The Source Book On Sikhism



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Chapter Twenty-Eight

The Status of Women In Sikhism

Principal Amar Singh

Khalsa School, Vancouver, Canada

To appraise the status of a society the honour bestowed on the women is the most reliable criterion. All glorious hopes, aspirations, endeavours, yearnings and cravings of the man are bees humming around this flower, the woman. She is a gorgeous fountain of inspiration and exaltation to the man. The woman is so noble, divine and full of love that she drew the whole soled devotion of the humane men for centuries, but still remained a mystery. The women’s forehead we have for centuries focused on as our sky aglow with calm sparkle of the moon. Poets have written glorious poems to fathom the love and divine in her, but she still remains an unfolded riddle.

The woman’s face veiled with dark tresses has forever remained concealed and its expression epic only a part of her feelings. The appeal of her eyes and the divinely music of her alluring voice reveal only partly to man. Her divine act of faith, love and noble self-sacrifice form the base of a beauteous life that give birth to literature and art that become the vibrant lyrics of poets. Woman have always been the source of inspiration for all the heroic efforts of man to make himself man.

The best longings of immortality of man are also an outcome of this source. The best poetry has sprung out of this infinite fountain that embellished the pages of poetry books of which the world is so proud. “’O” modern woman realize that the secret of your charms is within your veils. Let the mystery of your clothes remain a mighty source of your bewitching enamour. The veil over your face which Guru Amar Das Ji told you to remove was a symbol of slavery. He emancipated you from thraldom and gave the freedom to gaze at the world and estimate its worth. Reckon for yourself the worthiness of this world and demerit those aspects of life that are degrading and impair the beauty of life. Do not forget the Guru who emancipated you to reckon the world. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spoke for you when none had uttered a word to reckon you a worthy human being. None had deemed pertinent to esteem your infinite worthiness to this world. None had reckoned how well you could smoothen the rough edges of life to make it beauteous and flowery. Your existence saturated life with sweet fragrance and the male dominated world enjoyed this fragrance, but refused to reckon your worthiness.” Guru Nanak Ji revealed this injustice imposed on you by speaking against it. He says on page 473 of the Guru Granth Sahib, “Within a woman the man is conceived and from woman he is born with a woman he is betrothed and married. With a woman man contracts friendship and with a woman the system of lineage keeps on going. When one’s wife dies, another lady is sought for. It is through a woman that man restrains his passions. Why call her bad, from whom are born the kings?”

Guru Amar Das Ji denounced the cruel practice of “Sati”. On the death of their husbands women were compelled by this custom to immolate themselves on the burning pyres of their husbands, rather “Sati” is she who suffers from the pangs of separation. Guru Amar Das Ji further declares, “Those women are “Sati” who live in modesty and contentment and have good conduct and remember the name of God everyday”.

Guru Amar Das Ji included women among the 52 local preachers who worked shoulder to shoulder with men in missionary work assigned to them. There is no religious function in Sikhism in which woman cannot participate on terms equal to that of men. It is Sikhism that elevated the status of women on par to that of men and life became equipoised and mysteriously fascinating.



Chapter Twenty-Nine

Women and other Relations

in Guru Granth Sahib

Pritpal Singh Bindra

It is quite evident that the women in the early medieval and Vedic periods were very well respected and accepted honourably in almost all walks of the life. In spite of the traces of the incantations for demeaning the influence of the co-wives and numerous wives of Indra, the Rig-Veda specifies wives to be the source of respectability in the society. It considers her to be a harbinger of good luck to the household. Her presence during the religious ceremonies, Havana etc., was considered to be a good omen.

The advent of Simirities, on one hand, no doubt, endowed respect to the female sex, but on the other they snatched away their independent status and autonomous existence; a woman, whether a child or a grown up, was deprived of her sovereignty. Manu Simiriti specifies that during childhood, a female is supposed to be under the protection of her father, after her marriage she is to abide by the wishes of her husband and when old, she was supposed to be subservient to her male progeny. She is termed as a drunkard, chronic sick, swindler of her husband, harsh in her eloquence, jealous of her husband and worth abandoning. In the Upanishads, she is termed as despicable and illusionary. They considered her just a machine constituted of flesh and bones.

