Prakruti (In born Nature) -> Vikruti (Changing nature)
Prakruti + Vikruti (Changes occuring according to laws of Nature). These are perceived by Self.
It is called Anoobhuti (Experience)..
Sankhya explains human Nature (Prakruti) with following twenty five words.
1. MAHAT TATWA. or higher intellect. Kapil refers to this as 'Totality of Intellect'.
2. From this "Mahat Tatwa" becomes the menifest-Vyaktitwa (A human personality) or Ego or "Aham" which is wrapped in layers of five tanmatras or the five basic Mahabhutas refered above. Physical body is made up of these five elements. "Ahankara" or Ego cannot exist without these five elements.
3. In between the Mahat tatwa and body there are other things. The five organs of knowledge (Five senses) and five organs of actions (Karma Indriyas), make the ten important organs of body, or Dash-Indriya. Body is symbolized as a chariot. The ten horses that drive this chariot are these ten organs.
4. The five senses are attached to five subjects (Vishayas) called Gunas. Roop (Shape or Form), Rasa (Taste), Gandha (Smell), Sparsha (Touch sense, hot, cold, rough, smooth etc.) and Shabda (Vani or listening spoken Words).
5. Kapil refers to human mind as Purusha, in this Darshan. (The word Purusha exactly translates as a male human being. But in general sense it can be understood as any human being. But it cannot be translated as "Atma" or soul, as some well read teachers of Vedanta do).
6. To the above Twenty two words, Kapil adds his three Special words. Sat, Rajas and Tamas. The differences in natures of human beings that we see is due to varying degrees of mixtures of these the three Gunas. These can be understood with analogy of the primary three colours; Red, Yellow and Blue. By mixing these colors in varying proportions, one can create many different colors. In same manner human beings are born with varying mixtures of basic three qualities (Gunas). In this manner changes in nature, (Prakruti – Vikruti) constantly take place. The Basic quality of Mahat Tatwa is Sat (good) but Intellect according to Kapil.
In many Hindu scriptures and Gita, there is reference of Three Gunas or qualities. The exact sense in which each author interprets these words is confusing to many students. The sense in which the Nyaya Darshana uses these three words is different than that used in Sankhya Darshana by Kapil.
A student must always keep in mind the following simple English translation to understand the meaning of these "Three Quality Indicating Words, "Sat - Rajas - and Tamas”.
Rajas = Vibrating or Unsteady Mind. Actions done with selfish desirea.
Tamas = Darkness, Ignorance, Idelness, Inaction.
Actions done in ignorance without proper understanding. Most people in world live in ignorance or 'Tamas'. They are fooled and misguided by selfish priests in nearly all religions.
What is Veda, Gyana.or Knowledge?.
Kapil expalins knowledge like this. Material Objects make contact with sense organs (Sanga), Mind perceives, feels and gets agitated. Intellect starts thinking and the experience (Anubhuti) is stored in memory as likes and dislikes (Dwandwa) kind of experiences with that object.
For example, Eye sees an object. That experience is stored in Memory (Smruti) as object seen. Seeing is believing. This is Truth or Sat. Compared to EYE the other senses play a less important roll in Knowledge of material (Vyakta or Sakar) things. Experience of any body is always limited. But in human societies, spoken words get linked with names objects and this makes deep memory of material things and experiences, These are stored in brain as knowledge or memory (Smruti).
Thus knowledge in fact is only memories of past events and things, mainly seen with eyes and heard by ears. (Audio visual experiences). Knowledge is a chain of scattered experiences. As age advances the memories get build up into ‘Ego of Knowledge’. The mixture of three qualities or Guna, and Ego determines the behavior of any person. It depends upon knowledge, (which is past experience), Ego, Mind (Purusha) and Intellect of that particular individual (Vyakti or Atma).
Summary of important points of Sankhya Darshan. All pervading soul or pure spirit is changeless. But Soul cannot exist independent of Prakruti or physical body- made of five elements;
Body is subject to fixed and predictable changes (Vikruties). This we understand as process of ageing. A child is born, it becomes a teenager, becomes an adult, and then turns into an old person. These are predictable changes of physical body. In many verses of Gita, the words Prakruti and Purusha are used in the sense of body (Sharira) and soul (Atma).
