The Source Book On Sikhism


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Dr. Harjot Oberoi is a second generation dislocated Panjabi Sikh from West Panjab. While living in Delhi he got his exposure to history at the Centre of Historical Studies at the Jawahar Lal Nehru University in Delhi. At JNU, he came under the influence of Marxist professors such as Bipan Chandra, Romila Thapar, K.N. Pannikar and Satish Saberwal. He also wrote his M. Phil thesis on Bhai Vit Singh. From the style of his writing English as his second language, it appears he must have gone to an English medium school in Delhi where the elects and elites sent their children in the 60s.

At the Australian National University, he studied for his Ph.D. degree with Dr. J.T.F. Jordan, who shaped his thoughts on Indian religion from an Eurocentric point of view.

The Eurocentric group of self-appointed researchers on Sikhism led by Dr. W.H. McLeod, J.T. O’Connell, Milton Israel, Bruce de Brack, J.S. Hawley, Mark Juergensbeyer, Jerry Barrier, Rolin Jeffery, after reading Dr. Oberoi’s thesis entitled, “A World Reconstructed: Religion Ritual and the Community Among Sikhs” (1850-1901 Ph.D. dissertation Faculty of Asian Studies, A.N. University Canberra, 1987): advised him to expand it into a book by collating into it the following articles that he had written from time to time.

Oberoi, Harjot “Bhais, Babas and Byanis: Traditional Intellectuals in Nineteenth Century Panjab” Studies in History (vol.2, 1980, 33-62).

“From Gurdwara Rikabganj to the Viceregal Palace: A study of religious Protest the Panjab Past and Present” (vol. 14, 1980, pp 182-98).

“The worship of Pir Sakhi Sarvar: Illness, healing and Popular Culture in the Panjab Studies in History” (vol. 3, 1987, pp. 29-55).

“A Historigraphical and bibliographical reconstruction of the Singh Sabha in the Nineteenth Century” Journal of Sikh Studies (vol. 10, 1983, pp. 108-30).

“From Ritual to Counter-ritual: Rethinking the Hindu - Sikh Question”. (1844-19150. In J.T. O’Connell, Milton Israel, W.G. Oxtoby, eds with W.H. McLeod and J.S. Grewal visiting eds. Sikh History and Religion in the Twentieth Century. Toronto: S. Asian Studies, University of Toronto (1988, pp. 136-158).

So the present book entitled, The Construction of Religious Boundaries in the Sikh Tradition, is a careful mixing of his thesis and articles (paragraphs lifted from articles to the book). It also clearly shows that Dr. Oberoi too has become a prisoner of McLeodian Eurocentric research paradigm.

As Dr. Oberoi is very fond of quoting Sapir Whorf to show how language constructs the thought and reality of persons, I, as a Sikh Psychologist would like to construct Dr. Oberoi’s reality by using the written statements taken from his book (CRB) and articles.

1. Adi Granth is an amorphous religious text (CRB, P. 22). Amorphous according to Webster’s dictionary (1988, p. 30) means formless, not conforming to normal structural organization, having no crystalline form, unstratified.

2. By the closing decades of the Nineteenth Century, the Singh Sabha, a wide-ranging religious movement, began to view the multiplicity in Sikh identity with great suspicion and hostility (CRB, p. 25).

3. A new cultured elite aggressively usurped the right to represent others within a singular tradition (CRB, p. 25).

4. “Tat Khalsa” imposed monolithic, codified, and closed culture on the Sikhs by dissolving alternative ideals (CRB, p. 25).

5. This effort created many marginalized Sikhs who turned their backs on Sikh tradition and went their own way (CRB, p. 25).

6. Pluralist paradigm of Sikhism was replaced by a highly uniformed Sikh identity, the one we know today as modern Sikh existence (CRB, p. 26).

7. Through the process of silence and negotiation, Sikh historians of the past, have not given the true picture of what Singh Sabha did to the un-Sikh beliefs of the population (CRB, P. 27).

8. The ideas of what Sikhism out to be, were picked up by the Tat Khalsa from men like Ernest Trumpp, John Gordon, and Macauliffe (CRB, P. 32).

9. Ideological blinkers imposed by various complex forces led by Tat Khalsa produced many distortions in understanding the Sikh (CRB, p. 32).

