1. a Assessments is one area I had not focused on with my gifted students I have done some differentiated instruction and projects but they all take the same tests and go through the same instruction



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1.a Assessments is one area I had not focused on with my gifted students. I have done some differentiated instruction and projects but they all take the same tests and go through the same instruction. I was surprised to see in this section that the author suggests having students not only demonstrate previous mastery but then provide different pacing, encourage students to make their own rubrics, etc… and then give them credit/grades for what they already know without them doing the work the rest of the class does. Maybe I could give them the grade they get on the pre-test. I would like to implement this into my classroom as I have a wide range of ability levels and a handful of gifted students each semester.
These students change depending on the unit we are studying. I would like to maybe do a pre-test for the class in each unit to see who has mastered the material (90% or better) and then pull them aside and give them a task that will take them into a deeper knowledge of the subject (though I have no idea what that will be… this also worries me). I think each student should also create a presentation (which would probably go along with the product section) to share with the class as their assessment for that unit. I do worry that students will catch on and start to purposefully fail the pre-tests in order to stay with the class. I’m hoping this class will address that issue.
1.b. I think the most pressing socio-emotional issue regarding gifted students in my experience as a teacher is conformity. Our schools are set up for the average student. If you are too high of an achiever you may not want to stand out (maybe they are bullied) and so those students do just enough. If you are a high achiever and you are bored you check out and those students may get lost in the system if they don’t act out, or they do act out and are labeled as a troublemaker. Their giftedness is overlooked or missed. Some of the twice exceptional students really struggle to show their ability as the average student would and their giftedness is also unseen. I have had all of these students over the years. As a teacher it is frustrating. And our classrooms keep growing, resources keep diminishing, and more of these kids are lost to conformity and averageness because it is easier to teach everyone the same way and expect the same results.
1.c.i In the high school where I work there is no official procedure for identifying gifted students. Even if there was, we don’t have a gifted program. As teachers we informally identify the gifted students in our own classroom and try to do our best to challenge them when we can. This is not done as well as I would like which is why I am taking this course.
1.c.ii Again, we do not have a procedure for identifying gifted or twice exceptional students. We do, however, have accommodations for students who struggle in any area. The special education teachers have special ed. classes for those who may need more help in one subject than another. This allows the student to attend regular ed classes in areas where they do well but get extra help in areas of difficulty. Special education students also receive support classes where they can have extra time to work on their school work with help from a special education teacher. The special ed. teacher and the regular ed. teacher work closely together to ensure these students get the help they need. I had one student who was twice exceptional, extremely bright, funny, engaging… but he struggled with reading. With the help of his support teacher he took both of my classes, biology and human anatomy and physiology, and received very high scores. Students cannot receive these accommodations (extra time, tests read to them, calculators, etc.) unless they are in the special education program.
1.d. To combat the “B word” (boring) the author suggests we use the same criteria for intervention on gifted students that we use for struggling students. This includes the following list taken from the text:

1. Identify the student’s current level of competency with a skill or task

2. Diagnose an intervention that is likely to move the student forward

3. Apply the intervention.

4. Evaluate the success of the intervention.

5. Prescribe the next intervention to move the student forward.

6. Repeat the process.

The author then goes on to talk about how the common core state standards are set up to allow students to work at whatever level they are at. By using compacting and differentiated instruction students are allowed to work at their own level and eliminate boredom with true learning. Compacting allows students to “buy back time” to work on extended learning. Differentiated instruction focuses on where a kid is coming from (in how they learn) academically, socially, etc. and makes each of them feel included and challenged at the level they are at.


1.3.i. The author believes that compacting will help students who have already shown mastery of a subject to learn at a more advanced level. It keeps the student from becoming “bored” and engages them in an area of interest. They get to use the time that was typically wasted on review (for them) to discover and enjoy the learning process in the same subject area but independently with extension activities.

