1. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics. Lexical units


We can say take a liking (fancy)



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We can say take a liking (fancy) but not take hatred (disgust).) classification of Koonina : 1. one-summit units at large, by the way. 2. phraseological units with the structure of coordinate or subordinate word group to burn one’s fingers / by hook and by crook. 3. phras. Units, structures with an impeded clause, that is a lexeme + clause sheeps that passin the night. 4. clause idioms when pigs fly 5. nominative- communicative phraseological units break the ice – the ice is broken 6. sentence idioms sticking time saves 7. interjections (восклицание) it’s a pretty kettle of fish.
Collocation – habitual association between particular words. They are not transferred. (heavy traffic, weaping willow плакучая ива).
Lexical phrases- Cristal devides them into polywords (by the way, so) and institutionalized expressions (how do you do).
Proverb- short traditional saying of a didactic nature ( a stick in time saves nine).
Sayings - concise observation that expresses fock, wisdom.(time flies)
There are several sources of phraseological units. One of them is the development of cultural and economical spheres of life.A great many phras. units come from the words of Greek and Latin classics from the Bible and from myths and legends. EG: the apple of discord – яблоко раздора.
16.Phraseological units in English.
Phraseology – this study is fairly recent. Terminology isn’t yet fixed. Opinions differ, how this part of speech can be defined and classified.
Phraseological unit – a stable group of words, characterized by completely or partially transferred meaning.
Phraseological units, or idioms, are described in numerous Eng dictionaries (The Oxford dictionary of idioms, the Collin’s, the Longman dict of Idioms). The idiomatic units are colorful, because of linguistic curiosity.
Researching to idioms has shown that they have important roles in writing and spoken E. They can appear in informal speech and formal style.
Phraseological units referred to lg universals (affixation, compounding), because every lg has phrases, word groups that are ready-made, stable and idiomatic. It means that they are not created in speech, but are introduced as fixed or set expressions. Their meaning cannot be deduced from the literal meaning of the constituent parts (“a snake in the grass” – hidden danger).
Features that characterize the Phraseological units:

  1. they are ready-made

  2. stable in structure

  3. idiomatic or transferred meaning

  4. colorful expressive

  5. stylistically marked.

Ways of understanding:

  1. narrow

  2. wide (presupposes that numerous proverbs, sayings are included into phraseology).

Problems of studying phaseol units:

  1. the problem of the adequate term and its definition,

  2. the problem of the lg material, which is referred to domain of phraseology,

  3. the problem of the classification of the lg material.

Idiom – an expression unique to a lg, esp one whose sense are not predictable from the meaning of arrangement of its element.
Fixed/ set expression – stability of lexical components and gram structure.
Collocation (by Crystal) – a habitual association between particular words, such as “to and fro”, “white coffee, “green with envy”. They cannot be predicted by the knowledge of the word.
Cliché (by Crystal) – a stereotyped expression, a common place phrase: “fair sex”, “much over muchnesss”, “from time in memories”.
Vinogradov’s classification of phras units:

  • фразеологические сращения (phraseological fusions); - “to kick the bucket — сыграть в ящик”, “red tape”.

  • фразеологические единства (Phraseological units) – “an old bird”, “Achilles' heel”;

  • фразеологические сочетания (Phraseological collocations) – “white coffee”, to take smb for granted, to take advantage of.

Coonin’s classification of phras units:

  • partially transferred (если хотя бы 1 слово – с прямым значением) – Hobson's choice, to drink like a lord, to eat like a horse,

  • completely transferred – все слова в переносном значении – to burn one’s finger, east or west home is best.

Types:

  1. one-summit units: at large; be the way; by heart.

  2. subordinate and coordinate word groups:

    1. substantives – “an old bird”, “hot dog”;

    2. adjective – as good as gold, as cool as cucumber.

    3. adverbial – at last, as quick as a flesh.

  3. structures with an embedded clause (a lexim + a clause). – ships that pass in the night; to see how the land lies.

  4. clause idioms (стр-ра придат предлож) – when pigs fly;

  5. nominative-communicative: to break the ice, to pass the rabicon.

  6. sentence idioms: birds of a feather flock together; if you run after 2 hares you will catch neither.

  7. interjectional sentence (эквивалент предлож). – by George, here here, oh God.

This classification does not deal with
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