The Source Book On Sikhism

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Chapter Forty-Nine

Psychology of a

Productive-Spiritually Inclined


Dr. S.S. Sodhi

This paper is about the psychology of a productive and spiritually inclined KHALSA who is clear, realistic, rational, lucid, consistent, coherent, integrated, goal-directed, logical, pertinent, articulate, independent, persistent and altruistic. He/She has a high degree of self-control and a highly developed sense of values and faith in SAT GURU and his Hukam.

The productive Khalsa is unique, both in himself and in the contributions he makes to society. He excels in academic/professional achievements, spiritual creativity, and leadership qualities.

A productive-spiritual individual has a sense of identity. He knows who he is and where he is going. He is confident in his unique role and feels comfortable with himself and what he is doing. He/She has a clear sense of gender identity and social responsibility. The contribution of productive-spiritual Khalsas are motivated by a mature sense of social awareness, empathy, altruism for humanity in general. Khalsas express these qualities in spontaneous sensitivity, friendliness and interpersonal skills because of the productive-spiritual person’s concern for others. Khalsa suffers “dissonances” due to his ability to resolve the large social problems of inequality, suffering and injustice. He is troubled by the discrepancy between what is and what ought to be! He does not feel guilty but has an empathic concern about humanity as a whole.

A productive-spiritual Khalsa grapples with the problems of life rather than retreating from them. Through hope he extends himself into the future. His freedom to observe the environment sharpens his cognitive skills, intellectual curiosity and helps him appraise various courses of action.

A productive-spiritual Khalsa learns to master his life situation before becoming effective for others. His involvement is not an escape from life. He brings strength and courage, sound physical health and high self-esteem in any field of endeavour. It produces in him a solid sense of identity, social competence, maturity, empathy and excellent coping skills.

An evolved spiritually productive Khalsa moves from egoism to altruism and eventually his slogan becomes “live for others”. Through altruistic living he applies “norms of reciprocity” and social responsibility to his life (help those who have helped him or are in need of help).

It has been empirically shown that empathy is a powerful mediator of altruistic behaviour. It is intrinsically motivated and produces reciprocity to self. A productive-altruistic Khalsa because of the evolution of his BIG WISDOM, overcomes the little wisdom of the ego and performs productive acts, which benefit society.

The self of a productive person develops through stages and reaches a stage of Propriety. Through appropriate striving he gains functional autonomy through which he seeks new challenging goals, extends his self with zest, enthusiasm, insight and humour. He develops a unified philosophy of life and uses it in directing his life harmoniously.

A productive-spiritual Khalsa develops compulsions for self-actualization and self-transcendence. He avoids matapathologies of boredom, cynicism, and lack of inspiration. He gets committed to his eta-needs and is willing to undergo all forms of deprivations for realizing them.

A productive-spiritual Khalsa through his “self-actualizing creativeness” experiences life fully, vividly, selflessly with full concentration and absorption. These self-actualizaters stay realistic, problem-centred, and generally accepting of themselves and others. They are also spontaneous, independent, creatively identified with humankind. Most of them report having had mystical or ego-transcending peak experiences.

Peak experiences of a productive Khalsa are episodic, powerful transcendental states of COSMIC CONSCIOUSNESS. In this state, the person experiences a sense of heightened noematic clarity, intense euphoria, appreciation of the holistic initiative, integrative nature of the universe and one’s unity with it. He may develop an altered perception of space and time because “his doors of perception have been cleansed”. These mystic states produce long-lasting beneficial effects on the personality functioning of a productive person. These states produce in him freedom from fear and making him almost truly god-like, recognizing and identifying with a wholly unified world in which oppressors have to be challenged. In other words, he becomes a KHALSA.

The productive self-actualizing Khalsa starts believing in “Perennial Khalsacentric Philosophy” and attempts to become transpersonal trans-human, centred in the cosmos rather than human needs and interests.

Writing for his book A Sense of Cosmos, Needleman, a famous North American philosopher, feels that a productive-spiritual person not only has a strong ego capable of living with and adapting to the existential realities, but transpersonally transcends through the expansion of spiritual awareness and identity.

