Creative care: the role of the arts in hospital



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Collected Bibliography of Abstracts – AAD 605 – Literature Review

Art and Healthcare – Master’s Research

Emily Saunders – saunder2@uoregon.edu

CREATIVE CARE: THE ROLE OF THE ARTS IN HOSPITAL.

Hume, V. (2010). CREATIVE CARE: THE ROLE OF THE ARTS IN HOSPITAL. Nursing Management - UK, 17(5), 16-20. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Hospital patients often experience many different art forms, from the simple placing of sculpture in hospital grounds to the involvement of patients and staff in exhibitions, performances or workshops. In this article, the author refers to the work of Royal Brompton & Harefield Arts to improve the wellbeing of patients and staff at Royal Brompton Hospital, in Chelsea, London, and Harefield Hospital, near Uxbridge, Middlesex, which together form the Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, the largest specialist heart and lung centre in the UK. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

What Research Evidence is There for the Use of Art Therapy in the Management of Symptoms in Adults with Cancer? a Systematic Review

Wood, M. , Molassiotis, A. , & Payne, S. (2011). What research evidence is there for the use of art therapy in the management of symptoms in adults with cancer? a systematic review. Psycho-Oncology, 20(2), 135-145.

Objective: Common psychosocial difficulties experienced by cancer patients are fatigue, depression, anxiety, and existential and relational concerns. Art therapy is one intervention being developed to address these difficulties. The purpose of this research was to assess and synthesize the available research evidence for the use of art therapy in the management of symptoms in adults with cancer. Methods: A literature search of electronic databases, 'grey' literature, hand searching of key journals, and personal contacts was undertaken. Keywords searched were 'art therapy' and 'cancer' or 'neoplasm'. The inclusion criteria were: research studies of any design; adult cancer population; and art therapy intervention. There were no language or date restrictions. Data extraction occurred and quality appraisal was undertaken. Data were analyzed using narrative synthesis. Results: Fourteen papers reporting 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Symptoms investigated spanned emotional, physi cal, social and global functioning, and existential/spiritual concerns. Measures used were questionnaires, in-depth interviews, patients' artwork, therapists' narratives of sessions, and stress markers in salivary samples. No overall effect size was determined owing to heterogeneity of studies. Narrative synthesis of the studies shows art therapy is used at all stages of the cancer trajectory, most frequently by women, the most common cancer site in participants being breast. Conclusion: Art therapy is a psychotherapeutic approach that is being used by adults with cancer to manage a spectrum of treatment-related symptoms and facilitate the process of psychological readjustment to the loss, change, and uncertainty characteristic of cancer survivorship. Research in this area is still in its infancy. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]ults: Fourteen papers reporting 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Symptoms investigated spanned emotional, physic

Relieving Symptoms in Cancer: Innovative Use of Art Therapy

Nainis, N. , Paice, J. , Ratner, J. , Wirth, J. , Lai, J. , et al. (2006). Relieving symptoms in cancer: Innovative use of art therapy. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 31(2), 162-169.

Art therapy has been used in a variety of clinical settings and populations, although few studies have explored its use in cancer symptom control. The specific aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 1-hour art therapy session on pain and other symptoms common to adult cancer inpatients. A quasi-experimental design was used (n = 50). The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI-S) were used prior to and after the art therapy to quantify symptoms, while open-ended questions evaluated the subjects' perceptions of the experience. There were statistically significant reductions in eight of nine symptoms measured by the ESAS, including the global distress score, as well as significant differences in most of the domains measured by the STAI-S. Subjects overwhelmingly expressed comfort with the process and desire to continue with therapy. This study provides beginning evidence for the efficacy of art therapy in reducing a broad spectrum of symptoms in cancer inpatients.

Key Words: Pain; anxiety; symptoms; art therapy; cancer



The Impact of an Art Program on an Inpatient Oncology Unit

Ferszt, G. , Massotti, E. , Williams, J. , & Miller, J. (2000). The impact of an art program on an inpatient oncology unit. Illness, Crisis & Loss, 8(2), 189-199.