With aid of Vedanta Chart and Yoga charts the understanding of desires (VASANAS) becomes clear. Karma Indriyas are organs of action. Understanding of Karma Indriya is very clear in Vedanta Darshana only. The picture of self become clear by study of all these three Darshans along with some Chapters of the Gita.
Mind was wonderfully studied by the Upanishad and Darshnik Rishies.
We hear sometimes. "Brahma (God) created this world from Zero." Kapil declares that neither this world nor anything can be created from Zero. Shankaracharya's (7th century A.D.) statemant of "Brahm Satyam, Jagat Mithya", is not true according to Sankhya Darshana. Seeing this obvious mistake some later Acharyas declared, "Bhahm Satyam, Jagat Satyam". "God is truth and this world is also true."
We find two more words in this Darshana. "Purusha and Prakruti". Different experts translate these words in English in different meanings and this creates great confusions in the minds of students. The word PURUSHA has many meanings. It means a male in any bisexual species, a man, any human being, male or female, an individual, soul or Atma or spirit, and only one supreme God of universe. Thus the word Purusha is translated as Soul, Brahm, Spirit, Jiva or a creature, a human being, a male, an individual and so on. For a student of Indian philosophy this creates great confusions.
The nearest meaning is generally neglected. "Purusha" should mean an individual, a human being (male or female). "Prakruti" should mean mother nature. The second meaning of Prakruti is inborn human instincts or nature (Swabhava). English word Nature, serves both purposes. Meditation upon these two words along with other three other words "Sat, Rajas and Tamas", would explain many events and changes taking place in the world of material objects and behavior of human beings and their nature or mind.
Chart of Sankhya Darshan. PARAM BRAHAMAN. OR ONE SUPREME FORMLESS GOD.
The perfect maker of universe God, is un-manifest.
God is beyond TIME AND SPACE.
I AM MANIFEST BRAHAMAN (SOUL) PRAKRUTI = Mother nature. [Pancha Mahabhutas= space,
light, air, water & earth (5)
PURUSHA = HUMAN NATURE (Atma or Self).
ATMA = Pancha Mahabhuta + mind + intellect + Ego or I.
MAHAT TATVA IN SANKHYA IS HIGHER INTELLECT (Buddhi, not soul). Pure Buddhi is not attached to senses or worldly objects. Intellect is beyond three Guna is called Mahat tatva by Kapil. Thinking is done by Buddhi, and not by mind.
(2) AHAMKARA OR EGO is always intermingled with Three Gunas. Ego exists with Sat, Rajas and Tamo Guna. It is the Lower Intellect.
(3) MIND or MANAS. Conscious mind is usually linked to five senses. Mind, is inner sixth sense which receives messages from five senses. Mind feels emotions.
(4). FIVE SENSES OR ORGANS OF KNOWLEDGE (Gyana Indriya) Shrotrum, Chakshu, Sparsha Rasana and Ghrana. (5). Ears, Eyes, Skin, Tongue and Nose bring knowledge of worldly objects when they make contact with the sense organs.
Like animals Millions of people live at this level. They are mostly attached to senses. When objects make contact with senses, feelings of happiness and unhappiness arise in mind which in turn produce angers or frustrations, desires and aversions.
The above Chart summarizes the Sankhya Darshan in brief.
Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES.
25. VEDANTA DARSHAN OF VED VYAS VEDANTA Really means “END OF KNOWLEDGE”..
By this study one Understands that all humans are equal. This is the aim of Vedant study.
Memorize these 25 parts of body and names of Devas which make trios with various organs. This makes the Gita and Upanishads, Yoga and Darshans meaningful.
Remember that Spirit or Brahaman within us is Not Supreme God. But the MAKER of 5 Mahabhutas, Body Organs, and Spirit and Time Place bondage to all Creations is “Supreme God”. FIVE BASIC ELEMENTS:
HEAT OR LIGHT : Energy (Power, Strength) within us. Agni, Tejus, Ojus, SHIVA-SHAKTI.