1.3.ii. I already use techniques 1, 2, and 5 in my classroom. We use “I Can” statements (objectives for the unit) before and after instruction. Students look them over and identify what they already know. After the unit has been taught they go back through and identify what they know now. After the assessment they use this to show what they know and what they still need help on. The areas they still need help with are covered with each individual on a “2nd Time Around” sheet where they can show understanding after the assessment and receive partial credit on the test. I don’t fully do #5, but I have eliminated review right before a test because I didn’t want to test their short term memory. I eliminated review days because students were not studying, but simply relying on the review in class.


1.3.iii. I would like to implement number 4, extension activities. I think this would really help with some of my behavior problems in class when students are bored because they already have mastery in an area. It will also allow me to work more with the students who really struggle with the same content.
1.f. “The Most Difficult First” allows students to show mastery by doing the hardest questions (maybe 5) at the beginning of a practice and skipping the “easy stuff” they may already know. The student must get 4 of 5 right. This student then can become the checker to check other work done by the class or go on to an extension activity. This would be a great help in my classroom because students who really do know the material (like punnett squares) get really bored with repeated practice. They become a distraction to the rest of the class. Getting them to show me they can do the work, and moving them on will allow me more time to work with students who need more practice.

2. Study Guide with Extension Activities:





Topic Development Sheet:

Topic or unit to be learned: Mendelian Genetics




Required Standards

Related Topics

  1. Summarize Mendel’s process of learning about inheritance and his discoveries about inheritance.




Genetic discoveries through history

Scientific method

Current genetic research


  1. Explain the principle of dominance, and differentiate between the 3 types of dominance.




Genetic traits in different organisms
evolution

  1. Explain how geneticists use the principles of probability.




Probability/ math and science

  1. Use a Punnett square to predict the outcome of a one-factor (or two-factor) cross.




Selective breeding

pedigrees

Genetic counseling


  1. Use punnett squares to demonstrate the principle of independent assortment.




Sexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction

  1. Predict the outcome of crosses with inheritance patterns other than complete (simple) dominance.




Inheritance patterns in different organisms
Natural selection

  1. Describe, diagram and recognize the events of meiosis.




Reduction division
Non-disjunction

  1. Contrast the chromosome number in body cells and in gametes. Describe the process of gamete formation in males vs. females.




Haploid and diploid numbers in other organisms
Complexity and chromosome number

  1. Contrast Meiosis and Mitosis.




Healing

Growth and development



  1. Explain how gene maps are produced using frequencies of cross-over.

Human genome project
Protein folding




Intro to Mendelian Genetics: Standards and task descriptions
Note: For each section, be sure to learn any new vocabulary (bold words in text) before beginning the task.


  1. Summarize Mendel’s process of learning about inheritance and his discoveries about inheritance.

    1. Research Mendel’s study on pea plants.

    2. Include a detailed description of why he began his study, how he controlled pollination, what traits he observed, and how he determined dominance.

  2. Explain the principle of dominance, and differentiate between the 3 types of dominance.

    1. Define the principle of dominance.

    2. List the three types of dominance and describe how they are different.

    3. Give a real world example for each type of dominance.




      • Checkpiont: ________________________________: Assessment for 1-2




  1. Explain how geneticists use the principles of probability.

    1. Define probability.

    2. Describe how probability is key in studying genetics.

  2. Use a Punnett square to predict the outcome of a one-factor (or two-factor) cross.

    1. Complete the following punnett square problems

      • A tall plant is crossed with a short plant in the P generation. What is the genotypic and phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation?

      • Cross two plants that are heterozygous for tall and heterozygous yellow. What is the phenotypic ratio? (T = Tall, t = short; Y = yellow, y=green)

  3. Use punnett squares to demonstrate the principle of independent assortment.

    1. What part of the two factor punnett square demonstrates independent assortment?

    2. Why is independent assortment so important?




      • Checkpiont: ________________________________: Assessment for 1-5




  1. Predict the outcome of crosses with inheritance patterns other than complete (simple) dominance.

    1. Complete the following punnett square problems

      • When a black chicken is crossed with a white chicken they produce speckled (both black and white) chicken. What type of dominance is this? Cross two speckled chicken and determine the genotypic and phenotypic ratios.