Sustained states of this expanded awareness and identity have been well documented in Sikhism and by some Western psychologists such as R.M.

Buck, Maslow, Jung and Webber. A considerable body of psychological and sociological evidence suggests that those who have Cosmic Conscious Experiences (R.M. Buck), Peak Experiences (Maslow), numerous experiences (Jung), Satories (Suzuki), tend to be more healthy and productive than those who do not.

Transpersonal psychology dealing with productive-spiritual personality feels that KHALSA can operate at linear as well as altered states of consciousness. In an evolved person (Gurumukh) self appears to die. Once he gets rid of the ego, a feeling of solemnity-exaltation and well-being is developed. A deeply felt positive state of mind is his prize possession. His ignorance disappears because he stops identifying with "Maya or illusions"! He becomes a practising mystic using wise passiveness and transcendental experiences as methods of breaking his ego chains. Sitting in a quiet environment with passive attitude he learns to dwell on his SATGURU by repeating the "NAME". Because he has reduced his extroceptive stimulating motor activity and has decreased alertness of critical faculties, he moves to Altered States of Consciousness.

A productive KHALSA gains awareness that his outer life is a mere reflection of his inner conditions. The Khalsa may have to learn to turn off the day’s reliance so that the ever-present sources of KHALSACENTRIC energy within him becomes visible. Then the productive Khalsa comes to his senses by losing his linear ego mind. He becomes a Gurumukh who has reached the mystic-Sufi stage of FANAH. He becomes Khalsa roop in which Guru lives (NIWAS).

Chapter Fifty

Punjabi is as old as

Sanskrit and Prakrit (1)

By Om Parkash Kahol

Late Prof. Om Parkash Kahol was one of the very few Hindu scholars, who believed that the Hindus of Punjab who had, all of a sudden, started disowning their mother tongue, were committing an ‘unpardonable sin’ against the motherland. For him, the Punjabi language was the ‘most precious gem in the treasure called the Hindu heritage’. Himself a staunch Hindu, Kahol believed that Punjabi was more akin to Sanskrit than any other language of India. (Professor Kahol was Dr. S.S. Sodhi’s professor of physics in S.D. College, Ambala Cantt (1948-1950.)

The Philological survey of Punjabi written by late Prof. Kahol in the fifties, is reproduced here for the benefit of our readers. The vicus expressed by the late Prof. Kahol will falsify many misconceptions, deliberately created by the vested interests.


The structural peculiarities of a language cannot be surveyed in a short note. Comparative philology is a science almost as exact as mathematics and its laws are very similar to those of statistics. In the limited space available to us, we can only touch the outer-most fringes of this vast subject, so as to arouse popular interest in it.

Punjabi is not a dialect

There has been a good deal of discussion, of late, whether Punjabi is a full-fledged language or a mere dialect.

The question has been discussed more often by political propagandists than by scholars and the objectivity of the problem has been completely masked by the heaps of vile propaganda, indulged in by the supporters as well as opponents of Punjabi.

Philological importance of Punjabi

Punjabi is a language and not a dialect of any other language. It leads an independent life, like other well-known languages - Hindi, Bengali, English or German. The study of this language is important, not only because it is one of the most widely spoken languages of India, but also because Punjabi has preserved some of the rarest phonological and structural peculiarities of the ancient Aryan speech, from which have sprung up the majority of Indian and European languages of today. No student of Aryan philology can, therefore, afford to ignore Punjabi.

Teutonic and Romance Languages

The evolution of Punjabi from the original Aryan speech, of which Sanskrit is the best representative extant, has followed exactly the same rules of transformation, as governed the evolution of modern Teutonic and Roman languages from the parent speech. The main Teutonic languages are German, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and English and owe their birth to a common source. The family of Romance languages includes French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian. They are more or less direct descendants of Latin. Both old Teutonic and Latin, along with Slavonic, Armenian and Sanskrit, are believed to have originated from a common parent speech, called by German scholars, the Ursprache.

Process of Evolution

The transformation of the parent language into its derivatives follows certain general physical trends, or speech habits, of the speakers, and as a rule, similar geographical or ethnological factors produce similar changes in the language. Our business today is to show that transformation of Sanskrit into Punjabi has followed the same lines, more or less, as the transformation of Latin into its modern off-shoots, principally Italian. The change from the classical to the modern language has taken place in accordance with certain rules, which have, of course, a number of exceptions. Let us now examine some of these rules.

