Battle of Panipat (1526)happened between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur.
Babur had a numerically inferior army but he won due to strategy. Gunpowder was known in India from Vijayanagar days but common use in North India started after this battle when Babur used it in his artillery. The battle was a decisive one in Indian history and it gave Babur control over Delhi and Agra. But Babur had to fight two wars – against Rana Sanga (Mewar) and against eastern Afghans to consolidate his rule.
Sanga’s and Babur’s forces met at Battle of Khanwa (1527). Lodis, ruler of Alwar etc were on Sanga’s side but all were defeated. Sanga was killed. Babur conquered Alwar, Malwa and returned to deal with eastern Afghans (Lodi successors). These Afghans were independent from Lodi (remember they asserted their independence?) and led by Nusrat shah of Bengal. They now rallied under Mahmud Lodi, Ibrahim’s brother. Babur crossed Ganga and met the armies but could not secure a decisive victory and patched up an agreement in order to return to manage Kabul. HE died before reaching Kabul.
Significance of Babur’s advent and Qualities:
1. For the first time afte rKushan empire, Kabul and Qandhar became integral parts of north Indian empire.
2. Economically, access to these regions strengthened foreign trade since these two regions were starting points for caravans going to China in the East and Mediterranean in the West.
3. Balance of power (dealt with earlier) among different kingdoms was destroyed and was a precursor to all-India empire.
4. New mode of warfare introduced. Skilled artillery and cavalry. Popularization of gunpowder.
5. Established the presence of the Crown that had diminished after Lodis became weak. He was a descendant of Changes and Timur and thus set up the Timurid dynasty in India.
6. Endeared himself to his begs and partook of soldiers’ hardships.
7. Jolly and merry but stern disciplinarian. Rewarded loyalty but was cruel with the disloyal.
8. Kept court free from theological and sectarian conflicts. Was a Sunni but not a bigot.
9. Learned in Persian and Arabic. Wrote Tuzuk-i-Baburi, a masnavi and books on flora and fauna. Led a tradition of establishing gardens with water running through them.
10. Introduced a new concept of State backed with strength and prestige of the Crown instead of religious ideology or sectarian bigotry.
LIST OF TERMS AND THEIR MEANINGS [Courtesy: Akbar_Birbal]:
Amir-i-akhur—amir or officer commanding the horse
Amir-i-hajib—officer-in-charge of the royal court
Amirul Mominin—Commander of the Faithful; the Caliph
Arz-i-mamalik—minister in charge of the army of the whole country
Abwab miscellaneous cesses, imposts and charges levied by zamindars and public officials
Jizya has two meanings: (a) in the literature of the Delhi Sultanat, any tax which is not kharaj or land tax;
(b) in the shari’at, a personal and yearly tax on non-Muslims
Junglah Horses of mixed breed
Kafir non-Muslim (literally, one who is ngrateful to God)
Kankut Estimation of land revenue
Karkhanas royal factories or enterprises for producing or collecting commodities required by the state
Karori A revenue official
Khalifa Caliph, Commander of the Faithful, or successor of a sufi Khalisa land land held and managed directly by the state Khalsa The Sikh order set up by Guru Govind Khanazad One born in the house, old (Turkish) employees Khanqahs a house of mystics but more commodious than the jama’at khana Kharif winter crop Khil’at robe of honour Khilafat Caliphate; commander of the faithful Khiraj, kharaj tax; especially land revenue Khud-kasht Owner of land who cultivates with his own ploughs and bullock and some hired labour, resident cultivator Kufr Disbelief Kulkarni village accountant Kunbi caste of cultivators in Maharashtra Liwan Ante chamber Madad- i-ma’ash assignment of revenue by the government for the support of learned or religious persons, or benevolent institutions. Madrasa an educational institution Mahajan merchant, banker Mahal a group of lands regarded as a unit for land revenue purposes Mahawara-un-Nahart Transoxiana Mahzar A declaration signed by ulama Malik Owner Malikana special allowance assigned to zamindar or landowner Malikut-Tujjar literally, chief of merchants; a title given to one of the highest officer of the state Mansab military rank conferred by the Mughal Government Mansabdar holder of a mansab Mapillah Muslim community in Kerala Math Monastery Mauza revenue term for a village Mihrab High alter from which the priest prays. Miras hereditary right Mirasdar holder of miras lands Mokasa Grant of land for military service, rent-free land. Muhtasib an officer appointed to maintain regulations in a municipality Mujannas Mixed breed of Arabi and Iraqi horses. Mujtahid One entitled to interpret holy laws Mulhid A heretic, one who renounces the faith. Mullahs persons claiming to be religious leaders of the Musalmans Muqaddam village headman; literally the first or senior man Murid Disciple Mustaufi An auditor of accounts specially of those collecting land revenue. Mutasaddi A writer, a clerk Nabud Remission of land revenue on account of natural disasters. Nabuwat Prophethood Naib deputy, assistant, agent, representative Na-Khuda Commander or captain of a ship Narnal Swivel gun carried by men Nasaq A mode of assessment Naukar, Nokar Servant, term used by Timurid rulers for their nobles Nawab viceroy, governor; title of rank Nazrana gift, usually from inferior to superior; forced contribution Nilgai A kind of deer
