No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission from the copyright owner.
Chief Editor Dr. Iftikhar A. Raja
Editor Dr. Arshid Pervez
Associate Editors Dr. Qaisar Mahmood
Dr. Muhammad Irshad
Dr. Maria Siddique
Dr. Irum Shahzadi
Technical Editor Waqar Azim
Conference Patronage Dr. S. M. Junaid Zaidi S.I.(Rector, CIIT)
We express our sincere appreciations to authors and co-authors for submitting and/or presenting their work at ESDev-2015. Lastly we are thankful to Chairman, Higher Education Commission, Rector, CIIT, Director, CIIT Abbottabad for their whole hearted support to make this conference a success.
May God Almighty give us the ability and strength to serve the humanity and be kind to His creation.
Iftikhar A. Raja
PREFACE The fragile ecosystem of our planet is under attack on many fronts as a result of our desire to improve our living standard and better lifestyle through industrialization and infrastructure development while our struggle for food on the other hand. Both these ‘desire and struggle’ lead to unsustainable use of resources. The United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals ‘MDG’ set in 2005, for worldwide efforts to ensure environmental sustainability by 2015 are approaching. Now while the time has passed the ‘Millennium Declaration’ indicators show our failure to protect the environmental systems, a fundamental question dominates the global development agenda: what should now replace the ‘MDG’? It is clear that environmental issues such as deforestation, habitat and biodiversity loss, overuse of natural resources, air and water pollution, and global climate change all are linked to poverty, whether it is ‘fuel poverty or food’. Therefore, the post MGD agenda needs to tackle the relationship between poverty and environmental sustainability for long-lasting change. Not just our survival and wellbeing but of all living beings depends on agenda, how to conservation of our natural environment.
UNDP and UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative ‘PEI’ programme is launched to support country-led efforts to mainstream poverty-environment linkages into national development and sub-national development planning, from policymaking to budgeting, implementation and monitoring.
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, in line with United Nation ‘MDG’ took the initiative by launching a series International Conferences: “Environmentally Sustainable Development” (ESDev). Since 2005 the ESDev series of conference is held regularly alternate year. The first five conferences successfully addressed the vital issues revolving around “Environment and Sustainable Development”. Utilizing the same platform and in accordance the recommendation of ESDev-2005, the 6th International Conference, “Environmentally Sustainable Development” ESDev-2015 has been organized
The ESDev-2015 Conference has brought together hundreds of professionals from academia, industries, local enterprises and agencies to translate ideas, success stories, case studies, current trends, and technologies into solutions for environmental protection and enhancement. In this conference two topics – Drugs Development: Synthetic and Natural, and Advances in Civil and Environmental Engineering also included for special deliberation. Three separate Books of Abstracts have been published – BoA-I, contains over 225 abstracts related to environment, Book-II 100 abstracts covering articles on Drugs Development and Book-III holds 25 abstracts on Advance in Civil and Environmental Engineering. Over 100 papers are presented in two parallel sessions and the remaining papers are displayed in poster form.
The number of themes and unequal distribution of the papers under these themes represents particularly the academic response to the call for papers. Issues of local concern and expertise are particularly well represented. Perhaps in future years it would be appropriate to encourage participation from a wider environmental perspective.
It is expected that the environmental issues and concern disscussed at ESDev-2015, among the stakeholders in an area of immense importance would result in specific actions, to craft suitable policies and to take the necessary action to protect and sustain the environment. Research and technical papers presented at ESDev-2015 will evoke interest and subsequent discussion and practical implementation not only by the delegates attending the conference, but also by others involved in environment related activities like research and teaching institutions, NGOs and individuals working in private and public sector.