10. Mr. G.S. Dhillin’s Ph.D. thesis on the Singh Sabha Movement is based on the principles of negatives of Sikh Studies. Dr. Oberoi is upset because Dr. Dhillon has given what could be called Khalsacentric view rather than Eurocentric social science anthropological view (CRB, p. 35).

11. Sikh studies need to fully open to this gaze of history so that the Sikhs become “sociological” respectable: (CRB, p.35).

12. Guru Nanak’s paradigm of interior religion was cut with the axes of identity by:

a. Producing allegiance with Guru Nanak.

b. Identify with Guru Bani.

c. Foundation of Sangats.

d. Setting up pilgrim centres at Goindwal and Harminder Sahib Amritsar.

e. Convention of a communal meal (langar) was introduced.

f. And compilation of an anthology commonly known as the Adi Granth whereby the Sikhs became a textual community. For further information on this topic, Dr. Oberoi recommends Dr. Pashaura Singh’s Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, (1991), is a major contribution to the study of Adi Granth. Please note in item number 12, Dr. Oberoi is under the influence of Dr. McLeod’s writings. It is strange that this professor of Sikh studies accepts everything that Dr. McLeod has formulated and even goes to endorse Dr Pashaura Singh’s University of Toronto (1991) very controversial thesis as a major study. (CRB, pp. 52-53). It is group thinking in which “birds of Eurocentric research get together” to further trample over the subjective faith of Sikhs.

13. According to Dr. Oberoi, in the early Guru period, Sikh as a category was still problematic and empty. It needed to be correlated with historical intervention.

14. Dr. Oberoi thinks that the Adi Granth was collated (CRB, pp. 54-55) whereas Pashaura Singh thinks that Guru Arjan Dev used a process to change Guru Nanak’s Bani before formerly including it in the Adi Granth. Guru Arjan Devji was also influenced by “social political consideration to produce the Adi Granth”. Like Trumpp, Dr. Oberoi thinks that the Adi Granth is the most voluminous and structured of the early Seventeenth Century devotional anthology (is Guru Granth an Anthology? According to the Webster Dictionary, 1988, p. 38) - collection of poetry or prose chosen to represent the work of a particular writer, a literary school or a national literature.

15. Dr. Oberoi compares the Adi Granth with Surdas Ka Pada, Fateh Pur manuscript of 1582 A.D. As Surdas Ka Pada had the same features as the Adi Granth, Dr. Oberoi feels that the Adi Granth was neither the first nor the last of such collections. So the uniqueness of Adi Granth as a secular Dhur Ki Bani is called in question by Dr. Oberoi (CRB, p. 54).

16. Stories of Guru Nanak’s travel are created out of Janam Sakhis, which are mythical texts (CRS, p. 55). These stories take Guru Nanak to Mecca or Hardwar and make him behave as if he has no fixed identity (Here Dr. Oberoi is dancing to the tune of Dr. McLeod’s research on Janam Sakhis) (CRS, p.56).

17. Just as there is no fixed Guru Nanak in the Janam Sakhis, there is no fixed Sikh identity in the early Guru period (CRB, p. 56). The Sikh world view of the earlier Guru period allowed the Sikhs to cut and sell their long hair to feed Guru Nanak (CRS, p. 56). It is very important to note that the Eurocentric Social Sikh historians will pick only those episodes from Janam Sakhis that point to the inconsistencies in Sikh psyche. Dr. Oberoi forgets that the quest for early Sikh identity was enshrined in challenging the status quo, the displacement of Brahmin, the non-use of Sanskrit, the challenge to Sati customs. Purdha and the institution of Langar to get rid of the caste systems and writing Guru Bani in Panjabi so that common persons could share it, were the pillars of Sikh identity in the early Guru period.

18. Guru Arjan was executed not martyred (Oberoi Pashaura and McLeod and J.S. Hawley would not use the word Martyrdom for Guru Arjan. It appears it comes out of their collective group thinking!).

19. Finally, the Jat influx into Sikhs produced the real Sikhs. So the Sikhs became Khalsas with their own Dharma.

It is sad that a “Sikh Scholar” while sitting on the University of British Columbia (Canada), Sikh chair, is so anti-Sikh that he does not seem to respect the Sikh Scripture, the Sikh Gurus, and the Sikh traditions because of his Eurocentric-Racist Scholarship.

He has no idea of the pain and hurt he is causing to those who collected money so that a Sikh chair be started that would enhance the image of the community.

