A9/p9 Bourgeois Deeds



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where exactly?

172 ***Rostow 1960; Easterly sp? 2001.

173 Hayek 1960, p. 42.

174 Hayek 1960, pp. 42-43.

175 McCloskey 1981.

176 Jones, Increasing Returns, 1933 should be better known among economists. A student of Marshall, he anticipated the mathematics of the "price dual of the residual." He died young, and his work was forgotten except by economic historians.

177 ***Pomeranz, Great Divergence DDDD Is this a repetition? I think so.

178 Marx, Capital, 1867, p. 784.

179 ***Gerschenkron 1957 (DDDD), p. 33.

180 Marx, Capital, 1867, Chp. 24, Sec. 3, p. 656.

181 Crafts, Leybourne, and Mills 1991, Table 7.2, p. 113.

182 Postan is quoted with approval by another great student of the times, Carlo Cipolla, in Cipolla, 1993, p. 91.

183 Capital, p. 785.

184 Capital, p. 833.

185 Wallerstein 1974.

186 Augustine, Confessions, 398 AD, IV, x.

187 See Douglass North 2004, and Ogilvie's devastating empirical inquiry Ogilvie, 2004 into such Panglossian hypotheses.

188 Schumpeter 1954, p. 572n2.

189 Schumpeter 1926 [1934], p. 72.

190 *** The “predominance of capital” is William Cunningham’s phrase, find

191 ***Cite Cohen on Athens

192 *** Paper, 92-95, compass, p. 162-166

193 Needham himself makes the point about the blast furnace, in his introduction to Temple 2007 p. 10.

194 In Temple 2007, p. 10.

195 Needham in Temple 2007, p. 10.

196 ***Cite guys in China.

197 In Temple 2007, p. 7.

198 Stephen Parente and Edward Prescott explore the obstacles to taking off the shelf Parente and Prescott 2000.

199 Capital, p. 794.

200 Dupré 2004, p. 178.

201 ***Hayek, ed. 1954; Hartwell DDDD; for the opposition, see Hobsbawm DDDD

202 Hayek 1960, p. 26.

203 ****NNNN

204 Mokyr 2002, p. 297.

205 See for instance Baechler, 1971; McNeill, 1982; Jones, 1988; Tilly, 1990; Macfarlane, 2000, p. 274-275.

206 Lehmann 1970, p. 4.

207 Winthrop quoted in Innes, "Puritanism and Capitalism," 1994, p. 106.

208 Novak 2007, p. 227.

209 Earle 1989, p. 337, quoting in turn Wadsworth and Mann 1931, p. 103.

210 Chartres 2003, p. 209.

211 O’Brien and Engerman 1991 demur.

212 Braudel and Spooner 1967, p. 470.

213 ***McCloskey and Zecher DDDD, pp. NNN; McCloskey and Zecher again, pp.; Ziliak and McCloskey 2008.

214 Ippolito 1975

215 Pollard 1973, 1981a; within Britain cf. Hudson 1989 and Crafts 1989a.

216 Mokyr 1985b, p. 175

217 ***As Fogel cite does.

218 Mokyr 1985b, pp. 22 23 and works cited there

219 ***And cite my own work on this.

220 Fogel 1964, replicated by Hawke in 1970 for Britain with broadly similar results. In countries without easily navigable rivers, such as Mexico (Coatsworth) and Italy (Fenoaltea) the impact of railways is much greater.

221 Deane and Cole 1962; Mitchell and Deane 1962: 330. Imlah 1958. ***Project: Getting all works into Biblio and finding correct pages (use RA for latter): 2 days of my time.

222 O’Rourke, Prados de la Escosura, and Daudin 2008, p. 11.

223 Prados de la Escosura 1993.

224 Findlay and O’Rourke 2007.

225 Findlay and O’Rourke 2007, p. 337; cf. O’Rourke, Prados de la Escosura, and Daudin 2008, p. 11.

226 ***McCloskey on Magnanimous Albion.

227 ***Daudin 2006; compare McCloskey criticizing Jeffrey Williamson’s calculation of the gain from re-investment of the gain from the railways in the United States DDDD.