AIR: Vayu. Maruta means air in motion or wind.
WATER: Varuna . Water makes 3/4 th surface of earth and 3/4 weight of body.
EARTH: Pruthvi, Bhumi, Dharati etc. (Gross body and universe, both are made of above 5 material things).
LORD VISHNU'S UNIVERSAL FORM MEANS TOTALITY OF ABOVE (5) INERT GROSS MATERIAL ELEMENTS. FIVE SENSES OR ORGANS OF KNOWLEDGE
(Pancha Gyana Indriyas.):
EARS: Shrotrum or Karnas. 10 Digpals or Deva in 10 Directions.
EYES: Chakshu or Natra. Deva. The Sun or Surya.
SKIN: Sparshanam or tvacha. Deva. Vayu or Air.
TONGUE: AS ORGAN OF TASTE. Rasana or Swada Indriya. Deva. Water or Varuna. Tongue as organ of Speech, falls in next group of Karma-Indriyas).
NOSE: Ghranam or Nasika. Deva "Ashvinikumars" or horse-headed Gods..(Meditate upon the trios made by different Devas. They are made by Supreme God, PARAMBRAHAMA, the maker of all living and nonliving things like galaxies, stars, suns moons clouds and rain etc., in universe)
FIVE ORGANS OF ACTIONS:
TONGUE AS ORGAN OF SPEECH: Vani. It's Deva is Fire or Agni.
TWO HANDS: Panihi or Hastayoho. Their Deva is Indra or God of Heaven.
TWO LEGS: Padaha. Their Deva is Vishnu.(needs meditation and explanation by teacher).
EXCRETORY ORGANS: Upastha. Their Deva is Yama- God of Death.(Why Yama is linked here?)
ORGANS OF SEX. Janan Indriyas. (Reproductive organs. Only here 2 sexes differ). KAMA-deva is God of SEX, also called "Prajapati, Brahama". Individual must learn control SANYAMA of 5 Karma Indriya. Note Assotiation of Agni, Indra, Vishnu, Yama and Brahama with different (Karma Indriyas) organs of actions.
FIVE INVOLUNTARY PHYSIOLOGICAL VITAL SYSTEMS
Panch Maha Prana.
(1) Circulatory system with heart. Samana.
(2) Lungs & breathing. Prana.
(3) Digestive system. Vyana.
(4) Excretory system. Apana.
(5) Nervous System. Udana.
(Hindu priests chant names of these five systems in Yagnas - fire rituals). Worries, Fears and Tensions produce psycho-somatic diseases of these vital systems).
FIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL WORDS OF VEDANTA.
Inner Mental Attitudes. Mano Bhava
MIND: (MANAS) Conscious, awareness or JAGRUTA MAANAS. Deva is Self or Atman. (I am master of my mind).
SUBCONSCIOUS MIND: (CHITTA): Possesses real sense of time and place. Deva of Chitta is universe and Space. Mana and Chitta' are two sides of same coin. Memory (Smrutee) of past events (=knowledge) is stored in Chitta.
INTELLECT:(BUDDHI) Ability of discrimination, logic, reason, judgement= common sense. Deva of Buddhi is Vasudeva or Krishna. (Krishna in the Gita, is Symbolism of a man who has 3 tense sense, and Awareness of Duty.
DESIRES: (VASANAS): These are natural instincts (Vritties) of hunger and thirst, Expectations (Apekshas), Wishes (Iccha), Hopes (Asha or Trushna), Wants, greed (Lobha) etc. Meditation creates union (YOGA) of Chitta & Buddhi. Analyze your instincts, desires (Word used in scriptures is KAMA) and behaviours. True divine self will unfold.
EGOS: (AHAMKAR). False Egos of physical strength, money, political positions, false beliefs (AVIDYA) and ignorence of God & Religion must vanish. Egos are great obstacles in path of spiritual evolution for a student of Yoga.
Self-realization occurs when one reaches a state of mind like this: "I am not a doer but only an actor. Nothing belongs to me. Everything I possess TODAY is God's gift". This is Moksha or Nirvana state of mind.