He is a misplaced Marxist anthropologist who should be removed from the "chair" and sent to teach Social Sciences in other departments of the University of British Columbia. (It has been done and now he teaches Anthropology at U.B.C.)

What Freud was to the females, Jensen and Rushton to the Blacks, Oberoi is to the Sikhs.


The purpose of this article was to show that the theme of Eurocentrism runs through the writings of McLeod, Pashaura Singh, and Oberoi. It is very clear that they got their “research inspirations” from E. Trumpp, who came to India in 1869 to write a book about Sikhs for the benefit of the colonizers. I feel that E. Trumpp’s colonial mentality and “Occidental” reality was picked up by consciously or unconsciously by the historians in a hurry - trained in social science methodology with European traditions. “The other kind seeing” of Khalsacentric research where the place, time and nature of the community being studied and the role, the role models played, does not fit into their egocentric - repression - projection paradigms.

When some of these scholars write about Sikh Gurus as “political personalities”, they open windows for others to see the pathology they are suffering from. The mystification of producing and "impressing" people with their writings without introspection and retrospection, has caused in the Sikh community a great deal of hurt and stress. Their zeal to bring "sociological respectively" to Sikhism has made them arrogant and dehumanizing.

If they could have read the reactions of the First Nations of North America, women and blacks about the Eurocentric research done on them by the “well meaning researchers of the 60s”, they would have not gone the direction they had taken. The cover of academic freedom will not shelter them for a long time. Their instrumental, non-believing personalities that takes sadist pleasure in trampling over the subjective faith of a troubled minority, have to be challenged and exposed. May Sat Guru forgive them for the hurt they are causing. Perhaps “they do not know what they are doing”, because of the acute academic neurosis which has made them linear, non-intuitive, convergent, and myopically pathological.


Abstract of Sikh Studies, July 1992, January 1993, and July 1994. Published by the Institute of Sikh Studies, 959 Sector 59, Chadigarth, India.

Ahluwalia, J.W., Sikhism Today. Chadigarh Guru Gobind Singh foundation. 1987.

Bradley, D.G.., A Guide to the World’s Religions, Englewood Cliffe, MacMillan, 1988.

Ellwood, R.S., Many People Many Faiths, Englewood Cliffe, New jersey, 1987.

Fellows, W.J., Religions East and West, New York, Holt Rinehart, 1979.

Giani, Bachiltar Singh, Planned Attack on Aad Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Academics or Blasphemy, Chandigarh. International Centre of Sikh Studies, 1994.

Grewal, J.S., The New Cambridge History of India the Sikhs of Punjab. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Hopfe, L.M., Religions of the Word, New York, MacMillan. 1987.

Johnson, Julian. The Path of the Radha Soami, Masters. Beas. Radha Soami Sat Sang. 1980.

Juergensmeyer, M., Sikh Studies. Comparative Perspective on a Changing Tradition, Berkley, Berkley Religious Studies Series. 1979.

Lewis, James R., :Some Unexplained Assumptions in Western Studies of Sikhism”, Journal of Sikh Studies, 13:2, August 1985.

Lewis, James R., Images of Sikhism in the Writings of Early Orientalists. Studies in Sikhism and Comparative Religions, 6:2, October 1987.

Mann, J.S. & Kharak Singh, Recent Research in Sikhism, Patiala, Publication Bureau Panjabi University, 1992.

Mann, J.S., Advanced Studies in Sikhism, Irving, CA., Sikh Community of North America, 1989.

McCasland, V.S., Religions of the World, New York, Random House, 1969.

Morgan, K.W., The Religions of the Hindus, New York, Ronald Pres, 1953.

McLeod, W.H., Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1984.

McLeod, W.H., Guru Nanak and The Sikh Tradition, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1968.

McLeod, W.H., The Evolution of the Sikh Community, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1976.

McLeod, W.H., Popular Sikh Art, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1991.

McLeod, W.H., Who is a Sikh, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1989.

McLeod, W.H., The Sikhs, History, Religion, and Society, New York, Columbia University Press, 1989.

Noss, J.B. et. al., Man's Religions, New York, MacMillan, 1984.

O’Connell, J.T. et. al., Sikh History and Religion in the Twentieth Century, Toronto, Centre for South Asian Studies, 1988.