      • When 2 pink flowers are crossed, some are pink, some are red and some are white. What type of dominance is this? What is the genotypic and phenotypic ratio of this cross?

  2. Describe, diagram and recognize the events of meiosis.

    1. Draw and label the phases of meiosis in order and describe the major events in each phase.

  3. Contrast the chromosome number in body cells and in gametes. Describe the process of gamete formation in males vs. females.

    1. Define diploid and haploid.

    2. How do these terms relate to body cells and gametes?

    3. Compare and contrast spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

  4. Contrast Meiosis and Mitosis.

    1. How are Meiosis and mitosis similar?

    2. How are they different?

    3. Create a table for comparing the two cell divisions.

  5. Explain how gene maps are produced using frequencies of cross-over.

    1. Create a gene map using the following information: Gene A and B cross over 90% of the time. Gene A and C cross over 10% of the time. Gene B and C cross over 5% of the time.




      • Checkpiont: ________________________________: Assessment for 1-10


Genetics Extension Menu


Research the history of genetics. Include the names of the scientists and what they did in their research along with how their discovery impacted the study of heredity.

Investigate the theory of evolution in Darwin’s time. How would an understanding of genetics have influenced his theory?

Invite local farmers to speak to the class about how they use genetics to do selective breeding in their work. Help students prepare questions to ask at the end of the presentation. Moderate the discussion.

One career in genetics is as a counselor. Research what a genetic counselor does, the education required, how much money they make, and then list what you view as the pros and cons of this job. If it is possible, try to interview someone in this position.

Student Choice



Find examples of non-disjunction in humans and other animals. How does non-disjunction on the same chromosome affect different organisms? Hypothesize reasons for these effects of non-disjunction.

Different organisms have different diploid numbers of chromosomes. Does the number of chromosomes determine complexity? Support your answer with examples.

Create an informational guide to the different types of cells in the body and how they divide, if they divide, and how often they go through mitosis. Include pictures and locations of each type of cell. (ex: neuron, red/white blood cell, osteocytes, cells that line the digestive system, etc.)

Research current studies based on protein folding. Why are scientists interested in protein folding? How are they learning about protein folding? Try the protein folding game at http://fold.it/portal/ and report anything you learn about how proteins fold.

3. A. Most Difficult First would be a great way to differentiate and compact punnett squares. This is a skill that involves some math and problem solving skills that many of my kids already have. When I teach this skill usually two-thirds of the class really struggle while the rest understand it perfectly and are bored for the next 3 days. If I have the students who already have this skill do the 5 hardest problems(these are the last 5 in this example) to demonstrate mastery they could move on to be a checker or an extension activity (see extension activities above in the study guide lesson plan).

Example work attached.
Punnett Square Practice Worksheet Name:

1) For each of the genotypes (AA, Aa or aa) below determine what the phenotype would be.

Purple flowers are dominant to white flowers.

PP_____________ Pp____________ pp_______________
Hairy knuckles are dominant to non-hairy knuckles in humans.

HH_____________ Hh ___________ hh _________________


Bobtails in cats are recessive. Normal tails are dominant.

TT _____________ Tt _________ tt _____________


Round seeds are dominant to wrinkled seeds in pea plants.

RR______________ Rr _____________ rr ____________


No-cleft chin is dominant. Cleft chin is recessive.

CC ___________ Cc __________ cc _____________


2) For each of the following write whether it is homozygous dominant, heterozygous or homozygous recessive.
AA Ff Aa gg

GG Pp Ii tt

TT Tt aa Oo
Use the following information for questions 3-5:

In dogs, the gene for fur color has two alleles. The dominant allele (F) codes for grey fur and the recessive allele (f) codes for black fur.