Some Philological Rules exemplified

Rule 1. The conjunct ‘ct’ or ‘kt’ in the classical language changes into ‘it’ in the modern language.



Latin Italian Meaning

Victoria Vittoria Victoria

Octo Otto Eight

Noctis Nitte Night

October Ottobre October

Lactis Latte Milk


Sanskrit Punjabi Meaning

Bhukta Bhatta Allowance (Rice)

Saktu Sattu Barley flour

Rakta Ratta Blood (Red)

Tikta Titta (or Teet) Bitter (Sour)

Rule 11. The conjunct ‘pt’ in the classical language changes into ‘tt’ in the modern language. This rule, as well as the one exemplified above, can be combined into one generalization, viz. simplification of the conjuncts and reduplication of the succeeding consonants.



Latin Italian Meaning

Optimus Ottimo Best (Sanskrit: ttama)

Septem Setto Seven

Scriptum Scritto Written

September Settembre September

Sceptre Scettro Sceptre


Sanskrit Punjabi Meaning

Sapta Satt-a Seven

Supta Sutta Asleep

Tapta Tatta Hot

Dugdha Duddha Milk

Gupta (concealed), Lupta (vanished) and Tripta (satisfied) are important exceptions. These words have come from Sanskrit, without undergoing any modification.

Rule 111. The conjunct ‘x’ or ‘ksh’ in the classical language into ‘cc’ (pronounced as ‘ch’ in ‘church’), ‘ss’ or ‘chh’ in the modern language.



Latin Italian Meaning

Excellentia Eccellenza Excellence (-y)

Exception (em) Eccezione Exception

Proximo Prossimo Proximo (next)

Exactement (French) Esettaemte Exactly

Punjabi is a language and not a dialect of any other language. It leads an independent life, life other well-known languages - Hindi, Bengali, English or German. The study of this language is important, not only because it is one of the most widely spoken languages of India, but also because Punjabi has preserved some of the rarest philological and structural peculiarities of the ancient Aryan speech, from which have sprung up the majority of Indian and European languages of today. No student of Aryan philology can, therefore, afford to ignore Punjabi.


Sanskrit Punjabi Meaning

Lakshmi (Laxmi) Lacchhmi Goddess of wealth

Kaksha Kacchhi-a Armpit

Pakshi (Paxi) Panchhi Bird

Riksha Ricchh-a Bear

Vritsha Bircchh-a Tree

Lakshana Lacchhan-a Symptoms

Rule 1V. The hard consonants in the classical language tend to soften in the modern language. This is a modification of the well-known Grimm’s law in Indo-European philology. For purposes of this law, hard consonants mean the first and second rows of the Nagri consonants and soft mean the third and fourth rows.


Latin Italian Meaning

Catta Gatto (Spanish: Gato Cat

Aqua Agua (Spanish) Water

Aequalis Eguale Equal

Sabatum Sabado (Spanish) Sabbath

Aprilis Abril (Spanish) April


Sanskrit Punjabi Meaning

Loka Log-a People

Shoka Sog-a Grief

Pancha Panja Five

Kanta Kanda Thorn

Danta Dand-a Tooth

Api Bi (or vi) Also

Rule V. The sound of ‘p’ in classical language tends to change into that of ‘v’ in modern language. The best example of it in European languages is the change of Latin ‘Aprilis’ into French ‘Avril’ (English ‘April’). Among Indian languages, the examples of this transformation are numerous.


Sanskrit Punjabi Meaning

Dipa Diva Lamp

Dipawali Divavali A festival (-Diwali)

Kotapala Kotval A police officer

Gopala Govala Cowherd

Kacchhapa Kachhuva Tortoise

Mandapa Manduva Stage

Api Vi Also

Rule V1. The sound of ‘sh’ in the classical language is very often changed into ‘kh’ in the modern language.

The rule immediately reminds one of the two ways of pronouncing ‘ch’ in different parts of Germany, the first pronunciation approximating to that of ‘sh’ and the second, to that of ‘kh’. The following examples from German will make the point clearer.