Asceticism was dominating the society just before the advent of Guru Nanak. The Jogi ascetics adjudged the female as the root cause of all the ills faced by humanity.

The Holy Quran of Islam considers women just the tilth, the land under possession of men folks. Virtuous women are those who are obedient, and guard the secrets of their husbands with Allah’s protection. And as for those, on whose part you fear disobedience, admonish them and leave them alone in their beds and chastise them. Then, if they obey you, seek not a way against them.

For the first time since the pre-medieval times, through the Bani of Guru Granth Sahib, the voice was raised against the duplicity and belittling attitude towards woman. Guru Nanak could not digest the discriminatory behaviour of the people at large towards the female flock. It is Guru Granth Sahib, which established the female society as an integral and honoured segment of humanity. Why discard them when:

Within a woman the man is conceived and from woman he is born.

With a woman he is betrothed and married.

With a woman, man contracts friendship and with a woman the system of propagation keeps on.

When one’s wife dies, another lady is sought for.

It is through a woman that man restrains his passion.

Why call her bad, from whom are born the kings, etc., etc. (Asa M.1 Page 473)

Primarily, Sikhism is the religion of living life. It is, by meeting a pious person, one comes to know the perfect way: while laughing, playing and eating he gets emancipation. It embraces the prominence of the family values. Supreme Lord is ‘Thou art my father, Thou art my mother, Thou art my kinsman and thou art my brother’ and thus in all the places family protection is sought, and the fear and anxiety are not felt. In this great constitution of humanity and mankind, spirituality is gained through living among human beings instead of running away from them and seeking the True Name. True Name is among the True people and that is why Gurbani endows full honour to all the family relations. Father, mother, brothers, sisters, brothers, sons-in-law, daughters-in-law are endowed equal prominence. No relation is demeaned in any respect:

“Thou art my father, Thou art my mother,

Thou art my kinsman and Thou art my brother.” (Majh M.5 P.103)

And “The Lord of the world is my Beloved.

He is sweeter than the mother and father,

Among sisters, brothers and all the friends,

There is none like Thee, O Lord.” (Sri Rang M.5 P.73)

The love and affection for all the relations has been accepted in Gurbani, but the love of a devotee for Akalpurkh is considered to be the supreme:

“Neither remain stable, the sister, nor sister-in-law, nor the mother-in-law.

But O maids, the true relationship with the Lord, established by the Guru, splinters not.

I am a sacrifice unto my Guru and ever a sacrifice am I unto Him.

I have grown weary of wandering so far without the Guru.

Now the Guru has united me in the union of my spouse.

Fathers, sisters, mothers, the wife of husband’s younger brother and the wife of husband’s elder brother,

They come and go. They stay not but depart like the boatload of passengers.

The mother’s brother, his wife, brother, the father and mother remain not.

The crowds of those guests are loaded and there is a great rush at the river.

O my maids, my Husband is dyed with the true colour.

She, who lovingly remembers the True Lord, her Husband suffers not separation from Him.” (Maru M.1 P.1015)

Whereas mother and father have been acclaimed as wisdom and contentment respectively, modesty and understanding are associated with both the in-laws. The truthfulness comes through the brother and the wife is the epitome of good deeds:

“I make wisdom as my mother, contentment as my father, and truthfulness as my brother.....

Modesty and understanding have become two parents-in-law.

Good deeds, I have made and accepted, as my wife.” (Gauri Guareri M. 1 P.151-152)

Garhist, the householdership, gives rise to in progeny and endows prominence to family life. Leading through all the rituals and rites it leads to preserve the heritage from generation to generation. There, in a number of places in Guru Granth Sahib householder is accepted with much more respect than the asceticism, provided, “they hold fast the Name, charity and ablution, and remain awake in God’s meditation.” (Asa M. 1 P. 419)

Similarly “in family life, they (Householder) remain unattached (with worldly vice). When hearty love is established with God, then whatever the man does, that is pleasing to my Lord God.” (Gauri M. 4 P. 494)

“Those who remain wakeful obtain God, through the word of the Shabad, they conquer their ego. Immersed in family life, the Lord’s humble servant ever remains detached; he reflects upon the essence of spiritual wisdom.” (Sorath M. 1 P. 601)

These were just a few instances. There are more than two dozen stanzas in Guru Granth Sahib which directly deal with the criteria of householdership. I have tried my best to collect in my book, “Thus Sayeth Gurbani”, which, with Akalpurkh’s benevolence will be released here in a month's time.