3) The female dog is heterozygous. The male dog is homozygous recessive. Figure out the phenotypes and genotypes of their possible puppies by using a Punnett Square.

Genotypes: Phenotypes:

FF: Ff: ff: Black fur: Grey fur:

4) The female dog has black fur. The male dog has black fur. Figure out the phenotypes and genotypes of their possible puppies by using a Punnett Square.

Genotypes: Phenotypes:

FF: Black fur:

Ff: Grey fur:

ff:

5) The female dog is heterozygous. The male dog is heterozygous. Figure out the phenotypes and genotypes of their possible puppies by using a Punnett Square.

Genotypes: Phenotypes:

FF: Black fur:

Ff: Grey fur:

ff:
Use the following information for questions 6-8:

In fruit flies, red eyes are dominant (E). White eyes are recessive (e).
6) If the female fly has white eyes and the male fly has homozygous dominant red eyes, what are the possible phenotypes and genotypes of their offspring?

Genotypes: Phenotypes:

EE: Red Eyes:

Ee:


ee: White Eyes:
7) If the female fly has EE and the male fly has EE, what are the possible phenotypes and genotypes of their offspring?

Genotypes: Phenotypes:

EE: Red Eyes:

Ee:


ee: White Eyes:
8) If both flies are heterozygous, then what are the possible phenotypes and genotypes of their offspring?

Genotypes: Phenotypes:

EE: Red Eyes:

Ee:


ee: White Eyes:
Use the following for questions 9-11:

In dogs, there is an hereditary deafness caused by a recessive gene, “d.” A kennel owner has a male dog (Gilbert) that she wants to use for breeding purposes if possible. The dog can hear.

9) What are the two possible genotypes of Gilbert?

10) If the dog’s genotype is Dd, the owner does not wish to use him for breeding so that the deafness gene will not be passed on. This can be tested by breeding the dog to a deaf female (dd). Draw two Punnett squares to illustrate these two possible crosses.

11) In each case, what percentage/how many of the offspring would be expected to be hearing? deaf? How could you tell the genotype of this male dog? Also, using Punnett square(s), show how two hearing dogs could produce deaf offspring.

Use the following for questions 12-13:http://iamsocruel.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/rihanna_73.jpg

Having a widow’s peak like Wentworth Miller is dominant.http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_zeetsmlcvyk/tsktv7fpmgi/aaaaaaaaa8a/cazdxefqexg/s320/miller.jpg


Not having a widow’s peak, like Rihanna, is recessive.
12) If Wentworth Miller is Aa, and he and Rihanna had children, what are the possible phenotypes and genotypes of their children?

http://images.contactmusic.com/dn/jay-z_855_18522372_0_0_11011_300.jpghttp://myplay.com/files/imagecache/photo_345_square/files/artist_images/beyonce.jpg

13) Look at the phenotypes of Beyonce and Jay Z. If these two had children, could they have children with a widow’s peak? Why or why not? Use a Punnett Square to explain your answer.


Ch. Sect.

Order

I can …

Check if yes

Pre Post

11.0.0

Define vocabulary terms for Chapter 11.







11.1.1

Describe how Mendel studied inheritance in peas.







11.1.2

Summarize Mendel’s conclusion about inheritance.







11.1.3

Explain the principle of dominance.







11.1.4

Describe what happens during segregation.







11.2.1

Explain how geneticists use the principles of probability.







11.2.2

Use a Punnett square to predict the outcome of a one-factor (or two-factor) cross.







11.3.1

Demonstrate the principle of independent assortment using a Punnett square.







11.3.2

Predict the outcome of crosses with inheritance patterns other than complete (simple) dominance.







11.3.3

Explain how Mendel’s principles apply to organisms.







11.4.1

Contrast the chromosome number in body cells and in gametes







11.4.2

Describe, diagram and recognize the events of meiosis.







11.4.3

Contrast Meiosis and Mitosis.







11.5.1

Identify the structures that actually assort independently.