228 ***McCloskey DDDD on widespread innovation, p.NN; Temin 1997, p. 80; Clapham DDDD, p. NN

229 Findlay and O’Rourke 2007, p. 336 in *** F & O, p. 103 in Mantoux.

230 Findlay and O’Rourke 2007, p. 339.

231 Findlay and O’Rourke 2007, p. 351.

232 Findlay and O’Rourke 2007, p. 345.

233 O’Rourke, Prados de la Escosura, and Daudin 2008, p. 2.

234 O’Rourke, Prados de la Escosura, and Daudin 2008, pp. 2-3.

235 Findlay and O’Rourke 2007, p. 344.

236 Findlay and O’Rourke 2007, p. 336.

237 Findlay and O’Rourke 2007, p. 339.

238 Kennedy 1976 (2006), p, 87.

239 ***Cite McCloskey trade papers

240 Jordan 1998. Her lead is “The Indian cornflakes maker Mohan Meakin says it has something to thank Kellogg Co. for: a wake-up call that has helped it win more business.”

241 Aron 1983 (1990), p. 216

242 Comte-Sponville 1996 (2001), p. 89.

243 Landes 2006, pp. xvii-xviii.

244 Maddison 2007, p. 122.

245 The locus classicus for these calculations is Davis and Huttenback 1988.

246 ***Edelstein statistics from Floud and McC

247 Maddison 2007, p. 137

248 Feinstein 2005, p. 11, Figure 1.3.

249 Feinstein 2005, p. 145, Table 7.2, itself from Maddison 2001.

250 ***citation

251 Clark 2007, p. 183-184, from which subsequent quotations come.

252 ***make sur ein right sequence I am referring here to an earlier discussion here of McCant 1997, and Trevor Roper’s DDDD. The Marx and Engels is 1848 (1988, the Norton edition), p. 73.

253 Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy 1859, p. 43.

254 Engels, Anti-Dühring 1877, Part III, Chp. 2, “Socialism: Theoretical.”

255 Engels, in a Marx and Engels collection On Religion (Atlanta, Scholars Press 1964), quoted in Stark 2003, p. 61.

256 Novak 2007, p. 232.

257 Clark 2007, pp. 7-8, 11, 271.

258 Clark 2007, p. 165.

259 Wootton DDDD, p. 183.

260 Forgacs, ed. 2000, pp. 196-198 (Selections from the Prison Notebooks, 407-409; Selections from Cultural Writings, Q10, II para. 41.xii).

261 Lenin, What is To Be Done? 1902 (1988), pp. 143-144, his italics.

262 Lenin 1901, p. 179.

263 Sampson 2005, p.110.

264 Clark does have a minor problem acknowledging other scientists. Pages 232-233 use without citation my design for a decomposition of growth during the Industrial Revolution (McCloskey 1981), and throughout he uses notions of bourgeois virtues (pp. 11, 262) with which I am associated, but does not cite my work (such as McCloskey 1994; 2006). As late as November 2007 Clark gave a speech at the Salk Institute, with me sitting there, the only other economic historian in attendance, in which he explained his own way of measuring the European fall of interest rates 1300-1600 (pp. 167-175 in his book) without mentioning that I had discovered the fall and measured it in another statistical way ten years before he did (McCloskey and Nash 1984). True, one is very expert at detecting such slights of ones own work. Yet I detect many of other writers, too. Doing what Clark does is a reliable way of making scientific enemies for life. Let’s be easy, though. Clark most engagingly summarizes an enormous scientific literature, and if he gets any substantial number of non-economic intellectuals innocent of economic history to grasp what we other students of such matters all know happened 1600 to the present we will in our great-heartedness readily forgive him for the rest.

265 The agricultural historian George Grantham, however, has some telling criticisms of Clark’s simple Malthusian model on which Clark bets so much—see the discussion in Grantham 2007 for example of the problem with using wages in threshing, whose apparently straightforwardness conceals variation in other conditions of work.

266 Clark 2007, p. 2.

267 Clark 2007, p. 11,.

268 Goldstone 2007.

269 Ó Gráda 2007, p. 350.

270 ***Cite Mokyr; the table is Clark p.233.

271 Manuelli and Seshadri 2005.

272 ***Cite earliest work by Clark on it

273 De Vries 2008a, p. 14; and de Vries 2008b for the full story. The Hume quotation, which de Vries gives, is from Hume’s essay “On Commerce,” first published in 1741.

