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Battle of Panipat (1526) happened between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur.

Babur had a numerically inferior army but he won due to strategy. Gunpowder was known in India from Vijayanagar days but common use in North India started after this battle when Babur used it in his artillery. The battle was a decisive one in Indian history and it gave Babur control over Delhi and Agra. But Babur had to fight two wars – against Rana Sanga (Mewar) and against eastern Afghans to consolidate his rule.

Sanga’s and Babur’s forces met at Battle of Khanwa (1527). Lodis, ruler of Alwar etc were on Sanga’s side but all were defeated. Sanga was killed. Babur conquered Alwar, Malwa and returned to deal with eastern Afghans (Lodi successors). These Afghans were independent from Lodi (remember they asserted their independence?) and led by Nusrat shah of Bengal. They now rallied under Mahmud Lodi, Ibrahim’s brother. Babur crossed Ganga and met the armies but could not secure a decisive victory and patched up an agreement in order to return to manage Kabul. HE died before reaching Kabul.

Significance of Babur’s advent and Qualities:

1. For the first time afte rKushan empire, Kabul and Qandhar became integral parts of north Indian empire.

2. Economically, access to these regions strengthened foreign trade since these two regions were starting points for caravans going to China in the East and Mediterranean in the West.

3. Balance of power (dealt with earlier) among different kingdoms was destroyed and was a precursor to all-India empire.

4. New mode of warfare introduced. Skilled artillery and cavalry. Popularization of gunpowder.

5. Established the presence of the Crown that had diminished after Lodis became weak. He was a descendant of Changes and Timur and thus set up the Timurid dynasty in India.

6. Endeared himself to his begs and partook of soldiers’ hardships.

7. Jolly and merry but stern disciplinarian. Rewarded loyalty but was cruel with the disloyal.

8. Kept court free from theological and sectarian conflicts. Was a Sunni but not a bigot.

9. Learned in Persian and Arabic. Wrote Tuzuk-i-Baburi, a masnavi and books on flora and fauna. Led a tradition of establishing gardens with water running through them.

10. Introduced a new concept of State backed with strength and prestige of the Crown instead of religious ideology or sectarian bigotry.


  1. Amils—revenue officers

  2. Amir-i-akhur—amir or officer commanding the horse

  3. Amir-i-hajib—officer-in-charge of the royal court

  4. Amirul Mominin—Commander of the Faithful; the Caliph

  5. Arz-i-mamalik—minister in charge of the army of the whole country

  6. Abwab miscellaneous cesses, imposts and charges levied by zamindars and public officials

  7. Adl justice

  8. Afaqis foreigners (in the Deccan)

  9. Ahadi gentleman trooper

  10. Ahl-i-qalam a scribe

  11. Amil, amalguzar revenue collector

  12. Amu Darya The River Oxus

  13. Arraba a wagon, a cart

  14. Ashraf a person of noble birth, a gentleman

  15. Ataliq guardian

  16. Banduqchi musketeer

  17. Bania, Baniya merchant; in some areas also refers to money-changer or banker; a caste traditionally

  18. engaged in the above activities

  19. Banjar waste or fallow-land, fit for cultivation

  20. Banjara grain and cattle merchant; name of an itinerant tribe

  21. Baqqal trader, grain-dealer

  22. Barawardi a recruit on ad-hoc pay

  23. Bargi, bargir an auxiliary soldier, a plunderer

  24. Batai division of the crop between the cultivator and the landlord or the government; payments may be

  25. in kind or cash

  26. Bayutat House-hold expenses, especially royal karkhanas

  27. Beg noble

  28. Bidat innovations in matters of religion, heresy

  29. Balahar—the lowest grade of the agricultural peasant

  30. Banjara—a corn merchant

  31. Barid—intelligence officer appointed by the state to collect information

  32. Cartaz a permit given by the Portuguese to traders.

  33. Chachar land out of cultivation for 3-4 years

  34. Cha’uth or chauthai one-fourth of the land-revenue, Orignally a zamindari charge in Gujarat, demanded

  35. by Shivaji as war expense.

