Toshkent davlat agrar universiteti meva-sabzavotchilik va uzumchilik fakulteti



Download 0.9 Mb.
bet2/26
Sana28.08.2021
Hajmi0.9 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   26
Contents

  • 1Etymology

  • 2History

  • 3Chemical and physical properties

    • 3.1States

      • 3.1.1Density

      • 3.1.2Phase transitions

      • 3.1.3Triple and critical points

      • 3.1.4Phases of ice and water

    • 3.2Taste and odor

    • 3.3Color and appearance

    • 3.4Polar molecule

    • 3.5Hydrogen bonding

    • 3.6Self-ionisation

    • 3.7Electrical conductivity and electrolysis

    • 3.8Mechanical properties

    • 3.9Reactivity

  • 4On Earth

    • 4.1Water cycle

    • 4.2Fresh water storage

    • 4.3Sea water and tides

  • 5Effects on life

    • 5.1Aquatic life forms

  • 6Effects on human civilization

    • 6.1Health and pollution

    • 6.2Human uses

      • 6.2.1Agriculture

      • 6.2.2As a scientific standard

      • 6.2.3For drinking

      • 6.2.4Washing

      • 6.2.5Transportation

      • 6.2.6Chemical uses

      • 6.2.7Heat exchange

      • 6.2.8Fire considerations

      • 6.2.9Recreation

      • 6.2.10Water industry

      • 6.2.11Industrial applications

      • 6.2.12Food processing

      • 6.2.13Medical use

  • 7Distribution in nature

    • 7.1In the universe

      • 7.1.1Water vapor

      • 7.1.2Liquid water

      • 7.1.3Water ice

      • 7.1.4Exotic forms

    • 7.2Water and habitable zone

  • 8Law, politics, and crisis

  • 9In culture

    • 9.1Religion

    • 9.2Philosophy

    • 9.3Dihydrogen monoxide parody

  • 10See also

  • 11References

  • 12Further reading

  • 13External links

Etymology

The word water comes from Old English wæter, from Proto-Germanic *watar (source also of Old Saxon watarOld Frisian wetirDutch waterOld High German wazzarGerman WasserOld Norse vatnGothic wato), from Proto-Indo-European *wod-or, suffixed form of root *wed- ("water"; "wet").[5] Also cognate, through the Indo-European root, with Greek ύδωρ (ýdor), Russian вода́ (vodá), Irish uisceAlbanian ujë.

History

Main articles: Origin of water on Earth § History of water on Earth, and Properties of water § History

Chemical and physical properties



Main article: Properties of water

See also: Water (data page) and Water model

Water (H


2O) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. This simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances.[6][7] This allows it to be the "solvent of life":[8] indeed, water as found in nature almost always includes various dissolved substances, and special steps are required to obtain chemically pure water. Water is the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas in normal terrestrial conditions.[9]

States

The three common states of matter

Along with oxidanewater is one of the two official names for the chemical compound H
2O;[10] it is also the liquid phase of H
2O.[11] The other two common states of matter of water are the solid phase, ice, and the gaseous phase, water vapor or steam. The addition or removal of heat can cause phase transitionsfreezing (water to ice), melting (ice to water), vaporization (water to vapor), condensation (vapor to water), sublimation (ice to vapor) and deposition (vapor to ice).[12]

Density

Water differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes.[14] In 1 atm pressure, it reaches its maximum density of 1,000 kg/m3 (62.43 lb/cu ft) at 3.98 °C (39.16 °F).[15] The density of ice is 917 kg/m3 (57.25 lb/cu ft), an expansion of 9%.[16][17] This expansion can exert enormous pressure, bursting pipes and cracking rocks (see Frost weathering).[18]

In a lake or ocean, water at 4 °C sinks to the bottom and ice forms on the surface, floating on the liquid water. This ice insulates the water below, preventing it from freezing solid. Without this protection, most aquatic organisms would perish during the winter.[19]

Phase transitions

At a pressure of one atmosphere (atm), ice melts or water freezes at 0 °C (32 °F) and water boils or vapor condenses at 100 °C (212 °F). However, even below the boiling point, water can change to vapor at its surface by evaporation (vaporization throughout the liquid is known as boiling). Sublimation and deposition also occur on surfaces.[12] For example, frost is deposited on cold surfaces while snowflakes form by deposition on an aerosol particle or ice nucleus.[20] In the process of freeze-drying, a food is frozen and then stored at low pressure so the ice on its surface sublimates.[21]

The melting and boiling points depend on pressure. A good approximation for the rate of change of the melting temperature with pressure is given by the Clausius–Clapeyron relation:

{\displaystyle {\frac {dT}{dP}}={\frac {T\left(v_{\text{L}}-v_{\text{S}}\right)}{L_{\text{f}}}},}

where {\displaystyle v_{\text{L}}}  and {\displaystyle v_{\text{G}}}  are the molar volumes of the liquid and gas phases, and {\displaystyle L_{\text{f}}}  is the molar latent heat of melting. In most substances, the volume increases when melting occurs, so the melting temperature increases with pressure. However, because ice is less dense than water, the melting temperature decreases.[13] In glaciers, pressure melting can occur under sufficiently thick volumes of ice, resulting in subglacial lakes.[22][23]

The Clausius-Clapeyron relation also applies to the boiling point, except now the vapor phase has a much lower density than the liquid phase, so the boiling point increases with pressure.[24] Water can remain in a liquid state at high temperatures in the deep ocean or underground. For example, temperatures exceed 205 °C (401 °F) in Old Faithful, a geyser in Yellowstone National Park.[25] In hydrothermal vents, the temperature can exceed 400 °C (752 °F).[26]

At sea level, the boiling point of water is 100 °C (212 °F). As atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude, the boiling point decreases by 1 °C every 274 meters. High-altitude cooking takes longer than sea-level cooking. For example, at 1,524 metres (5,000 ft), cooking time must be increased by a fourth to achieve the desired result.[27] (Conversely, a pressure cooker can be used to decrease cooking times by raising the boiling temperature.[28]) In a vacuum, water will boil at room temperature.[29]




Download 0.9 Mb.

Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   26




Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©hozir.org 2020
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling

    Bosh sahifa
davlat universiteti
ta’lim vazirligi
maxsus ta’lim
O’zbekiston respublikasi
zbekiston respublikasi
axborot texnologiyalari
o’rta maxsus
nomidagi toshkent
guruh talabasi
davlat pedagogika
texnologiyalari universiteti
xorazmiy nomidagi
toshkent axborot
pedagogika instituti
rivojlantirish vazirligi
haqida tushuncha
toshkent davlat
Toshkent davlat
vazirligi toshkent
tashkil etish
matematika fakulteti
ta’limi vazirligi
kommunikatsiyalarini rivojlantirish
samarqand davlat
vazirligi muhammad
pedagogika universiteti
bilan ishlash
fanining predmeti
Darsning maqsadi
navoiy nomidagi
o’rta ta’lim
Ishdan maqsad
haqida umumiy
nomidagi samarqand
fizika matematika
sinflar uchun
fanlar fakulteti
maxsus ta'lim
Nizomiy nomidagi
ta'lim vazirligi
moliya instituti
universiteti fizika
Ўзбекистон республикаси
umumiy o’rta
Referat mavzu
respublikasi axborot
Toshkent axborot
таълим вазирлиги
Alisher navoiy
махсус таълим
Buxoro davlat