The householdership does involve a great number of acts, rituals, and rites. To make Shabad, the word, of Guru Granth Sahib a part and parcel of human life, most of such performances have been mentioned in there. Most people reading Bani feel content with the physical meaning of those words, but in the quintessence the Bani is the embodiment of the relationship of human being with the Almighty.

Marriage in Guru Granth Sahib is the Union of Soul-bride with God-groom. And on the topic of Marriage alone I have picked up more than a dozen and a half quotations.

“The glory of her, whom her Spouse has embraced and blended with Himself, cannot be described. Eternal is her married life and unapproachable and unknowable is her Groom. O Nanak, Lord's love is her mainstay.” (Majh M. 5 P. 97)

These were just a few examples. To bring spirituality and temporal living, every facet of life is represented in Gurbani. Today, keeping myself in the limits of time, I have just considered the female aspect. There are about twenty-nine quotations throwing light on the aspects of Marriage and Married Life. In sixteen, the characteristics of a suhagan, the married woman, are depicted. In addition, there is no dearth of holy hymns throwing light on Happy Women, Wicked Wife, Another’s Wife (Par Istry), An Adulteress, Bride, etc.

It won’t be inappropriate if I say that Guru Granth Sahib is the greatest manual for social enlightenment. It enlightens the humanity with vices, which cause human degradations.

Thank you.

Chapter Thirty

Humanizing and Uplifting: Guru Granth Sahib -

Living Guru of the Sikhs

Dr. S.S. Sodhi

A humanizing happy life has become elusive for the modernized person. Feelings of self worth, faith in the Omnipotent and Omniscient; unborn Creator; Saviour; kind, just Benefactor can be achieved by internalising the Guru’s word and hoping for His Grace. Through His hukm, His love and glory, the purpose of life becomes crystal clear and as a by-product, we start getting career satisfaction, developing insights and start using tools of practical wisdom. The Guru’s grace produces in human beings intensive elation, high level of well-being and higher and altered states of consciousness, awakened intelligence and re-appreciating of life through amazement. Internalizing the Guru’s work makes a person return to humanity and humility. The Guru allows us to be free, to be ourselves, and to have worldly satisfaction, peace of mind and joy (anand).

The Guru expects us to challenge the status quo, take risks, follow the JAGO principle by replacing:

a. Jealousy J

b. Anger A

c. Greed with G

d. Other-orientedness O

The bani of Guru Granth Sahib urges us to inculcate positive thoughts, positive expectations and to reach positive results. For the Guru’s Sikh, the cup is always half full, not half empty. The Guru’s followers are the givers, and believe in the saying, “Those who bring sunshine into the lives of others cannot keep it from themselves”.

The Guru’s Sikh is intrinsically motivated. His compulsions take the form of altruism. He has no difficulty in connecting with the needy, oppressed and less fortunate by prioritising his time over the self.

The Guru’s Sikh is never consumed by anger or resentment. The Guru tells us never to wallow in self-pity and depression. Charhdi kala is the way. The Guru expects us to lead the life of a householder and give unconditional love to all. The Guru expects us to make responsible commitments and challenge our abilities in his sewa.

Excessive self-preservation and self-enhancement according to the Guru’s bani produce myopic neurosis and a very selfish view of life.

The Guru expects his Sikhs to “decentre”, so as to develop increased awareness, empathy and divergent perception in interpersonal relations. The bani teaches us to be flexible and to “reframe” our life, according to His hukm.