  36. Chetti, Chettiar merchant caste of South India

  37. Charai—a tax on cattle

  38. Chatr—royal umbrella

  39. Dadni giving of advances (dadan) to artisans by merchants

  40. Dagh System of branding of horses and animals

  41. Dahsala Revenue settlement based on assessment of ten (dah) years revenue

  42. Dalai, Dallal Broker

  43. Dam A copper coin, considered 1/40* of a silver rupee for official purposes

  44. Darogha a minor officer in charge of a local office

  45. Dar-ul-harb Land not owing allegiance to Muslim rule, enemy land

  46. Dastur rule, assessment circle

  47. Dastur-al-amal Rule book

  48. Dhimmi A non-Muslim client or subject

  49. Diwan chief financial minister, a department, a book of verses

  50. Doab land between the Jumna and the Ganges

  51. Du-aspa sih-aspa A technical term meaning twice the number of sawars entertained otherwise

  52. Dagh—mark of branding

  53. Dallals—brokers

  54. Darogha—a minor officer in charge of a local office

  55. Darul Adl—the market of Delhi or cloth and other commodities; literally, place of justice

  56. Darul Mulk—capital

  57. Doab—land between the Jumna and the Ganges

  58. Farman a royal order

  59. Farr-i-izadi Divine Light communicated to ideal rulers

  60. Gazz-i-Sikandari—the yard of Sultan Sikandar Lodi

  61. Gumashta—agent or representative

  62. Gajnal A swivel gun born by an elephant (gaj)

  63. Garhi A hill fort, mud fort made of thick clay

  64. Ghalla-bakshi One mode of batai (q.v.)

  65. Gharib Foreigners (in the Deccan)

  66. Ghazi A hero, a soldier fighting against infidels

  67. Ghusal-Khana Private audience hall near the bathroom

  68. Gumashta agent or representative

  69. Gunj; ganj Mart

  70. Habshi Abyssinian, East African

  71. Hadis acts or words of the Arabian prophet

  72. Hakim A governor, a commander

  73. Hakim A physician, a sage

  74. Hammam Room for Bath of hot and cold water

  75. Haram Forbidden

  76. Harmandir The Sikh golden Temple at Amritsar.

  77. Hasil Actual realization (of land revenue)

  78. Hun A gold coin

  79. Hundi bill of exchange

  80. Ijara revenue-farming

  81. Ijaradar farmer of any item of public revenue, mainly land

  82. Imam supreme commander, leader; also the person leading the congregation Muslim prayers

  83. Inam gift; benefaction; land held free of revenue or at low rates of revenue

  84. Jagir income from a piece of land assigned to officers by the ruler

  85. Jagirdar holder of a jagir

  86. Jama total sum; total land revenue levied from an estate or division of country

  87. Jamabandi settlement of the amount of revenue assessed upon an estate, village or district.

  88. Jama-dami Assessed income in terms of dams

  89. Jama-i-kamil Maximum assessment

  90. Jamiat A military following

  91. Jarib A measurement, land measurement or survey

  92. Jharoka darshan Showing of the Emperor to the Public from the Palace

  93. Jihad holy war

  94. Jihat Extra cesses