11.5.2

Explain how gene maps are produced using frequencies of cross-over.






B. The second differentiated instruction I would use if I taught a skills based class would be the pretest for volunteers. The only unit with a large skill based portion is genetics. The students receive the “I Can” sheets with the objectives listed (see below) and check any objective they feel they have mastery over. I would give the genetics test (Chapter 11 test and key attached) to anyone who wanted at the start of the unit and if they received a 90% or higher they could move on to the extension activities (see above).


Biology Test- Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Gregor Mendel used pea plants to study

a.

flowering.

b.

gamete formation.

c.

the inheritance of traits.

d.

cross-pollination.

2. Offspring that result from crosses between true-breeding parents with different traits



a.

are true-breeding.

b.

make up the F2 generation.

c.

make up the parental generation.

d.

are called hybrids.

3. The chemical factors that determine traits are called



a.

alleles.

b.

traits.

c.

genes.

d.

characters.

4. Gregor Mendel concluded that traits are



a.

not inherited by offspring.

b.

inherited through the passing of factors from parents to offspring.

c.

determined by dominant factors only.

d.

determined by recessive factors only.

5. When Gregor Mendel crossed a tall plant with a short plant, the F1 plants inherited



a.

an allele for tallness from each parent.

b.

an allele for tallness from the tall parent and an allele for shortness from the short parent.

c.

an allele for shortness from each parent.

d.

an allele from only the tall parent.

6. The principle of dominance states that



a.

all alleles are dominant.

b.

all alleles are recessive.

c.

some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.

d.

alleles are neither dominant nor recessive.

7. When Gregor Mendel crossed true-breeding tall plants with true-breeding short plants, all the offspring were tall because



a.

the allele for tall plants is recessive.

b.

the allele for short plants is dominant.

c.

the allele for tall plants is dominant.

d.

they were true-breeding like their parents.

8. A tall plant is crossed with a short plant. If the tall F1 pea plants are allowed to self-pollinate,



a.

the offspring will be of medium height.

b.

all of the offspring will be tall.

c.

all of the offspring will be short.

d.

some of the offspring will be tall, and some will be short.

9. The principles of probability can be used to



a.

predict the traits of the offspring produced by genetic crosses.

b.

determine the actual outcomes of genetic crosses.

c.

predict the traits of the parents used in genetic crosses.

d.

decide which organisms are best to use in genetic crosses.

10. In the P generation, a tall plant is crossed with a short plant. The probability that an F2 plant will be tall is



a.

50%.

b.

75%.

c.

25%.

d.

100%.

11. Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be



a.

hybrid.

b.

homozygous.

c.

heterozygous.

d.

dominant.









Tt







T

t


TT


T

TT

Tt

T

TT

Tt




T

=

tall

t

=

short


Figure 11-1
12. In the Punnett square shown in Figure 11-1, which of the following is true about the offspring resulting from the cross? (Tt x TT)

a.

About half are expected to be short.

b.

All are expected to be short.

c.

About half are expected to be tall.

d.

All are expected to be tall.

13. The genotypic ratio of the offspring in Figure 11-1 is:



a.

2TT:2Tt

c.

1TT:2Tt:1tt

b.

2tall:2short

d.

3tall:1short

14. The phenotypic ratio of the offspring in Figure 11-1 is:



a.

2TT:2Tt

c.

1TT:2Tt:1tt

b.

2tall:2short

d.

4 tall

15. A Punnett square shows all of the following EXCEPT



a.

all possible results of a genetic cross.

b.

the genotypes of the offspring.

c.

the alleles in the gametes of each parent.

d.

the actual results of a genetic cross.

16. If you made a Punnett square showing Gregor Mendel’s cross between true-breeding tall plants and true-breeding short plants, the square would show that the offspring had



a.

the genotype of one of the parents.

b.

a phenotype that was different from that of both parents.

c.

a genotype that was different from that of both parents.

d.

the genotype of both parents.