274 Goldgar 2007, p. 224.

275 De Vries 2008a, note 35, referring to Main and Main 1988.

276 Vickery 1998, pp. 135-146, as for example p. 135, “hardly a week went by when a mistress might not be reeling from a servant’s flight,” as one can also see in realist novels that mention such matters, such as Fielding’s Tom Jones (1749).

277 Margo 2008.

278 Earle 1989, pp. 86-87. Earle handily defeats Lawrence Stone’s counterclaim that the “gentlemen” fathers were themselves urban “men of limited means,” as Stone wrote, who “did not dream of swaggering about with a sword at their sides.”

279 Freidman 2007.

280 McGrath 2007, p. 127, his italics deleted and mine supplied; p.41 on genome sequencing.

281 Wade 2006, p. 215.

282 Mokyr 2007.

283 McInerney and Pisani 2007, p. 1391; and Sorek et al. 2007 on which their article is based. Compare Wade 2006, p. 215: “organisms may acquire genes through borrowing as well as inheritance; bacteria, for instance.”

284 Galton 1901, p. 15.


285 Clark 2007, p. 183.

286 ***Manski 2008, p. 4. Ziliak and McCloskey 2008, e.g. p. NNN.

287 ***Galor and Moav 2002, cited in Joel’s biblio.

288 Gerschenkron 1957 (1962).

289 For the pro transport side, against my argument, see Szostak 1991.

290 ***Cite Ransom.

291 ***Burke 1991, p.

292 ***Cites, including me.

293 ***Cite Giovanni

294 McCloskey 1972; confirmed by Allen 1992, though Allen uses Arthur Young’s unbelievable surveys, too, processing them with some dubious statistical methods (misusing statistical “significance,” for example; see McCloskey DDDD).

295 McCloskey 1975; Wordie 1983. All this has been re-confirmed by later studies by Allen.

296 ***Kussmaul cite.

297 ***E.g. Wrigley 1988; and recently China guy DDDD and Allen DDDD

298 Temple 2007, pp. 218, 197.

299 Ford 1996, p. 343-344.

300 ***Smith 1776: 59,14: 111. Get these cites straight.

301 ***1776: 59,.15: 112; cf. 1776: 58,.24: 89.

302 1871 : Bk IV, ch. vi. 2: 114.

303 1871: Bk IV, ch. vi. 2: 116.

304 Macaulay 1830, p. 186

305 Citation, pages.

306 Mill 1843, p. 464.

307 Greenfeld 2001, p. 1.

308 Greenfeld 2001, p. 57.

309 Greenfeld 2001, p. 23.

310 Greenfeld 2001, p. 24

311 Greenfeld 2001, p. 23.

312 Greenfeld 2001, p. 58.

313 Greenfeld 2001, p. 57.

314 Wheeler 1601, quoted in Greenfeld 2001, p. 40.

315 Greenfeld 2001, p. 15.

316 Greenfeld 2001, p. 16; the phrases quoted just below are from the same paragraph.

317 Greenfeld 2001, p. 45.

318 Greenfeld 2001, p. 23.

319 Greenfeld 2001, p. 52.

320 ***Defoe, DATES, p. NNN, quoted in Greenfeld, p. 51.

321 Mokyr, 1976, 2000; Van Zanden, 1993; Van Zanden and Van Riel, 2004.

322 ***Cite paper on early nineteenth C USA on this point in Jacob volume.

323 ***Defoe DATES, Complete English Tradesman, p. NNN [about 140 or so], quoted in Greenfeld 2001, p. 55.