Although there is a growing body of literature describing the benefits of creative arts in health care, research in this area is limited. This article describes an exploratory qualitative research study that examines the potential benefits of an arts program on an inpatient oncology unit located in a major medical center in New England. Semistructured interviews of seven patients and seven nurses who cared for these patients were conducted following participation in an established arts program. Benefits included improved patient coping with pain, improved nurse-patient communication, and improved attitude toward hospitalization. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Photovoice: A Review of the Literature in Health and Public Health

Caricia Catalani and Meredith Minkler Photovoice: A Review of the Literature in Health and Public Health Health Educ Behav June 2010 37: 424-451, first published on October 1, 2009 doi:10.1177/1090198109342084

Although a growing number of projects have been implemented using the community-based participatory research method known as photovoice, no known systematic review of the literature on this approach has been conducted to date. This review draws on the peer-reviewed literature on photovoice in public health and related disciplines conducted before January 2008 to determine (a) what defines the photovoice process, (b) the outcomes associated with photovoice, and (c) how the level of community participation is related to photovoice processes and outcomes. In all, 37 unduplicated articles were identified and reviewed using a descriptive coding scheme and Viswanathan et al.’s quality of participation tool. Findings reveal no relationship between group size and quality of participation but a direct relationship between the latter and project duration as well as with getting to action. More participatory projects also were associated with long-standing relationships between the community and outside researcher partners and an intensive training component. Although vague descriptions of project evaluation practices and a lack of consistent reporting precluded hard conclusions, 60% of projects reported an action component. Particularly among highly participatory projects, photovoice appears to contribute to an enhanced understanding of community assets and needs and to empowerment.

The role of art-making in identity maintenance: case studies of people living with cancer

REYNOLDS, F. and PRIOR, S. (2006), The role of art-making in identity maintenance: case studies of people living with cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care, 15: 333–341. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2354.2006.00663.x

The aim of this qualitative research was to understand why some people with cancer take up art as a leisure activity, and how visual art-making in daily life might support identity maintenance/reconstruction. The study forms part of a larger project with people who view art-making as a resource for living with chronic illness. In order to provide a detailed, holistic analysis, the paper focuses on the accounts and artwork of three participants, two women (aged 47 and 59 years) each with breast cancer, and a man (aged 51 years) with stomach and lung cancer. The participants turned to art after a process of reflection but did not necessarily reject their pre-illness lifestyles or selves. Rather, art-making afforded many opportunities to retain familiar personal and social identities, and to resist being dominated by labels related to their illness. A practical implication is that people coping with cancer may need not only cognitive and emotional support, but opportunities to find meaningful activities. Such activities can be understood to have a powerful role in maintaining a familiar, positive identity in cancer, and providing a resource for coping.

Healing Icons: Art Support Program for Patients with Cancer

Heiney, S. and Darr-Hope, H. (1999), Healing Icons: Art Support Program for Patients with Cancer. Cancer Practice, 7: 183–189. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-5394.1999.74007.x

objectives: The purpose of this report is to describe the structure and process of an art support program for patients with cancer who are age 16 and older.

materials and methods:Healing Icons is a six-session art support program for cancer patients. During the program participants create a three-dimensional mixed-media art piece to convey a unique personal perspective on receiving a diagnosis of and being treated for cancer. Concurrently, the patients spontaneously share common experiences about their cancer, which leads to strong emotional bonds. The purpose and goals of the program, method of implementation, and evaluation are described. Information and suggestions that clinicians might find useful in developing similar programs are discussed. Patient participants, their families, and staff in the cancer center have reported positive clinical evaluations.

conclusions: The benefits of Healing Icons are derived from the therapeutic factors present in a traditional support group blended with the creative process. This kind of program opens new avenues for expressing feelings and thoughts but should be structured in such a way that group processes are not allowed to negatively impact participants. Healthcare professionals interested in collaborating with artists on similar programs for cancer patients may approach artists through local art councils, art schools, and artists guilds. Brainstorming sessions with artists would help to capitalize on the expertise of artists within the community. Initiating a pilot project would help gauge patient interest and would provide valuable feedback from the healthcare team. Research is needed to validate the clinical outcomes derived from this program, as empirical findings would greatly enhance the clinical evaluations.