17. What principle states that during gamete formation genes for different traits separate without influencing each other’s inheritance?



a.

principle of dominance

b.

principle of independent assortment

c.

principle of probabilities

d.

principle of segregation

18. How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY?



a.

2

b.

4

c.

8

d.

16

19. If a pea plant that is heterozygous for round, yellow peas (RrYy) is crossed with a pea plant that is homozygous for round peas but heterozygous for yellow peas (RRYy), how many different phenotypes are their offspring expected to show?



a.

2

b.

4

c.

8

d.

16

20. Situations in which one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene are called



a.

multiple alleles.

b.

incomplete dominance.

c.

polygenic inheritance.

d.

multiple genes.

21. A cross of a red cow (RR) with a white bull (WW) produces all roan offspring (RRWW). This type of inheritance is known as



a.

incomplete dominance.

b.

polygenic inheritance.

c.

codominance.

d.

multiple alleles.

22. The number of chromosomes in a gamete is represented by the symbol



a.

Z.

b.

X.

c.

N.

d.

Y.

23. If an organism’s diploid number is 12, its haploid number is



a.

12.

b.

6.

c.

24.

d.

3.

24. Gametes have



a.

homologous chromosomes.

b.

twice the number of chromosomes found in body cells.

c.

two sets of chromosomes.

d.

one allele for each gene.

25. Gametes are produced by the process of



a.

mitosis.

b.

meiosis.

c.

crossing-over.

d.

replication.




Figure 11-3
26. What is shown in Figure 11-3? (Figure 11-16 in your book)

a.

independent assortment

b.

anaphase I of meiosis

c.

crossing-over

d.

replication

27. Chromosomes form tetrads during



a.

prophase of meiosis I.

b.

metaphase of meiosis I.

c.

interphase.

d.

anaphase of meiosis II.

28. What happens between meiosis I and meiosis II that reduces the number of chromosomes?



a.

Crossing-over occurs.

b.

Metaphase occurs.

c.

Replication occurs twice.

d.

Replication does not occur.

29. Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of



a.

diploid cells.

b.

haploid cells.

c.

2N daughter cells.

d.

body cells.

30. Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of



a.

two genetically identical cells.

b.

four genetically different cells.

c.

four genetically identical cells.

d.

two genetically different cells.

31. In a 2 factor cross where both parents are heterozygous for both traits (TtYy x TtYy), the expected phenotypic ratio would be:



a.

1:1:1:1

c.

3:1

b.

12:4

d.

9:3:3:1

32. When you flip a coin, what is the probability that it will come up tails?



a.

1/2

b.

1/4

c.

1/8

d.

1

33. The wide range of skin colors in humans comes about because more than four different genes control this trait. This is an example of:



a.

multiple alleles

c.

codominance

b.

polygenic traits

d.

incomplete dominance

34. Human blood type alleles of A and B are equally dominant to each other and are both expressed. This is an example of:



a.

codominance

c.

polygenic traits

b.

incomplete dominance

d.

multiple alleles

35. Human blood types are produced by alleles A, B, and O. Having more than 2 alleles control a trait is called:



a.

incomplete dominance

c.

polygenic traits

b.

codominance

d.

multiple alleles

36. When the heterozygous phenotype is a combination or an intermediate of the two homozygous phenotypes, it is called



a.

incomplete dominance

c.

polygenic traits

b.

codominance

d.

multiple alleles

37. If the sex cell of an organism has 20 chromosomes, then the body cells will have:



a.

20 chromosomes

c.

15 chromosomes

b.

10 chromosomes

d.