German Pronunciation Meaning

Ich ish or ikh Nichi

Misht or Nikht Not MichMish or Mikh Me

Richt Risht or Rikht Right

The following examples of interchangeability of ‘sh’ and ‘kh’ sounds in the Iranian group are striking.

First Form Second Meaning

Pushta Pukhta Strong

Pushto Pukhto A language

Pashtoon Pakhtoon A pathan

The examples of change of ‘sh’ into ‘kh’ in the study of Punjabi are almost numberless.

Sanskrit Punjabi Meaning

Lak-sha Lak-kh-a Lac

Pak-sha Pak-kh-a Side (or Fan)

Tik-sha (na) Tik-kha Sharp

Mrak-shana Mal-khan-a Butter

Ak-shi Ak-khi Eye

Drak-sha Dakh-a Grapes

Parik-sha Parikhya Examination

Bhik-sha Bhik-kh-a Alms

Some isolated Words of Interest

The following words furnish an extremely interesting study as they bring out certain rare features of similarity between Indian and European languages.

Today Sanskrit: Adya.

Punjabi: Ajj-a

Latin: Hodie

Italian: Oggi

Youth Sanskrit: Yovan

Punjabi: Javan

Latin: Juvenis

Italian: Giovane

Widow Sanskrit: Vidhava

Punjabi: Vidhava

Latin: Viduus

Italian: Vedova

Eye Sanskrit: Akshi

Punjabi: Akkhi

Latin: Oculus

Italian: Occhio

An Important rule reversed

A very important rule of transformation from Sanskrit to Punjabi is the complete suppression of ‘r’ in a conjunct and reduplication of the second component of the conjunct.

For example

Sanskrit Punjabi Meaning

Karna Kann-a Ear

Nakra Nakka-a Nose

Chakra Chakka Wheel

Parna Panna Leaf

Karma Kamm-a Work (action)

Charma Chamm-a Leather

Karpura Kapur-a Camphor

But in the following cases, ‘r’ has been imported into Punjabi, when it was absent in the original Sanskrit; in these cases, it simply fills the gap before an accented syllable.


Sanskrit Punjabi Meaning

Sam-bandha Sar-bandh-a Relation

Vi-lapa Vir-lap-a Wailing

Tik-shana Tir-khan-a Carpenter

Shapa Shrap-a Curse

The evolution of Punjabi verbs and case-endings forms a very interesting study, and our survey of it will be incomplete without comparing it with its Indian relatives, principally Hindi and Sanskrit.

Chapter Fifty-One

Sikhs Today and Academic Challenges of the 21st Century

(A Community Perspective)


Dr. Jasbir Singh Mann, M.D., F.A.A.D.S., F.I.C.S.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib Foundation

Anaheim, California

(714) 895-1774

For any nation to survive, it must protect its scripture and identity. Sikhs moved to the west a century ago and their religion by now has been established as one of the world’s major religions. In order to continue presenting the authenticity of Sikh religion, Sikh scholars must deal with the Academic Challenges of the 21st century. If they are not dealt with: 1) It will produce a tremendous socio-psychological change in the understanding of the Sikh religion by future generations, especially those born outside of India; 2) The Western world will have a lop-sided view of Sikhism; 3) It will erode the doctrinal base of Sikhism as enshrined in Aad Sri Guru Granth Sahib; 4) It will downplay with the economical and political problems with Sikhs in Punjab; 5) and will reflect a failure of Sikh custodians and academicians to fulfil their moral duties.

Sikh Identity

Essential doctrine of religion determines its identity. Sikh identity can be found only in its primary source, Aad Sri Guru Granth Sahib and the history of the Guru period (1469-1708). No identity of the Sikh religion can be based on secondary sources. Political ups and downs entered Sikh history after 1708 when attempts were made to diffuse the Sikh identity. But, as Aad Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the base of Sikhism, so during such confusion, revivalists restored the true identity. Phenomenal studies cannot determine the identity of the Sikh religion as it is Numinous-based. Until now, many politically oriented/intentional writers are still attacking the independent Sikh identity. It is a challenge for the Sikh scholars of the next century to continue propagating the Sikh religious identity in reference to spiritual experience of the prophets, their concept of one God, and their goal to achieve socio-political justice.