Art therapy improved depression and influenced fatigue levels in cancer patients on chemotherapy

Bar-Sela, G., Atid, L., Danos, S., Gabay, N. and Epelbaum, R. (2007), Art therapy improved depression and influenced fatigue levels in cancer patients on chemotherapy. Psycho-Oncology, 16: 980–984. doi: 10.1002/pon.1175



Introduction: Cancer patients are particularly vulnerable to depression and anxiety, with fatigue as the most prevalent symptom of those undergoing treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improvement in depression, anxiety or fatigue during chemotherapy following anthroposophy art therapy intervention is substantial enough to warrant a controlled trial.

Material and methods: Sixty cancer patients on chemotherapy and willing to participate in once-weekly art therapy sessions (painting with water-based paints) were accrued for the study. Nineteen patients who participated in ⩾4 sessions were evaluated as the intervention group, and 41 patients who participated in ⩽2 sessions comprised the participant group. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) were completed before every session, relating to the previous week.

Results: BFI scores were higher in the participant group (p=0.06). In the intervention group, the median HADS score for depression was 9 at the beginning and 7 after the fourth appointment (p=0.021). The median BFI score changed from 5.7 to 4.1 (p=0.24). The anxiety score was in the normal range from the beginning.

Conclusion: Anthroposophical art therapy is worthy of further study in the treatment of cancer patients with depression or fatigue during chemotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Self-Portraits of Families with Young Adult Cancer Survivors: Using Photovoice

Yi, J. & Zebrack, B. (2010). Self-Portraits of Families with Young Adult Cancer Survivors: Using Photovoice. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 28(3), 219-243. doi:10.1080/07347331003678329

Photovoice is a participatory research methodology in which individuals photograph their everyday realities. The present study used photovoice to understand the impact of cancer on a sample of six young adult survivors of childhood cancer (YACS) and their family members. The themes of the YACS group included, in their own words, “lost childhood,” “my culture,” “health,” “what keeps me going/sacrifices,” and “who am I?” Those of the family group included “how cancer affected survivors' hopes and dreams?,” “positive impact of cancer,” “importance of information,” “barriers to self-care,” and “what we learned and what we can do.” The family-based and participants-driven framework and photovoice produced some novel findings that call for YACS-targeted guidance and training on social relationships, independence, and career; support for the families from family-oriented cultures; and facilitation of family dialogue.

Photovoice as a Teaching Tool: Learning by Doing with Visual Methods

Kara Schell, Alana Ferguson,Rita Hamoline, Jennifer Shea, and Roanne Thomas-MacleanInternational Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 2009, Volume 21, Number 3, 340-352 http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/ ISS

There has been a lack of research done on in-class teaching and learning using visual methods. Thepurpose of this article is to demonstrate an enriched teaching and learning experience, facilitated by a Photovoice project, in an Advanced Methodology class where sociology graduate students were exposed to various social research methods and methodologies. Students were asked to take photographs that would represent a research interest or a lived experience based in their own social world. The article weaves four students and the professor’s experiences to document the impact the Photovoice project had on each of them. Through this process, it was found that Photovoice is a successful tool for conducting research, teaching students to think critically, and introducing students to a new medium to create knowledge. Students experienced what it is like to be a researcher and a participant in a qualitative research project and discovered the overwhelming potential visual methods have to inform society about lived experiences.



Creativity and the Arts in Health Care Settings
Creativity and the Arts in Health Care Settings , Annette Ridenour

JAMA. 1998;279(5):399-400.doi:10.1001/jama.279.5.399
Major health care institutions across the country have recognized the power of the arts, in all their modalities, to provide messages promoting healing and a sense of community. As this new and significant trend in arts programming evolves, those of us working as health care arts consultants are fielding an increasing number of questions pertaining to the power of the arts to improve the quality of patient care.