  95. Jizya has two meanings: (a) in the literature of the Delhi Sultanat, any tax which is not kharaj or land tax;

  96. (b) in the shari’at, a personal and yearly tax on non-Muslims

  97. Junglah Horses of mixed breed

  98. Kafir non-Muslim (literally, one who is ngrateful to God)

  99. Kankut Estimation of land revenue

  100. Karinda Agent

  101. Karkhanas royal factories or enterprises for producing or collecting commodities required by the state

  102. Karori A revenue official

  103. Khalifa Caliph, Commander of the Faithful, or successor of a sufi
    Khalisa land land held and managed directly by the state
    Khalsa The Sikh order set up by Guru Govind
    Khanazad One born in the house, old (Turkish) employees
    Khanqahs a house of mystics but more commodious than the jama’at khana
    Kharif winter crop
    Khil’at robe of honour
    Khilafat Caliphate; commander of the faithful
    Khiraj, kharaj tax; especially land revenue
    Khud-kasht Owner of land who cultivates with his own ploughs and bullock and some hired labour,
    resident cultivator
    Kufr Disbelief
    Kulkarni village accountant
    Kunbi caste of cultivators in Maharashtra
    Liwan Ante chamber
    Madad- i-ma’ash assignment of revenue by the government for the support of learned or religious
    persons, or benevolent institutions.
    Madrasa an educational institution
    Mahajan merchant, banker
    Mahal a group of lands regarded as a unit for land revenue purposes
    Mahawara-un-Nahart Transoxiana
    Mahzar A declaration signed by ulama
    Malik Owner
    Malikana special allowance assigned to zamindar or landowner
    Malikut-Tujjar literally, chief of merchants; a title given to one of the highest officer of the state
    Mansab military rank conferred by the Mughal Government
    Mansabdar holder of a mansab
    Mapillah Muslim community in Kerala
    Math Monastery
    Mauza revenue term for a village
    Mihrab High alter from which the priest prays.
    Miras hereditary right
    Mirasdar holder of miras lands
    Mokasa Grant of land for military service, rent-free land.
    Muhtasib an officer appointed to maintain regulations in a municipality
    Mujannas Mixed breed of Arabi and Iraqi horses.
    Mujtahid One entitled to interpret holy laws
    Mulhid A heretic, one who renounces the faith.
    Mullahs persons claiming to be religious leaders of the Musalmans
    Muqaddam village headman; literally the first or senior man
    Murid Disciple
    Mustaufi An auditor of accounts specially of those collecting land revenue.
    Mutasaddi A writer, a clerk
    Nabud Remission of land revenue on account of natural disasters.
    Nabuwat Prophethood
    Naib deputy, assistant, agent, representative
    Na-Khuda Commander or captain of a ship
    Narnal Swivel gun carried by men
    Nasaq A mode of assessment
    Naukar, Nokar Servant, term used by Timurid rulers for their nobles
    Nawab viceroy, governor; title of rank
    Nazrana gift, usually from inferior to superior; forced contribution
    Nilgai A kind of deer