The Guru does not want us to give up the world because of its randomness. By using adaptive strategic, the Guru expects us to find out how the world works and how to change it while living in harmony with it.

The Guru’s Khalsa fight oppression wherever they see it; if you do not - you become a participant yourself, which is totally against the teachings of Sikhism. If life is a game, the Guru’s Sikhs will be players. If life is a parade, the Guru urges us to march and not be silent spectators. The Guru’s Sikhs bring devotion and dedication to life. He toils with the conviction that every dehumanising condition does pass if challenged, and one’s deepest despairs vanish over time. Joyous struggle using inner resources makes Sikhs look at events as possibilities.

A Guru’s Sikh firmly believes that the present life is not a dress rehearsal; this is it! The Guru urges us to live nicely once, then, once is enough!

Dhur ki Bani urges Sikhs to be optimistic; stay energized, almost feeling immortal for the Guru’s work; develop inner peace, calmness, steadiness, adaptivity; and stay connected to Him with spiritual faith. It is a known fact that strength derived out of faith gives Super-energy - a “quantum leap” comes from repetition of Naam and singing His bani in the company of the sangat.

A Sikh always lights a candle rather than cursing darkness. A Sikh does not worry about us-them-me-it, but cognitively connects with people at a universal level.

A Sikh believes that the body is the temple where the soul lives. Punishing it does not produce nirvanic forces. Nirvanic forces are produced by controlling ego, pride, vanity, greed, jealousy, wealth, ill-will, cruelty, hypocrisy, backbiting, dishonesty, and selfishness.

II

In Part II is given the actual quotations from Guru Granth Sahib from which Part I has been developed.



GRACE

- The world is like an ocean that can be crossed with the grace of the Guru.

-Guru Nanak Dev, Shalokas.

- Whoever wins His Grace merges in Naam.

- Guru Amar Das, Sri Rag.

- By the Guru’s grace, one mind is attuned to Naam,

And one is awakened from the number of ages.

-Guru Arjun Dev, Gauri Rag.

- O my mind, the person whom the Guru enlightens,

He remains a householder without being attached,

He leads a life of truth, of right actions and controlled desires.

- Guru Amar Das, Sri Rag.

- With mind intent upon one Lord who is within and without and by the Guru’s grace,

the fire of desires shall be extinguished.

-Guru Nanak Dev, Ramkali Rag.

- They on whom the Master casts His glances of Grace,

Toil with patience at their craft as smiths,

Chastity of though, speech and deed is their furnace,

Understanding is the anvil on which they shape it out;

Divine word serves as hammer for those toilers at life.

With the fire of sufferings and bellows of God’s fear,

They make the heart of love,

The vessel in which melts the gold of Naam,

True is this mint where man casts and recasts his being,

In the image of God.

- Guru Nanak Dev, Japji.

- Blessed is the heart that touched by Grace vibrates with Naam.

- Guru Amar Das, Ramkali Rag.

- Action may earn you a birth, but emancipation is obtained by His Grace.

- Guru Nanak Dev, Japji.

THE GURU

- If a hundred moons were to come out, and a thousand suns to rise;

In spite of all this illumination, all would be pitch-dark without the Guru.

- Guru Angad Dev, Asa Rag.

- As the Guru has become my mediator, my ignorance, superstition

and pain have all vanished.

- Guru Arjun Dev, Prabhati Rag.

- Everybody else is subject to error, only the Guru and God are flawless.

- Guru Nanak Dev, Sri Rag.

- Nanak, the Guru has destroyed all my superstitions and shortcomings and I have become one with Him.

- Guru Arjun Dev, Asa Rag.

- My hunger has appeased, my desires are fulfilled, all fears and worries are forgotten, for, on my forehead is the

hand of the perfect Guru.

-Guru Arjun Dev, Gauri Rag.

- The Guru and God are one. He is the divine Master, pervadeth all and is everywhere.

-Guru Arjun Dev, Sri Rag.

- Come ye, all disciples, O dear ones of the Guru; sing the true word and sing

the word of the Guru which is the foremost of all the words.

-Guru Amar Das, Ramkali Rag.