This evolution has required many paradigm shifts. No longer are arts consultants the experts. Now we facilitate institution-based arts committees composed of doctors, nurses, administrators, patients, community members, and local artists to develop strategic plans for arts programming or to make selections for installations. The questions asked are not "What color is the furniture?" or "Does it match the carpet?" but "Who are the patients?" and "What do they need to feel comfortable in this environment?" These newer questions reflect the now …



Arts in Health Care: A New Paradigm for Holistic Nursing Practice
Mary Rockwood Lane

Arts in Health Care: A New Paradigm for Holistic Nursing Practice J Holist Nurs March 2006 24: 70-75, doi:10.1177/0898010105282465


Bringing creativity into health care has opened up a new dimension in nursing. Creative interventions have been shown to shorten hospital stays and reduce the patient's need for pain medication. In response to these benefits, many major medical centers around theworld have instituted arts in health care programs. Arts in Medicine is one such program that serves hundreds of patients. Itwas established by a nurse at the University of Florida and is directly tied to nursing care. Programs like this provide clinical models for nurses who want to integrate the arts into their health care practice. This article presents these models and discusses ways that nurses can easily implement creative interventions into their practice.

The effects of an art education program on competencies, coping, and well-being in outpatients with cancer—Results of a prospective feasibility study
Susanne Singer PhD MSca, b, corresponding author contact information, e-mail the corresponding author, Heide Götze PhDa, Marianne Buttstädt Dipl.-Art.a, Kristina Geue Dipl.-Psych.a, Azahdeh Momenghalibaf MScb and Ursula Böhler MAc

The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 37, Issue 5, November 2010, Pages 363-369


The aim of this study was to develop an art education program for ambulatory patients with cancer and to assess its feasibility and possible effects. We conducted the workshops in groups of 4–8 participants. A total of 23 participants completed the entire art education program. Six patients dropped out, but neither of them dropped out because of program length. Some changes to the program were made after receiving feedback from the participants and the program length was augmented from 20 to 22 sessions. Anxiety and self-confidence improved during the course of the program, whereas coping and depression did not change.

Results suggest that art education workshops with outpatients are feasible, but recruitment may be difficult, especially at the beginning. Based on the characteristics of the patients, special attention should be paid to establish a high-level of structure to the sessions, in order to provide the participants with enough safety for self-exploration and expression. The creation of an object, e.g. a book, may help in this prospect as well.



A Pilot Study to Test the Effects of Art-Making Classes for Family Caregivers of Patients With Cancer
Sandra M. Walsh, RN, PhD1, R. Sue Radcliffe, MA2, Lynnette C. Castillo, BA3, Adarsh M. Kumar, PhD4, Dawn M. Broschard, MS, EdD5 Oncology Nursing Forum, Vol. 34, 1, June 11th 2007 p.E9-E16.
Purpose/Objectives: To test the effects of an art-making class (AMC) on reducing anxiety and stress among family caregivers of patients with cancer.

Design: A pretest and post-test quasi-experimental design.

Setting: A residential care facility near tertiary treatment centers in the southeastern United States.

Sample: The convenience sample of 69 family caregivers was aged 18-81 years (X = 48 years) and predominantly Catholic. Most had at least a high school education. Two-thirds were daughters, wives, or mothers of patients with cancer.

Methods: Participants completed a demographic data survey and a Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Researchers collected a saliva sample from each participant to measure salivary cortisol, which indicates stress levels. Following pretesting, a two-hour AMC was delivered. Post-tests included a repeat BAI and a second saliva sample.

Main Research Variables: Anxiety and stress.

Findings: Anxiety was significantly reduced after AMC. Stress was reduced.

Conclusions: The AMC appeared to reduce anxiety and stress. The addition of a control group and replication with larger numbers are suggested. The physiologic cortisol measure corroborated BAI findings but was difficult to obtain from some cultural groups and was expensive to analyze.

Implications for Nursing: Family caregivers may benefit from participation in art-making interventions. Nurses should continue to investigate the use of creative approaches to promote holistic care.

Effects of an adult cancer camp on hope, perceived social support, coping, and mood states.
Yancey D, Greger HA, Coburn P. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1994 May;21(4):727-33.
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES:

To determine whether attendance of an adult cancer camp had an effect on campers' hope, perception of social support, use of coping strategies, and mood states.

DESIGN:

Pre- and post-test; no control group.

SETTING:

Cancer camps in two medium-sized mid-western cities.

SAMPLE:

32 of 45 eligible first-time campers; predominantly middle-aged, married women who were within one year of diagnosis.

METHODS:

Participants completed five mailed questionnaires within two weeks prior to attending camp and one week after returning home from camp.

MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES:

Levels of hope, perceptions of social support, coping strategies, and mood states.