  104. Pahar One-eigth of a day i.e. three hours
    Pahi A non-resident cultivator, temporary cultivator
    Paibaqi Land reserved for allotment in jagir
    Paibos kissing the feet, a ceremony generally reserved for God
    Patar mistress, kept woman, common law wife.
    Patel village headman
    Patta document given by collector of revenue to the revenue payer stating terms on which the land is
    held and the amount payable
    Patwari village accountant
    Peshkar Agent, manager of finances
    Peshkash Tribute from subordinate rulers
    Polaj Land constantly in cultivation
    Qasba small town
    Rabi the winter crop
    Rahdari Protection money paid by travelers
    Rai a Hindu chief, usually one having his own territory and army
    Raiyat Subjects, payers of land-revenue
    Raiyati Areas without a zamindar, or where cultivation of land-revenue was easy, productive.
    Ray A schedule
    Rekh Assessed land revenue in Rajasthan
    Riyayati Sections assessed at a concessional rate
    Sair, sayer taxes other than land revenue; transit duties
    Sama music, some time accompanied by dance for the mystics
    Saranjam Lane allotted in lieu of military service
    Sardeshmukhi One-tenth of the assessed income
    Sarrafs money-changers, bankers
    Sayurghal Rent-free land
    Shahbandar Official in charge of a port
    Shariat Muslim religious law
    Shroff banker and moneylender; moneychanger
    Sijdah Prostration, theoretically before God
    Sufis Mystics
    Tappa small estate or a group of villages
    Taqavi Advance of money for sowing or extend ing cultivation.
    Taqlid Religious show without real piety, hypocricy
    Tasawwuf Mysticism
    Tauhid unity of God
    Upari temporary occupant; tenant-at-will
    Usar barren land
    Vatan, watan hereditary lands
    Wahdat-al-Wajud Unity of God and the beings
    Wajh money, salary
    Wajhdar a salaried officer
    Wali governor, guardian
    Wali Successor
    Wali-ahad heir-presumptive
    Wazir-i-mutlnq wazir with full powers, who could administer without interference by the king
    Yassa Regulations or code book of Chingiz
    Zabtjzabti System of assessment based on measurement
    Zawabit Secular laws
    Zimmi, dhintmi protected non-Muslim
    Zor-talab Areas of turbulence often held by powerful zamindars.
    Hadis—acts or words of the Arabian Prophet
    Imam—supreme commander, leader; also the person leading the congregational Muslim prayers
    Inam—gift; reward
    Iqta—a governorship; or grant of revenues of a piece of land
    Iqtadar—governor or a person in whose charge an iqta has been placed
    Jagir—a piece of land assigned to a government officer by the state
    Jama’at’ Khana—a house of mystics
    jitals—Copper coins of the Delhi sultanat
    Jizya—has two meanings: (a) in the literature of the Delhi sultanat, any tax which is not kharaj or land
    tax; (b) in the shari’at: a personal and yearly tax on non-Muslims
    Kafir—non-Muslim (literally, one who is ungrateful to God)
    Karkhanas—royal factories or enterprises for producing or collecting commodities required by the state
    Khalifa—Caliph, Commander of the Faithful, or successor of a sufi
    Khalisa—income which went directly went to the king
    Khanqahs—a house of mystics but more commoditous than the jama’at khana
    Kharif—a winter crop in India
    Khil’at—robe of honour
    Khilafat—caliphate; commander of the faithful
    Kharaj—land revenue; also tribute paid by a subordinate ruler
    Khuts—class of village headmen
    Madad-i-Maash—grant of land or pension to religious or deserving persons
    Madrasa—an educational institution
    Malikut-Tujjar—literally, chief of merchants; a title given to one of the highest officers of the state
    Mohalla—a section or part of a town; quarter of a city
    Muhtasib—an officer appointed to maintain regulations in a municipality
    Mullahs—persons claiming to be religious leaders of the Musalmans
    Muqaddam—village headman; literally the first or senior man
    Mushrif-i-mamalik—accountant for all provinces
    Naib—deputy, assistant, agent, representative
    Paibos—kissing the feet, a ceremony generally reserved for God
    Pir—spiritual guide
    Qalandars—a class of Muslim mendicants, generally uneducated, who did not believe in private
    property and wandered about from place to place and lived by persistent begging
    Qazi—a Muslim judge
    Rabi’—the winter crop in India, as opposed to the kharif or rainy season crop
    Rai—a Hindu chief, usually one having his own territory and army
    Rai Rayan—the Rai of Rais; the title given by Alauddin Khalji to Rama Deo of Deogir
    Sadah—literally, one hundred; the term sadah amirs meant officers controlling territory containing
    about a hundred villages
    Sadr-i jahan—title of the central officer of the Delhi sultanat, who was in charge of religious and
    charitable endowments
    Sama—an audition party of the mystics
    Sarrafs—money-changers, bankers
    Sarai-Adl—name given to Alauddin Khalji’s market in Delhi for the sale of cloth and other specified
    Shahr—city, used for the capital, Delhi
    Shari’at—Muslim religious law
    Shiqdar—an officer-in-charge of an area of land described as a shiq
    Shuhna—head of the police, mayor, provost
    Shuhna-i mandi—officer-in-charge of the grain-market
    Tanka—silver coin of the Delhi sultanat
    Tauhid—unity of God
    Ulema—Muslims of religious learning; plural of alim
    Umara—Plural of amir; amir means ruler or commander
    Usar—saline land
    Wajh—money, salary
    Wajhdar—a salaried officer
    Wazir-i mutlaq—wazir with full powers, who could administer without interference by the king
    Zawabits—state laws
    Zimmis—protected non-Muslims

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