The Source Book On Sikhism



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Chapter Seventeen

Mool Mantra”: An Exegetical Analysis



Dr. Dharam Singh

Panjabi University

Patiala, Punjab, India

The “Mool Mantra”, generally read as a preamble to Guru Nanak’s Japu (ji), is the creedal formula which delineates, in brief, the Sikh conception of ultimate reality. That this brief composition of Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh faith, occupies a central place in the Sikh metaphysical thought is evident from the fact that Guru Arjan, the fifth in succession in the line of ten spiritual preceptors in Sikhism, while compiling the Sikh scripture (Guru Granth Sahib), placed it at the head of the Holy volume. It has generally been accepted as the fount of the entire ontological superstructure of Sikhism.

Sikhism takes the existence of God to be obviously apparent, and that is why there has been no attempt whatsoever by the Gurus to prove His existence although there are numerous reference in the Guru Granth Sahib to various aspects of the Real One. In the Bein episode (‘Bein Pravesh’ in the Janam-sakhi literature) which launched Guru Nanak on his spiritual mission, the Guru's 'encounter' with Nirankar (the Formless Lord) is the central theme. The episode vividly presents Guru Nanak's vision of God as a formless, transcendent Being. It is also at this time that Guru Nanak received his revelation direct from God and it was to preach this revelation that he set out on his preaching odysseys.

The text of the ‘Mool Mantra’ does not read as a unified sentence, rather it comprises several words, each stressing one or the other aspect of God. Although each word addresses itself to bring out an aspect of the Divine Being yet it is not to be seen in complete isolation from the others. Taken together they sum up the essence of Sikh ontological and social thought.

In the following pages, we shall take up each individual word/term in the 'Mool Mantra' for a detailed analysis. although emphasis throughout has been on the ontological overview, the distinctness of certain features of Sikh ideology has also been referred to wherever needed.

IKOANKAR. The Mool Mantra begins with the term ikoankar which in itself is the combination of three words, i.e. ik, oan or om and kar. The word oan or om has been used for God in the ancient Indian religious literature as well. It has the same connotation in Sikh canon also. However, Guru Nanak prefixed ik to it: ik in fact is not a word but a numeral. The meaning or connotation of a word might change in a changed cultural or historical context, but the meaning of a numeral is ever fixed. Thus, the prefix has been added to stress the unitary character of Reality. The prefix is also unique for another reason: number or ratio thereof is considered the essence of all knowledge in Western thought whereas word is the essence in Indian thought. We find here a unique number-word combination in Sikhism. There has also been suffix kar which stands for its creative aspect. God of Guru Nanak’s conception was not sat cit anand of Sankara’s conception but a dynamic reality.

SATINAMU. The term ikoankar is followed by satinamu which again is a combination of two words - sati and namu. Sati (skt. satye, derived from the root asi which means; to beí) stands for pure Existence. The sloka or couplet following the Mul Mantra is an exegesis of the word sati as the latter has been of the numeral ik in the preceding term ikoankar. Rendered in free English, the sloka would read: the ultimate reality was true in the beginning: it was ever true and will always be true. In other words, we can say that the word sati has a metaphysical connotation, and it confirms the unity of reality. As pure Existence, it also stands for that essence of Reality which is eternal and which is manifest in the entire created phenomena.

The word sati has been preferred to the word namu which is indicative of the subtle, dynamic energy. Guru Nanak first utters ikoankar and then sati which means that the true Reality is the same which is connotated by ikoankar. After sati, the Guru utters namu: it means that as the Real One is true, similarly His name is also true. A little ahead in the Japu(ji), Guru Nanak clarifies the meaning as he says:

Lord is true: His name is true.

The name of matter, places, things, beings, etc. in this manifest material world recalled prinami because they are not eternal, intransient. They are called mithia or maya because of their ephemeral nature. On the contrary, the ultimate reality is beyond change and death: He is true. That is why His name is also true. Eulogizing God, remembering Him, reciting kirtan and offering ardas are the associates of Divine Name. They do no let the name remain only a medium for God-realization but transform it into a living love. Both the medium and the devotee become alive:

He becomes alive

In whose heart resides the True Lord.



KARTA-PURAKH. The creative aspect of God, referred to in the suffix kar to oan (ikoankar), has been stressed here. God is called the creator (karta) of the entire manifest phenomena, but He has also been called Purakh because as creator He is immanent in His creation. He is one (ik) as well as many (anek hain phiri ek bain). The multiplicity of creation does not affect His unity, rather it is the corollary of His dynamic nature. As one, He is unmanifest, transcendent and formless; and as many, He is manifest and immanent in His varied creation. It is also on this count that God in Sikh ontological thought is called both manifest and unmanifest, transcendent and immanent, pirgun and sagun, nirankar (formless) and sarabrup (all-forms). These attributive characteristics of the Real One also establish His essential unity with the created phenomena and also provide relative reality to the latter. The spiritual oneness of mankind with Karta-Purakh provides basis to the Sikh social thought of ethnic equality and social equity of mankind.

NIRBHAU. Another attributive name given by Guru Nanak to God is nirbhau (fearless). God being the sole creator of the manifest phenomena is naturally more powerful than His creation, singly or wholly. Elsewhere in the scripture, He has also been called omniscient under whose will goes on everything in the material world. Nothing ever happens outside His will. Everything emanates from Him, functions under His will and is finally reabsorbed in Him at His will. Therefore, He can have no fear of any of such manifestations. There is none who is His co-equal or co-eternal (nirsarik). His all-powerful nature vis-à-vis the created beings makes Him fearless.