FINDINGS:

No significant differences in hope, perceived social support, or coping strategies precamp to postcamp. Campers were significantly less angry and less energetic postcamp. Although nonsignificant, changes over time were in the expected direction.

CONCLUSIONS:

Small sample size and lack of instrument sensitivity to detect change or lack of changeability of measured attributes may have contributed to the lack of significant change scores. Replication with larger groups and a control group is recommended.

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE:

Cancer camp may improve quality of life for adults with cancer, but more study is needed. Campers' oral evaluations were very positive, and some campers acknowledged a new appreciation for the value of support from others with cancer.



A Place for Healing: A Hospital Art Class, Writing, and a Researcher's Task
Julia Kellman. "A Place for Healing: A Hospital Art Class, Writing, and a Researcher's Task." The Journal of Aesthetic Education 42.3 (2008): 106-121. Project MUSE. Web. 21 Jan. 2011. .
Art therapy has been used in a variety of clinical settings and populations, although few studies have explored its use in cancer symptom control. The specific aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 1-hour art therapy session on pain and other symptoms common to adult cancer inpatients. A quasi-experimental design was used (n = 50). The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI-S) were used prior to and after the art therapy to quantify symptoms, while open-ended questions evaluated the subjects' perceptions of the experience. There were statistically significant reductions in eight of nine symptoms measured by the ESAS, including the global distress score, as well as significant differences in most of the domains measured by the STAI-S. Subjects overwhelmingly expressed comfort with the process and desire to continue with therapy. This study provides beginning evidence for the efficacy of art therapy in reducing a broad spectrum of symptoms in cancer inpatients.

Internet use among adolescent and young adults (AYA) with cancer
Schiffman, J. D., Csongradi, E. and Suzuki, L. K. (2008), Internet use among adolescent and young adults (AYA) with cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 51: 410–415. doi: 10.1002/pbc.21616
Background

The Internet serves as an important resource for adult cancer patients, but little is known about Internet use among adolescent and young adults (AYA) with cancer. The aims of this study were to describe (1) cancer-specific websites which AYA with cancer visit and (2) Internet features desired by AYA on cancer-specific websites and how many current AYA cancer websites contain these features.

Procedure

Individual phone interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 16 AYA with cancer from across North America in June 2005. Content analysis of these interviews were coded and validated for desired website features. Current AYA cancer websites were identified on the Internet and the features on these sites were compared to the features desired by our sample.

Results

Favorite websites visited by AYA with cancer (cancer-related and unrelated) were identified along with current Internet use. Twenty-one distinct cancer website features desired by AYA with cancer were described. Twenty-seven unique AYA cancer websites were found on the Internet during May–June 2006. Each site contained 7.7 (SD = 2.7) of the 21 features identified by participants as desirable, but the highest ranked features did not occur in the majority of these websites.



Conclusions

AYA with cancer indicate that they prefer to visit cancer websites that contain cancer-related information, provide the ability to chat with AYA with cancer, and offer some type of game. Although many websites exist for AYA with cancer, few individual sites contain the web features identified as most desired by AYA with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:410–415. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.



Contribution of visual art-making to the subjective well-being of women living with cancer: A qualitative study
Frances Reynolds PhDcorresponding author contact information, a, e-mail the corresponding authorand Kee Hean Lim MSca, e-mail the corresponding author The Arts in Psychotherapy
Volume 34, Issue 1, 2007, Pages 1-10

This qualitative study examined accounts of women diagnosed with cancer who engaged regularly in art as a leisure activity. The purpose of the study was to explore participants’ views about the contribution of art-making to their subjective well-being in the context of living with cancer. The study was based on the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). A convenience sample of 12 women aged between 23 and 74 years participated in semi-structured interviews, and their accounts were analysed thematically. Participants described a range of ongoing difficulties associated with cancer such as fear for the future, pain, sleeplessness, role loss, activity restriction, reduced self-confidence and altered social relationships. They described art-making as supporting subjective well-being in four major ways. Creative activities helped participants to focus outwards on positive life experiences relieving debilitating preoccupation with illness. Art-making enhanced self-worth and identity through providing opportunities to demonstrate continuity, challenge and achievement. It also enabled participants to maintain a social identity that resisted definition by cancer. For a minority, art enabled symbolic expression of feelings, especially during chemotherapy. The findings supplement previous case studies and suggest that meaningful creative activity may provide psychosocial resources for living with cancer.