Oberoi, H.S., The Construction of Religious Boundaries (Culture, Identity, and Diversity) in Sikh Tradition, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1994.

Parrinder, G., The Faith of Mankind, New York, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1965.

Singh, Daljeet, Sikhism - A Comparative Study of Its Theology and Mysticism, New Delhi, Sterling Publications, 1979.

Singh, Fauja, Atlas of Travels of Guru Nanak, Punjabi University, Patiala, India, 1976.

Singh, Gopal., The History of the Sikh People, New Delhi, World Book Centre, 1988.

Singh, Harbans., The Heritage of The Sikhs, Delhi, Manahar, 1985.

Singh, Harbans, Perspective on Guru Nanak, Patiala, Guru Gobind Singh, Department of Religious Studies, Panjabi

Singh, Kapur, Sikhism - An Economenical Religion, Chandigarh, Institute of Sikh Studies, 1993.

Singh, Pashaura, Sikh Self-definition and the Bhagat Bani, M.A. Thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, 1987.

Singh, Pashaura, The Text and Meaning of Adi Granth, Ph.D. Thesis, Toronto, University of Toronto, 1991.

Sodhi, S.S., Questions and Answers on Oberoi’s The Construction of Religious Boundaries, Mehfil, August and September, 1994, pages 38,39,69-71.

Sodhi, S.S., in Giani Bachiltar Singh, Planned Attack on Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib Academics or Blasphemy, Chandigarh, International centre of Sikh Studies, 1994.

Sodhi, S.S., in Jarnail Singh, “Proceedings of the Second Sikh Educational Conference”, Toronto, Willowdale, Ontario. The Sikh Social and Educational Society, 1994.

Trumpp, E., The Adi Granth, New Delhi, Munshiran, Mansharial, 1970.

Wilson, H.H., The Sikh Religion: A Symposium. Calcutta, Susil Gupta, 1958.

Wing-tsit Chan, et. al., The Great Asian Religions. An Anthology, New York, MacMillan, 1969.

Chapter Fifty-Four

Pathology of pseudo-Sikh researchers with linear,

myopic, left brain, and mystified Western realities.

Dr. S. S. Sodhi

Dr. .J.S. Mann

“There is no odour so bad as that which arises from Goodness Tainted. If I know for a certainty that a man was coming to my house with the conscious design of doing me good, I should run for my life,” says Thoreau, famous American philosopher.

In this article, I would attempt to provide a psychosocial analysis of the pathological functioning of some Western/Eastern Sikh scholars who have made a habit of trampling over the subjective faith of the Sikhs with narcissistic arrogance and “scholarly” ignorance.

These historians are: A.L. Basham; Ernest Trumpp; Huston Smith; Archer; C.H. Loehlin; J.S, Grewal; S.S. Hans; M. Juergensmeyrer; W.H. McLeod; Pashaura Singh; Piar Singh; Harjot Oberoi; O’Connell, and his associates at the University of Toronto. Some of these researchers feel that just as Jesus of History is different from Jesus of Faith, similarly Nanak of History has to be separated from Nanak of Faith to bring respectability to the Sikh religion. Furthermore, they feel that the Sikh community’s permission is not needed for doing such “scholarly” research in secular universities.

It is also believed that bringing “correctness” to Sikh history and tradition is the secular right of these self-appointed scholars, indulging in “objective” research. Whether such research destroys the faith, and causes pain to the believers, is not the concern of these scholars. They forget that legendary and mythological elements are a psychological necessity for the believers for building faith with which to encounter the modern world.

Most of these historians are either non-believers or are running away from their own religions. But there is one element which they seem to share. Most of them start as missionaries, and hence, do not hesitate to use religion to become mobile in their lives. The examples of Pashaura Singh who came to Canada as granthi and Dr. McLeod who went to Kharar, Punjab, India, as a missionary, are cases in point.

McLeod used the missionary money of New Zealand to stay in India. He came to India with the motivation of producing from the poverty-stricken untouchables of Kharar and Batala, some “Rice Christians”, Punjabi-speaking Sikhs of Kharar, taught him Punjabi and identified with him, as one minority community identifies with another minority community.

When Gyani Jaimal Singh of Kharar saw McLeod’s growing interest in the Janam Sakhis, he felt that there was a Cunningham or Macauliffe in the making. Little could he fathom that this Christian student of his will attempt to “Summarize the Nanak of History in one page”!