- Nanak has obtained Naam of the destroyer of the fear, and through the

work of the Guru has obtained happiness and bliss.

-Guru Arjun Dev, Maru Rag.

- O Lalo, as comes the Divine Word to me so do I utter.

-Guru Nanak Dev.

- The word is the Guru and the Guru is

the word the Guru’s word is full of life-giving bliss.

Whosoever shall obey, what the word

commands, he shall get salvation.

-Guru Ram Das, Natnarayan Rag.

- Nanak, they attach themselves to the enlightener who produces

transcendental music in their souls.

- Dye they mind in the guru’s word and

they tongue in the love of God.

-Guru Arjun Dev, Sri Rag.

EGO

- When a man abideth in ego, he wanders about like a madman – a stranger to himself.



-Guru Arjun Dev, Gauri Rag.

- Man’s ego, self assertions are like a veil that obstructs the vision.

-Guru Arjun Dev, Solak Rag.

- Where ego is, Thou art not.

Where Thou art within me then I am not.

-Guru Nanak Dev, Maru Rag.

- The bride and bridegroom live

together with a partition of ego between them.

-Guru Ram Das, Malhar Rag.

- Whoever think high of themselves and low of others, I saw them going to hell

because of their thoughts, words and deeds.

-Kabir, Maru Rag.

- By remembering Him,

Kashatrya, Brahmana, Sudra and

Vaishiya, all can get salvation.

Chapter Thirty-One

Bhagat Ravidas Ji

Pritpal Singh Bindra

By the turn of the fourteenth century, the Muslim rule had been comfortably established in India. When Bhagat Ramanand (1366 - 1467 A.D.) came to Northern India and made Kashi/Benares as his home, he noted that the Muslim religion had penetrated; a considerable number of Hindus had been converted, and they had adopted Islam as their religion. Ramanand was an orthodox devotee of Shiva. He was, no doubt, impressed with the Islamic theory of Oneness of God and Feeling of Equality in social set up; except Ruling Feudal Elite, the Muslims of all classes mingled indistinctively in every aspect of life - living, eating, religious ceremonies, marriages, etc. But he was very much distressed to observe that these criteria were enhancing the conversion of Hindus, particularly of low-caste, into Islam. He forsook the Shivaite austere practices endowed to him by his Guru, Ramanuj, and initiated the veneration of the Universal Brotherhood. He accepted Hindus of low-caste and Muslims to join him in worship, and become his followers. Among his most noted disciples were Kabir - a Muslim weaver, Sain - a barber, Dhanna - a cultivator, and Ravidas, a cobbler.

There is consensus that Bhagat Ravidas was born on Maghushudhi 14 Pooranmashi in Smt. 1456, i.e. February 1399 in Kashi. His parents were in the leather trade, and were very well off. He was barely five days old when Bhagat Ramanand visited his house and blessed the child. When he reached the age of discretion, his father inspired him to join the family business. But Ravidas was imbued with celestial and humane values. The money he received from his father for business, he spent in the welfare of the Saints and needy. His father was extremely perturbed and banished him from the house. By this time, Ravidas was already married. He did not resent, quietly left the house, started living in a make-shift hut with his wife, and set up a small wayside shop of mending shoes.

He did not abandon his love for the God and built a Temple of clay walls and thatched roof. He installed an idol made out of hide in the Temple. His extreme devotion and universal love induced hundreds of people of all castes to join him in worship. This resulted in enviousness among the Brahmin priests who raised the matter in the Court of Muslim Nawab of Kashi. The Nawab was a man of righteousness, and put the matter to a miraculous test. Bhagat Ravidas went into meditation and recited one of his hymns (Gauri Purbi P.346) and requested the Almighty “Take pity on me that my doubts may be dispelled.” His prayer was answered, and his adoration acclaimed the triumph in the miraculous test. To express his gratitude he sang his hymn (Asa P. 1606), “Thou art sandal and I am the poor castor-plant, dwelling close to thee. From a mean tree I have become sublime and Thine fragrance, exquisite fragrance, now, abides in me.”