324 McCloskey 2006, pp. 243-244.

325 Fiske 1991 [1993], p. 397.

326 Greenfeld 2001, pp. 50, 57

327 Greenfeld 2001, p. 24.

328 Fiske 1991, p. 13.

329 Fiske 1991, pp. 14-15

330 North 1991, p. 97 and everywhere in his writings since the 1980s.

331 Lal 2006, p. 151.

332 Lall 2006, p. 151.

333 Goffman 1961, subtitle and p. 7, quoted in Stott 2006, pp. 250-251.

334 Skinner 1998, p. 98, from which my learning below comes.

335 Geertz 1979, p. 137, quoted in North 1991, p. 104, italics supplied.

336 North 1991, p. 99.

337 Lachmann 1977, p. 62, quoted in Boettke and Storr 2002, p. 171.

338 Lachmann 1971, p. 141, quoted in Boettke and Storr 2002, p. 171.

339 Keuhn 2008, p. 20.

340 Macfarlane 2000, p. 278.

341 Tocqueville1856 (1955), p. 223.


342 North 1991, p. 98.

343 North 1991, p. 105.

344 North 1991, p. 106.

345 North 1991, p. 106.

346 North 1991, p. 107.

347 North 1991, p. 109

348 North 1991, p. 109.

349 North 1991, p. 101.

350 North and Weingast 1989, p. 831.

351 Reinhart and Rogoff 2008, p. 53.

352 Millar 1787 (1803), Chp.III.

353 World Bank for 2005, at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/table4_10.pdf

354 North and Weingast 1989, Tables 2 and 3, with their guess at national income of £41 millions in 1642.

355 North and Weingast 1989, p. 831.

356 Temple 1672, Chp. VI

357 Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws 1748, I, p. 321, Book XX sec. 7, quoted in Innes 1994, p. 96.

358 Pipes acknowledges at the outset the advice of a small group of people (Pipes 1999, p. ix). Of the five he mentions, Richard Epstein and Mark Kishlansky definitely get the Aunt Deirdre Seal of Approval. But not on these matters Douglass North.

359 Demsetz 1967 is a fount for the insight.

360 Temple 1672, Chp. VI.

361 North and Weingast 1989, p. 831.

362 ***Cite Roemer

363 Acemoglou 2008; cf. Acemoglou, Johnson, and Robinson 2005, citing for example Tawney 1941 with no apparent understanding that his Fabian views have long been contradicted.

364 Clark 2007 is good on this, pp. 10, 212.

365 Deng 2003, pp. 424, 426.

366 Perdue 2003, p. 430.

367 E.g. Pipes 1999, p. 103 on Alexander’s successor states. ***If I could find quickly from my Iowa clasisicist colleague that this was flat wrong I should bring it into the text. One is startled to find the backing in the footnotes 134-137 to consist of books published in 1934, 1906 (twice), 1941. He defends such practices on p. 149, railing against “deconstructionism” (the spelling and the scare quotes are his). He declares, therefore, in defense of his method of assuming that historiography does not progress, “It is for this reason that the last word on any given historical subject is often the first.”

368 Pipes 1999, p. 29, my italics.

369 Discussed in Pipes 1999, pp. 27-28.

370 MacIntyre 2004, pp. 216, 217.

371 Goldsmith 1984, p. 283.

372 Carlos and Lewis 1999.

373 Hardin 1968.

374 “Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decision­making herdsman is only a fraction of 1.” It works out to a rather large fraction of 1 if N is small.

375 Anderson and Hill 2004; McCloskey 1991, esp. pp. 348-350; an example of the enormous body of primary evidence is Walker 1983.

376 Berman 2003, p. 377; cf. p. ix. Berman is heavily relied on by Depak Lal 1998 and 2006.

377 North and Weingast, p. 831, which bears rhetorical study as an example of how to claim in the conclusion of an essay propositions that bear no connection to the evidence offered.

378 Hume 1741; 1777 (1987), p. 93 (“Of Civil Liberty”)

379 Mokyr 2008, p. 94 ***or so.

380 Nordhaus 2005. The quotation is from the abstract.

381 All this is from Mokyr 2008, p. 95-97 ***or so.

382 North 1991, p. 107.

383 North and Weingast 1989, p. 831.

384 North 1991, p. 107.

385 Higgs 1997; 20006.

386 North 1993.

387 Nee and Swedberg 2007, p. 9.

388 North 2005b, p. NNN.

389 Coetzee 1986 in 2001, p. 45.

390 Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism, p. 112, quoted in Heston 2000.

391 Heston 2000.

392 ***???Daudin 2008, precis.

393 Earle 1989, pp. 80-81.

394 ***Cite Sol Tax

395 ***Smith 1776, Bk. 1, Chp. 4, para. 1, p. NNN.

396 Postgate 1992, p. 80; the town’s actual name is uncertain.

397 Inferred using R. M. Adams’ densities from Postgate 1992, pp. 74, 80.

398 Kramer 1963, p. 89.

399 Some of the following appears in Hejeebu and McCloskey 2000, 2003.

400 See Pipes 1999, pp. 50-51; and also pp.76-105.

401 ***Postan; land evidence.
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