VEDANTA MEANS END OF KNOWLEDGE
(Vedasya antah). Controlling ten organs (Dash-Rath) and mind by ones own pure unbiased intellect (sanyam). makes any person master of himself/ herself.
Spiritual upliftment starts when all evil thoughts, material desires and wrong beliefs come to an end.
Famous poem “Nirvana-Shtakam” of Shankaracharya describes spiritual self (Shiva, Brahaman, Atman or Spirit) in a negative manner. Above 25 and some more elements and Indriyas are described like this:-
“I am not mind, not intellect, not Chitta (subconscious mind), not ahamkara (ego), not hands, not feet, not speech, not organs of sex and excretions, not air, not water, not earth, not religion, not desires, not money, not food, not even Moksha, etc, etc,
I AM SHIVA -the Formless, Changeless, Eternal Reality. I am Blissful Eternal Joy,
YOGA Study Imparts Many Benefits Like, Cure of Blood Pressure in 90 % cases. * Prevents Heart attacks. Control of angers and passion. * Overcome Depressions, Stress & worries Etc,.
Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES.
26. IS GOD FACT OR FICTION OR MYTH?
Scientists are men of reason. They ask, “Where is God?
Questions regarding Omni-presence of God might be satisfied to some extent if one reads the following three experiences occurring to three different types of people, of different faiths, at different places, yet in recent times.
A. North Florida University Student Says:-
First I record here the experience of a young student of North Florida University.
In April (1995), I gave a talk on Hinduism to students of comparative religions class in NFU. They were mostly Christian students. When I described my following experience of SEEING the Holy cross, in 1979, and then after my life’s turn towards study of world religions, all students were spell bound. (Read last C). After the question answer session at end of talk, we were dispersing.
A young girl approached me and placed the following note in my hand. She had never studied religious scriptures in depth. But her experience of seeing “divine light” is worth reading.
She wrote: "Thank you for your wonderful seminar. Almost 2 years ago, I had similar experience, though there was no one religion which struck me, rather what (after studying) is most similar to BRAHMAN reaching ATMAN. As you say seeming crazy; for this reason I have stopped trying to tell people. But this seed was planted and I too came to the same conclusion that “all religions should be respected and merged in a way that the world community can love one another”.
Any how if you have any type of mailings please include me.
B. Berkly University Professor Sees Lord Shiva.
During the year 1981 I read a book, THE TAO OF PHYSICS by Fritj of Capra, Prof. of High Energy Physics at Berkeley University,California.
Mr. Capra also describes similar experience of SEEING cosmic light and the figure of Lord Shiva (Nataraj), a deity God worshipped by the Hindus. He saw SHIVA in open sky during daytime. This inspired him to write his book which discusses eastern religions, science and philosophies.
With help of the famous equation of Albert Einstein, E=MC2 Prof. Capra beautifully correlates science and verses of The Gita and Upanishads, Energy, Space and Time.
In the preface of his book Mr. Capra writes:-
"I 'saw' cascades of energy coming from the outer space, in which particles were created and destroyed in rhythmic pulses; I 'saw' the atoms of these elements and those of my body, participating in this cosmic dance of energy; I felt its rhythm and I 'heard' its sound, and at that moment I KNEW that this was the Dance of Shiva, The Lord of dancers, worshipped by the Hindus" C. I SEE THE HOLY CROSS.
Now I describe my own experience of seeing “Cosmic Divine Lightof God and HOLY CROSS.
"It was a cold winter night. I was fast asleep on the second floor of my clinic at Naroda- a suburb of the city of Ahmedabad in the state of Gujarat-India. I woke up perspiring like a moist sponge. My clothes were soaked with sweat. Body hairs were raised in elation, amazement and surprise. I wiped my face and eyes. I saw a shining ball of dazzling light outside the window.
The brightness of light was greater than thousand suns in the sky. From the East window a ball of dazzling light entered the room. It pervaded in all objects like table, chairs, books etc., and then it entered my body. For a few seconds I felt and experienced as if I was weightless and floating in a soft cloud of light.
My total existence and everything in the room was in tune and oneness with this cosmic light. I realized as if everything was made up of that light. There was no sun in the sky at night. I knew this was something else.