Dr. Noel Q. King writing for “Advanced Studies in Sikhism” (1989, p.8) published by the Sikh Community of North American, P.O. Box 16635, Irving; CA, U.S.A. summarized the psyche of the likes of McLeod and Pashaura Singh as follows:

“For them, Scriptures and Traditions are specimens in their own estimation, they approach them with impartial objectivity, they are not concerned with what effect their work has on public ethics or on religious bodies, no more than scientists hold themselves responsible for military or commercial use of their research.”

The Western Scholars, with a few exceptions, have been arrogantly unkind to Sikhism. They consider that Sikh studies in Punjab are of a traditional type, whereas Western Scholars using social science methods have produced objective and unprejudiced research. To challenge this assertion let us examine the statements about Sikhs and their Scripture, as produced by these “instant” Sikh Scholars.

1. Adi Granth is perhaps the most shallow and empty book that exists, in proportion to its size (Ernest Trumpp, 1877).

2. Sikh religion appears to bear the kind of relation to Hindu religion which the Protestant does to Romish (Major James Browne, 1788).

3. Sikhism is a hybrid of two old religions, Islam and Hinduism (Ninian Smart, 1976).

4. Nanak was closer to Hinduism (R.W. Morgan, 1933).

5. Nanak leaned rather more to Islam than to Hinduism (Ninian Smart, 1976).

6. There is no doubt that Muslim sources predominate in Sikhism (John A. Hutchism, 1969).

7. Sikhism, because of its syncretic character, is not in any absolute sense new (John B, Noss and David S. Nose, 1984)

Dr. James Lewis, Professor of Philosophy and Religion, Appalachian State University, Boome, North Carolina, feels that Christian authors, and their role dancing disciples, or those who use religion in the instrumental sense to make a living or to get a Ph.D. and a job, might be projecting their guilt unto Sikh religion. He comments:

“To the extent that the author is Christian, or at best from a Christian background, it might be possible to postulate that kind of guilt projection is at work here. In other words, if one is uncomfortable with the tension and contradiction in Christian religion, then one is likely to project those contradictions - whether or not such tensions actually exist in other traditions.”

In other words, the Sikh scholars with Western realities, including McLeod, are using covert-value judgement, when it comes to Sikhism because of their unresolved tensions and contradictions about their own faiths.

What else can be said about the arrogance of these self-appointed scholars of subjective faiths of others? They are still attempting to carry the white man’s burden by bringing “civilized” white culture’s mystification to the faiths of others that are declared rustic (Oberoi) or syncretic (Kushwant Singh).

Most of them in their zeal to become “Scholars” have jumped on McLeod’s bandwagon. The names of S.S, Hans, Pashaura Singh, J.S. Grewal, Gurinder Singh Mann and yet another scholar in the making, Dr. Fenech (University of Toronto). Ph.D. 1994 comes to mind.

As a social scientist working in Canada, I know that this is a very common phenomenon in social sciences. Somebody invents a paradigm. Historians in a hurry jump on it, do the damaging research, and then disappear leaving others to clean the mess.

It also appears that these scholars are mostly left brain thinkers, affective domain of their personality is usually retarded. No wonder they can call Guru Arjun, the greatest poet of the 16th century India, as a politically motivated person and hence murdered by Jahangir (Pashaura Singh).

Many seem to lead a life which is instrumentally motivated. They can violate all codes of social science, or humanities research of any country, to get a Ph.D. or land a job (Pashaura Singh & McLeod who were funded by Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada, violated all the codes, and can be legal sued for these human rights violations).

These scholars, so as to reinforce themselves from a collective group mind, call conferences, publish books, develop chairs, and appoint their own students for in-breeding to take place. Incidentally, the research done by these scholars who sit on these chairs, is against the same community that provides funds from their hard-earned money. The Sikh chair, as controlled by Dr. Oberoi at the University of British Columbia, was a case in point. These scholars are so linear, myopic, convergent, and neurotically narcissistic, that the “other kind of seeing” does not touch them with a ten foot pole.

If they internalized the faith by listening to the faith music, do the Zen of Sewa they may, “come to their senses by losing their linear minds”!

Christianity has been a violent religion. Ask any community that was colonized. First nation Canadians are a case in point. To expect from Christian missionaries kindness to other religions is just like expecting, "milk from a house that keeps only bulls”!