Evidence of Recorded Revelation

The Sikh religion is the only major religion of the world that has its recorded revelation available in the form of Kartarpuri Bir. In Judaism, their recorded revelation in the form of the Arc of the Covenant, is missing. In Christianity, there is no recorded revelation and all the Bibles, in the form of old and new testaments are history and culture-based. In Islam, the original recorded revelation on leaves per history, is not available. Both the Bible and Quran has been written after the death of their prophets. Many missionaries are very much jealous of this Sikh treasury and are making attempts to confuse it. Sikh scholars in the 21st century must continue their efforts to end any future controversies about Kartarpuri Bir.

Punjab Problem

There is enough evidence available that congress leaders, prior to 1947, made many promises to the Sikhs that after the British leave India, they would have a glow of freedom in North India. After 1947, all such commitments were violated. There is enough academic evidence available that the Punjab problem is an economic and political problem, which is being suppressed. Rather, the Punjab problem is being dubbed as a problem of fundamentalism. Such scholars usually quote, "Fundamentalism among the Sikhs today is apparently the basic cause of current political unrest in India...It is primarily a movement of resistance and a universe characterized by incoherence and disorder". There is no evidence to support this contention and the hard political and economic problems of the Punjab are not being presented in the proper perspective. This Academic Challenge for the Sikh scholars will continue into the next century. Sikh scholars must accept this challenge and highlight their economical and political problems in Punjab to the global community.

Textual Analysis

In recent years, attempts are being made to study Sikh scripture through Judo-Christian approaches, which is inapplicable to Sikh studies. Such attempts are being made to diffuse the originality of the revelatory nature of the Sikh scripture. By definition, textual analysis means “to find the original”. Sikhs have the original scripture, so textual analysis need not apply to Sikh Studies. System of textual, for, or redaction analysis is also inapplicable to Sikh scripture as Guru Arjun compiled an authenticated Sikh scripture in order to avoid any confusion. He established the famous doctrine of Kashi vs. Palki or Sachi Bani; thereby, completely making any manuscript of unacademic importance, whether it is written before and after 1604 to be used for any comparative study. It is a very serious challenge for the 21st century Sikh scholars to continue to promote the Sikh doctrine of Kachi vs. Sachi Bani. Sikhism:

A Religion of Numina (Naam) and not Phenomena

Ethereal experience is inherent in Fries's Ahndung (longing), Schleiermachar's Feeling, Kant's Things in Themselves (noumena) and Kapur Singh’s Antithesis of Phenomena. It stands for the holy minus its moral factor and without any rational aspect. It is irreducible to any other factor. Numinous consciousness involves shaking fear or repulsion and an element of powerful fascination. It can only be understood by “ideograms” i.e., not through logic, but only symbolically. The core of religious experience is inherent in the awareness of non-moral holiness as a category of value. This category of value is called numina. Numina means a spiritual experience of reality peculiar to religion. The numinous experience is the core and base of Sikh religion and its ingredients i.e., religiously sensitive mind in relation to his/her apprehension of himself/herself and the universe around him/her. The ultimate reality is not comprehensible through the sensory motor perceptions and speculations. Sikhism is a religion of Naam (neumin), which is asserted through 30,000 hymns of Sikh scripture through revealed statements, literary similes and allusions. Naam is God and God is Naam, and the practice of religion revolves around the Naam. Sikh religious thought cannot be interpreted through any phenomenal process. Naam is timeless. Recently, an attempt has been made to dub Guru Granth Sahib as a 16th century philosophy and it should be changed to fit the present post-technical and capitalistic society of the 20th century. One must understand that AGGS is Shabad Guru and a direct revelation which cannot be changed. The man of technical and capitalistic era of the 20th century has the same wicked or worse mind that 16th century human beings. Only the numinous nature of Sikh philosophy can change this man and not the egoistic man of phenomenal society or vice versa. Such challenges on Sikh philosophy will be continued in the 21st century and Sikh scholars must answer them appropriately.

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