Answer: The grammatical categories are better to explain by comparing them with logical categories. The grammatical categories are opposed to logical ones. The logical categories are universal for all the languages



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Study questions.

  1. Why do we categorize the grammatical meanings?

Answer:The grammatical categories are better to explain by comparing them with logical categories. The grammatical categories are opposed to logical ones. The logical categories are universal for all the languages. Any meanings can beexpressed in any language.

  1. Is there one conception of grammatical categories that is shared by all the scientists or are there many approaches?

Answer: there are many approaches of the conception of grammatical categories , for example: by B. Golovin , M. Y. Blokh.

  1. Whose conceptions on grammatical category do you know?

Answer: B. Golovin , M. Y. Blokh, L. Barkhudarov.

According to B. Golovin “a grammatical category is a real linguistic unity of grammatical meaning and the means of its material expression”. It means that in order to call a linguistic phenomenon a grammatical category there must be a grammatical meaning and grammatical means. M.Y. Blokh explains it as follows: “As for the grammatical category itself, it presents, the same as the grammatical "form", a unity of form (i.e. material factor), and meanings (i.e. ideal factor) and constitutes a certain signemic system.



  1. What are the main requirements for the grammatical category?

Answer: One of the most consistent theories of the grammatical categories is the one that is suggested by L. BarkhudarovAccording to his opinion in order to call a linguistic phenomenon a grammatical category there must be thefollowing features:

- general grammatical meaning;

- this meaning must consist of at least two particular meanings;

- the particular meanings must be opposed to each - other:

- the particular meanings must have constant grammatical means to express them

5. Comment the grammatical categories of case of nouns; voice, aspect, order of verbs.



Answer: The nominative case (subject to a verb): Rain falls.

The vocative case (address): Are you coming, my friend?

The dative case (indirect object): I gave John a penny.

The accusative case (direct object, and also prepositional object): The man killed a rat. The earth is moistened by rain.



  1. What types of grammatical categories do you know?

Answer:

Case


The category CASE expresses the functional role of a noun or noun phrase. This grammatical category conveys how different noun phrases in a sentence relate to the verb in different ways (subject, direct object or indirect object). 

Person


The category PERSON used to classify pronouns according to whether they indicate the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), or a third party (third person).

Gender


The category GENDER basically refers to a sub-division of nouns into masculine, gender and neuter.

Mood


The category MOOD relates to sentence types (statements, questions and commands).Mood is employed to refer to different forms of finite verbs (indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional or subjunctive).
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