40 chromosomes



True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true-A or false-B.
38. A trait is a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another. _________________________
39. An organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will sometimes show that trait. _________________________
40. When alleles segregate from each other, they join. _________________________
41. The probability that a gamete produced by a pea plant heterozygous for stem height (Tt) will contain the recessive allele is 100%. _________________________
42. Mitosis results in two cells, whereas meiosis results in one cell. _________________________

43. The different forms of a gene are called:

a. factors c. traits

b. alleles d. gametes


44. When two heterozygous tall pea plants are crossed, the expected genotype ratio of the offspring is:

a. 3:1 c. 2:2

b. 1:2:1 d. 4:0
45. The principle of independent assortment states that ____________________ for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.

a. sex cells c. characteristics

b. chromosomes d. genes
46. If pea plants that are homozygous for round, yellow seeds (RRYY) were crossed with pea plants that are heterozygous for round, yellow seeds (RrYy), the expected phenotype(s) of the offspring would be:

a. round, yellow c. round, green

b. wrinkled, yellow d. wrinkled, green
47. Red, white, and pink phenotypes in flowers called four o’clocks are an example of:

a. codominance c. incomplete dominance

b. multiple alleles d. polygenic triats
48. An organism’s _______ have half the number of chromosomes found in the organism’s body cells.

a. gametes c. phenotype

b. genotype d. diploid cells

49. Genetics is:

a. the study of genes c. study of traits

b. the study of heredity d. study of Gregor Mendel


50. How many recessive alleles for a trait must an organism inherit in order to show that trait?

a. none b. 1 c. 2 d. 4


Essay
51. You wish to determine whether a tall pea plant is homozygous or heterozygous for tallness. What cross should you perform to arrive at your answer? Explain your choice of cross.
52. Explain the difference between incomplete dominance and codominance.
53. Contrast the cells produced by mitosis with those produced by meiosis.
54. Complete the following dihybrid cross: GgRr x GgRr. Make the Punnett square and list the phenotype ratios.


Biology Test- Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics

Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.1.1
2. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.1.1
3. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.1.2
4. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.1.2
5. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.1.2
6. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.1.3
7. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.1.3
8. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.1.4
9. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.2.1
10. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.2.1
11. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.2.2
12. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.2.2
13. ANS: A PTS: 1
14. ANS: D PTS: 1
15. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.2.2
16. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.2.2
17. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.3.1
18. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.3.1
19. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.3.1
20. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.3.2
21. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.3.2
22. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.4.1
23. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.4.1
24. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.4.1
25. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.4.2
26. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.4.2
27. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.4.2
28. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.4.2
29. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.4.3
30. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.4.3
31. ANS: D PTS: 1
32. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.2.1
33. ANS: B PTS: 1
34. ANS: A PTS: 1
35. ANS: A PTS: 1
36. ANS: A PTS: 1
37. ANS: D PTS: 1
MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE
38. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: B

OBJ: 11.1.1


39. ANS: F, always

PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.1.3


40. ANS: F, separate

PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.1.4


41. ANS: F
50%

PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.2.1


42. ANS: F, four cells

PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.4.3


COMPLETION
43. ANS: b. alleles

PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.1.2


44. ANS: b. 1 TT : 2 Tt : 1 tt

PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.2.2


45. ANS: d. genes

PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.3.1


46. ANS: a. round, yellow seeds

PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.3.1


47. ANS: c. incomplete dominance

PTS: 1 DIF: E OBJ: 11.3.2


48. ANS: a. gametes

PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.4.1


SHORT ANSWER
49. ANS:

b. study of heredity.

PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 11.1.1
50. ANS:

d. two recessive alleles

PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.1.3
ESSAY
51. ANS:

The tall pea plant should be crossed with a short pea plant. If the tall pea plant is homozygous, all of the offspring will be tall. If the tall pea plant is heterozygous, it is likely that about half of the offspring will be tall and half will be short.

PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.2.2
52. ANS:

In incomplete dominance, one allele is not completely dominant over another. As a result, the heterozygous phenotype is intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes. In codominance, both alleles are dominant. As a result, the heterozygous phenotype is a combination of each homozygous phenotype.

PTS: 1 DIF: A OBJ: 11.3.2
53. ANS:

agf


PTS: 1
54. ANS:

9:3:3:1


PTS: 1




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