A rich man tried to allure him with the charm of wealth. He gave the Bhagat a philosopher’s stone by the touch of which one could change any article into gold. In spite of Bhagat’s refusal the rich man left the stone hung under the ceiling. When he came back after one year, the stone was still hanging there. The rich man announced to the world the indisputable godliness of Bhagat Ravidas. This episode is considered to be an ecclesiastic test to judge Bhagat Ravida’s endurance towards the worldly love. But some accounts associate this to the devious manipulation of the Brahmin priests to discredit Ravidas, which, rather, ended in the triumph of the Bhagat.

Ravidas’s selfless devotion and casteless love for humanity spread far and wide. Maharani Jhally of Chitaur was a noble woman of benevolence and piety. Her ardency brought her to Benares on a pilgrimage. In spite of the disapproval of the Brahmin priests, she straight-away went to the Temple of Bhagat Ravidas. Ravidas was in his ecclesiastic benediction at the time, and was reciting his hymns (Rag Sorath P.658-59). Maharani was captivated. Eventually she became his disciple and abandoned all her luxurious set up. Her husband, the Maharana, had been instigated against her adopting a cobble as her Guru. He was full of rage when she returned. He was pacified by listening to some of the hymns of Bhagat Ravidas but still wanted to put the Bhagat through a test to invalidate the allegations of the Brahmins. The Bhagat was invited to Chitaur and requested to participate in an oblation. The Brahmin priests refused to eat while a cobbler was seated in the same column of rows. Bhagat Ravidas voluntarily moved away. But, miraculously every person distributing food looked like Bhagat Ravidas to the Brahmins (Another account states when the Brahmins sat down to eat, they saw Ravidas seated between every two of them). They complained to Maharana. Maharana comprehended the hidden meaning of this marvel, and himself became an ardent devotee. Bhagat Ravidas remained in Chitaur for a long time. It is said that Mira Bai became his disciple as well during that period. As per some accounts he died at a ripe old age of nearly 120 years, in Benares.

There are 41 verses of Bhagat Ravidas in the Sikh holy book, Guru Granth Sahib. Most of them are in very clear Hindi. His poetry is brimming with ardent love for God, Universe, Nature, Guru, and the Name. His sarcasm and pique shows his closeness with God.

Bhagat Ravidas neither ever laments nor complains to God on his low-caste lineage:

O people of the city, everyone knows

I am, a cobbler by trade and tanner by caste

One of the low-caste, and yet within my heart

I meditate upon God.

The only grievance he expresses to God is his mistreatment by the high-caste priests:

I am haunted day and night by the thought of my low birth, society and deeds.

But all he want is:

O God! the Lord of the Universe!

O Life of me! Forget me not.

I am ever thy slave.

Through his simplicity, piety, and worship he seeks celestial amalgamation with God:

Thou art me, I am thou

What is the difference.

The same as between gold and its bracelet,

And between water and its ripple.

And his hymn, Beghumpura, in the Rag Gauri is the most visionary, romantic and eternal:

Griefnessí is the name of my town,

Where abide not either pain or care.

No anguish there of tax on goods,

Neither fear, nor error, nor dread, nor decline.

Oh! how wondrous is my fatherland,

Where there is always peace, and Calm, O Friend!

And there is not a second nor a third there, by my only Lord.

Populous as ever, its repute is eternal,

Yea, there abide only the Rich and Content,

And there men go about as and where they wish.

They know the Mansion of their Lord, so no one preventeth (them).

Ravidas, a mere tanner, hath been emancipated in this land,

and he who’s his fellow citizen is also his friend.

Reference:

Vars of Bhai Gurdas (Ph.)

Sri Guru Bhagat Mal (Ph.)

Encyclopaedia of Guru Granth Sahib by S. Mehtab Singh (Ph.)

Guru Granth Darpan by Dr. Sahib Singh

A History of the Sikhs by S. Khushwant Singh

The Sikh Religion by M.A. Macauliffe

Guru Granth Sahib English Tr. by S. Manmohan Singh

Guru Granth Sahib, A Cultural Survey by Dr. Manmohan Sehgal (Hindi)




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