Pahar One-eigth of a day i.e. three hours Pahi A non-resident cultivator, temporary cultivator Paibaqi Land reserved for allotment in jagir Paibos kissing the feet, a ceremony generally reserved for God Patar mistress, kept woman, common law wife. Patel village headman Patta document given by collector of revenue to the revenue payer stating terms on which the land is held and the amount payable Patwari village accountant Peshkar Agent, manager of finances Peshkash Tribute from subordinate rulers Polaj Land constantly in cultivation Qasba small town Rabi the winter crop Rahdari Protection money paid by travelers Rai a Hindu chief, usually one having his own territory and army Raiyat Subjects, payers of land-revenue Raiyati Areas without a zamindar, or where cultivation of land-revenue was easy, productive. Ray A schedule Rekh Assessed land revenue in Rajasthan Riyayati Sections assessed at a concessional rate Sair, sayer taxes other than land revenue; transit duties Sama music, some time accompanied by dance for the mystics Saranjam Lane allotted in lieu of military service Sardeshmukhi One-tenth of the assessed income Sarrafs money-changers, bankers Sayurghal Rent-free land Shahbandar Official in charge of a port Shariat Muslim religious law Shroff banker and moneylender; moneychanger Sijdah Prostration, theoretically before God Sufis Mystics Tappa small estate or a group of villages Taqavi Advance of money for sowing or extend ing cultivation. Taqlid Religious show without real piety, hypocricy Tasawwuf Mysticism Tauhid unity of God Upari temporary occupant; tenant-at-will Usar barren land Vatan, watan hereditary lands Wahdat-al-Wajud Unity of God and the beings Wajh money, salary Wajhdar a salaried officer Wali governor, guardian Wali Successor Wali-ahad heir-presumptive Wazir-i-mutlnq wazir with full powers, who could administer without interference by the king Yassa Regulations or code book of Chingiz Zabtjzabti System of assessment based on measurement Zawabit Secular laws Zimmi, dhintmi protected non-Muslim Zor-talab Areas of turbulence often held by powerful zamindars. Hadis—acts or words of the Arabian Prophet Imam—supreme commander, leader; also the person leading the congregational Muslim prayers Inam—gift; reward Iqta—a governorship; or grant of revenues of a piece of land Iqtadar—governor or a person in whose charge an iqta has been placed Jagir—a piece of land assigned to a government officer by the state Jama’at’ Khana—a house of mystics jitals—Copper coins of the Delhi sultanat Jizya—has two meanings: (a) in the literature of the Delhi sultanat, any tax which is not kharaj or land tax; (b) in the shari’at: a personal and yearly tax on non-Muslims Kafir—non-Muslim (literally, one who is ungrateful to God) Karkhanas—royal factories or enterprises for producing or collecting commodities required by the state Khalifa—Caliph, Commander of the Faithful, or successor of a sufi Khalisa—income which went directly went to the king Khanqahs—a house of mystics but more commoditous than the jama’at khana Kharif—a winter crop in India Khil’at—robe of honour Khilafat—caliphate; commander of the faithful Kharaj—land revenue; also tribute paid by a subordinate ruler Khuts—class of village headmen Kufr—disbelief Madad-i-Maash—grant of land or pension to religious or deserving persons Madrasa—an educational institution Malikut-Tujjar—literally, chief of merchants; a title given to one of the highest officers of the state Mameluks—slave-officers Mohalla—a section or part of a town; quarter of a city Muhtasib—an officer appointed to maintain regulations in a municipality Mullahs—persons claiming to be religious leaders of the Musalmans Muqaddam—village headman; literally the first or senior man Mushrif-i-mamalik—accountant for all provinces Naib—deputy, assistant, agent, representative Nawisandas—clerks Nabuwat—prophethood Paibos—kissing the feet, a ceremony generally reserved for God Pir—spiritual guide Qalandars—a class of Muslim mendicants, generally uneducated, who did not believe in private property and wandered about from place to place and lived by persistent begging Qasbas—towns Qazi—a Muslim judge Rabi’—the winter crop in India, as opposed to the kharif or rainy season crop Rai—a Hindu chief, usually one having his own territory and army Rai Rayan—the Rai of Rais; the title given by Alauddin Khalji to Rama Deo of Deogir Ra’iyyat—subjects Sadah—literally, one hundred; the term sadah amirs meant officers controlling territory containing about a hundred villages Sadr-i jahan—title of the central officer of the Delhi sultanat, who was in charge of religious and charitable endowments Sama—an audition party of the mystics Sarrafs—money-changers, bankers Sarai—inn Sarai-Adl—name given to Alauddin Khalji’s market in Delhi for the sale of cloth and other specified commodities Shahr—city, used for the capital, Delhi Shari’at—Muslim religious law Shiqdar—an officer-in-charge of an area of land described as a shiq Shuhna—head of the police, mayor, provost Shuhna-i mandi—officer-in-charge of the grain-market Sufis—mystics Tanka—silver coin of the Delhi sultanat Tauhid—unity of God Ulema—Muslims of religious learning; plural of alim Umara—Plural of amir; amir means ruler or commander Usar—saline land Wajh—money, salary Wajhdar—a salaried officer Wali—governor Wali-‘ahad—heir-presumptive Wazir-i mutlaq—wazir with full powers, who could administer without interference by the king Zawabits—state laws Zimmis—protected non-Muslims