We know that “objective” research on Sikhism is done mostly by the non-believers, or those who went to India as missionaries, but later became non-believers, or those who came to Canada as granthis, but later under the influence of Christian scholars got mystified. A historian with faith will never indulge in divergent speculations about the Sikhs’ Gurus who were producing God’s work under very trying conditions. Such persons will never speculate about who corrected whose bani, but rather get amazed at the beauty and originality of the poetry that was produced under the altered states of consciousness.

I must say that Dr. McLeod’s perception is selective. He skips over periods of the Sikh history where the white colonial power did the most damage. The rape of the Sikh empire which was carefully planned in Ludhiana in 1820, and then executed in cold-blooded fashion between 1839-1849, does not interest him. The torture of Kukas or Namdharis, the execution go Bhagat Singh and hundreds of other Sikh young men, hanged by the “secular” British masters, does not even get a line in his writings. Discussion of Christianity as a cultural and colonial imperialism, that destroyed a budding Sikh nation, is intentionally ignored by these historians. I will challenge Dr. McLeod and his associations to develop the role of the Sikh Gurus under the Moghal rule, as also to attempt to write the glorious history of the Sikhs between Banda’s death and the emergence of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

I am very upset with the activities of Dr. McLeod and Loehlin who, as missionaries of minority communities living in Punjab, have done a great disservice to the religion of another minority community.

This brings one to the concept of responsibility in Sikh research or the research that affects the life chances of the minority community. Those days are gone, when one could hide behind secular university research. The guide lines of SSHRC have declared any research which produces a negative image of a community, as unethical.

The universities and centres doing such research should be tried in the courts of North America and India. Clause 15 of the Canadian constitution and amendment 14 of the U.S.A. Constitution should be tested to see if the “McLeod gang” can be brought to their senses. When all measures of convincing the scholars fail, we should try what non-violent philosophers call “embarrassing the enemy” using verbal and non-verbal measures.

In the end, let me sum up the “researched” speculations of these “Historians in a hurry”. I have concentrated mainly on the research produced by “Sikh Scholars” (McLeod, Pashaura Singh, J.S. Oberoi, M. Juergensmeyer, J.S, Grewel, S.S. Hans and S.S. Dhillon).

1. Guru Nanak was the founder of the Sikh religion in the organizational sense, and not in the religious sense.

2. Nath tradition was worked by Kabir, Guru Nanak provided the extension.

3. Guru Nanak in a way is Saint Nanak.

4. Guru Nanak never went abroad.

5. Regression from Sikhism to Hindu religion took place at the time of Guru Amardas.

6. Jat influence got Guruship to Guru Arjun Dev Ji.

7. Guru Arjun corrected the bani written by Guru Nanak.

8. Compilation of Adi Granth was a process. It was not Dhur Ki Bani (Revealed).

9. Bhagat Bani was included in Guru Granth Sahib to please the minorities.

10. Singh Sabha imposed a single correct interpretation to Guru Granth Sahib.

11. A rare undated manuscript, G.N.D.U #1245 should be studied very carefully. This is the first draft of Guru Granth Sahib on which Guru Arjun Dev Ji worked and produced Kartarpur Wali Bir.

12. Exclusion of Mira Bai’s shabads from Guru Granth Sahib was done in an attempt to develop Sikh identity. Also her shabads were extremely erotic.

13. Khalsa was not given the 5 Ks by Guru Gobind Singh on Baisakhi day, 1699.

14. Hair, turban and sword entered Sikhism through the Jat influence, “Jats did not enter Sikhism empty-handed”.

15. Guru Granth Sahib became the Sikh Guru, because Guru Gobind Singh had no surviving children.

16. Guru Arjun was murdered and not martyred in 1606 A.D.

“Sikh Scholars” at St. Michael’s College, University of Toronto, and J.S. Oberoi at the University of B.C., Vancouver, Canada, are still busy producing research which is very hurtful and damaging to Sikhism. In Canada, Dr. Carole A. Murphy, Director Fellowship Division, Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 255 Albert Street, P.O. Box 610, Ottawa, Canada, K1P 6G4, funds such research. If the readers agree with the sentiments expressed in this article, I would urge them to drop Dr. Murphy a line. We would see that SSHRC grant to the University of Toronto be stopped, unless they agree to mend their ways.

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