Therapeutic Scrapbooking: A Technique to Promote Positive Coping and Emotional Strength in Parents of Pediatric Oncology Patients
Journal of Psychosocial Oncology

Volume 29, Issue 2, 2011, Pages 215 - 230

Authors: Paula G. McCarthya; Jill Genone Sebaugha
Therapeutic scrapbooking is an intervention being used with parents and caregivers of children with cancer. The purpose of the group is to promote hopefulness, mobilize internal strengths, and thereby enhance the parents' and caregivers' coping abilities to benefit pediatric oncology patients. Facilitators, licensed in medical social work, provide a safe environment for participants to verbalize their stories and share their distress. Scrapbooking is a “normal” activity without the negative stigma that a “support group” may carry, minimizing the reluctance to attend this supportive group. Outcome measurements indicate this therapeutic intervention achieves positive results.

ARTS & HEALTHCARE: STRENGTHENING OUR NATION’S HEALTHCARE THROUGH THE ARTS

www.americansforthearts.org Arts and Healthcare action to Congress


New Survey Indicates More Than Half of US Hospitals Have Arts Programs

www.americansforthearts.org Virginia Anagnos, Goodman Media International 12/07/2004



Creative Arts Therapy Programs for Pediatric Oncology Patients: A Comparative Case Study
Montanaro, Rachelle L. http://hdl.handle.net/1794/5210 Date: 2007
Abstract: Hospital offered creative arts therapy programs can help pediatric oncology patients to understand and express their feelings about hospitalization and to better cope with the disease and treatment process. This research seeks to discover what types of hospital offered creative arts therapy programs currently exist, to provide quality of life benefits to pediatric oncology patients and their families. This research project consists of a comparative case study conducted with the Children's Cancer Association's Music Rx program at Doernbecher Children's Hospital in Portland, Oregon and with The Ponzio Creative Arts Therapy Program at The Children's Hospital in Denver, Colorado, a review of creative arts therapy literature, and interviews with the creative arts therapists, program coordinators and one Registered Nurse at The Children's Hospital.

Creativity is Life Force
By Shawna E.M. Snyder, D.Ac., M.A.O.M. http://www.aquidneckacupuncture.com/Art-Therapy.html

Everything changes : the insider's guide to cancer in your 20s and 30s
Rosenthal, K. (2009). Everything changes: The insider's guide to cancer in your 20s and 30s. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
With irreverent flare and practical wisdom, "Everything Changes" includes stories, how-to resources, and expert advice on issues that are important for young adult cancer patients, including: dating and sex, medical insurance and the healthcare system, faith and spirituality, employment and career, fertility and adoption, and friends and family.

Planet cancer : the frequently bizarre yet always informative experiences and thoughts of your fellow natives
Author: Adams, Heidi Schultz. Format: Book Publisher, Date: Guilford, CT : Lyons, c2010.
Tapping the collective wisdom of the young adult cancer community. Each year, nearly 70,000 young adults between 18 and 40 are diagnosed in the United States with cancer. While there are many sources of information for patients, the special concerns of this age group are rarely discussed. One remarkable exception is PlanetCancer.org. For nearly a decade, those in this age have sought out this online community for resources, networks, and support from those who have been there and done that. Planet Cancer is an honest, down-to-earth guide to living in this new world, from Diagnosis to Post-Treatment. Each chapter is informed by Planet Cancer’s voice & authoritative, funny, friendly, no-nonsense. Experts address issues from all sides around bedrock . What It’s Really Like” essays: deeply personal, unflinching, and often hilarious pieces& written by people who actually experienced on Planet Cancer things like banking sperm, adopting a child, or undergoing brain radiation. The book, enlivened with quotes and real-life stories from Planet Cancer members, gives the uninitiated a sense of community and removes some of the mystery and fear of the unknown.


Arts in Healthcare: Best Practices

Heaphy, A., & Bansal, A. (2008). Arts in Healthcare: Best Practices. National Endowement for the Arts. Retreived from www.nea.gov/resources/accessibility/Arts-and-Healthcare-Best-Practices.pdf

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