called a _______________________________________.

  7. The invention of the magnetic ___________________ which was made out of _______________ was an important innovation in the sciences for the Chinese and even helped them with the spiritual art of properly placing objects in homes and temples called _________ ____________.

  8. Han Emperor ___________________improved government by setting up a university to prepare students for the civil service exam.

Chapter 24

  1. The expansion of the Han empire made possible the ________________ ________________.

  2. Why is Zhang Qian important to the golden age of the Han? _____________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  3. Why was silk such a prized invention throughout the ancient world and especially to the Chinese? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  4. The Romans traded their _______________ and ______________ for Chinese silk.

  5. Why were Bactrian camels especially important to trade along the Silk Road? ________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________

  6. _______________ , a religion from India, expanded into China as a result of the Silk Road.


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