NIRVAIR. God is not only fearless but also rancourless. He is not unfavourably disposed towards anybody. Since all are His children, none is alien to Him. He bears rancour or ill-will towards none of His creations as He Himself is manifested qua spirit in the created beings. He is protector of the weak and patron of the hapless. Such a conception of personal God who has fear or enmity towards none is quite different from the anthropomorphic or polytheistic tribal gods of earlier Indian tradition. There have been many myths portraying them as engrossed in mutual enmity and in fear of some other god(s) or trying to hold others in fear. Guru Nanak’s God is above these sectarian or tribal considerations. He belongs to the entire creation immanent in each being and feeling for all of them.

AKAL-MURAT. The word akal in the compound means eternal, everlasting and beyond time, and murati stands for being or embodiment. Another synonym used in the Guru Granth Sahib is Akal Murati. Apparently the term akal-murati might seem conceited as God is eternal no doubt, be He is formless as well; He is never embodied, and all embodiment implies mortality. However, in the Sikh conception of God the term has complete inner harmony. It conveys both the impersonal and personal, transcendent and immanent aspects of Him.

A word here on the word kal. Although the word kal literally means death, it is not here identical with the mythological god of death, Yama. Here it stands for time which remained dormant until He decided on self-manifestation. Until then it was latent in God and thereafter became explicit. Although He Himself remains beyond these manifest forms have been Divine emanations and their sense being Divine does not get obliterated. It simply changes form, otherwise transcending the limitations of time. Thus akal which used as an attributive of personal God indicates His transcendent nature. In His unmanifest, impersonal aspect, He transcends kal, but His manifestations are immanent in kal.



AJUNI-SAIBHANG. These two terms used as attributes for God are somewhat allied, affirming the non-dual and eternal nature of God. He is ajuni (unborn or unincarnate). He is never born in human or any other form. He is free from the cycle of transmigration. This outrightly rejects the doctrine of Divine incarnation. All incarnations, gods and goddesses as mentioned in Hindu myths and legends are declared to be emanations from God and thus, subservient to Him. None of these can be equated or identified with Him. Another aspect of this postulate is saibhan (self-created or self-effulgent). God created the entire manifest world, but He Himself is not created by any outside agency or power. He is self-existent and self-effulgent. He existed when in the beginning there was complete chaos and darkness and nothing existed, not even the gods, sun, earth, sea or water. Everything else has His joti (spirit) manifested in it but no other, outside spirit manifests in Him. He depends on no outside source for His existence. Just as every other being has a mother and a father, He has no parents, no brother or sister (pirsak). He is saibhang. This, again, rejects the Hindu belief in Divine manifestation.

GURPRASAD. This is the last word in the Mul Mantra, and is less an attributive name of God and more a means of realizing Him. The word prasad means grace, but the Sikh concept of grace is obviously different from the Christian concept of grace. In the latter sense, the Divine grace is bestowed upon a human as a divine prerogative whereas in the Sikh, a metaphysical person has to earn it through good and righteous deeds. The word gur (guru) here does not stand for any personal guru, but for the Adi Guru or the primal Lord. It can also be given the name of Sabds-brahmen or “the Divine Word”.

The above discussion on the ‘Mool Mantra’ leads to the conclusion that God of the Sikh conception is non-dual and dynamic in nature. He is one, with no rival or relation to equal Him. He is dynamic and creates everything and every being. He creates from out of His own being, and not from any extraneous material. However, He creates of His own will, and not under any duress. He is fearless and rancourless. Although He is creator of all, yet He Himself is self-existent and unincarnated. All the manifest forms which are in essence one with Him are evanescent but He Himself transcends kal. Thus, we find God transcendent and unmanifest (nirguna, nirankar) as well as immanent and manifest (sagun). However, there is absolutely no difference between these two aspects of God. All the attributes assigned to God in His manifest form are latent in Him in His unmanifest form. The same impersonal, unmanifest God can be perceived by man with a higher degree of consciousness in all the manifest forms of the material world.

“Words do not the saint or sinner make,

Action alone is written in the book of fate.” (Japji 20)

“The man of Present-salvation is one

Who loves God’s will with his heart and soul

He meets joy and sorrow with an equal mind.

He is every happy; no pain of separation for him!

To him the coveted gold is no more than dust,

And the promised nectar is no sweeter than the bitter cup of poison.

He is indifferent to honour and dishonour.

And makes no distinction between a prince and a pauper.

For him whatever comes from God is most reasonable;

Such a man may be said to have attained importantly while yet a mortal.” (Sukhmani 1X.7)

I come to take refuge with the Lord;

May the Divine Guru out of his Mercy

grant that passions of lust, anger, greed,

pride and undue attachment in me may

vanish and leave me in peace.” (Sukhmani V1 Prologue)

Chapter Eighteen

Guru Har Rai -

The Apostle of Mercy

Pritpal Singh Bindra

During his lifetime Guru Hargobind, the Sixth Supreme Master of the Sikh religion, had to bear a few family bereavements. One after the other, his wife and three of his sons left for their heavenly abodes. ‘Of the two sons who survived him, Bhai Suraj Mal was fond of worldly pleasures, and (Guru) Tegh Bahadar, had retired into solitude.’ His eldest grandson, Dhir Mal had already turned a traitor (and until today his lineage is outcast from the Sikh folds). His younger grandson, Har Rai, according to some records, was brought up by the grandfather and reared by him for the Guruship. He was consecrated as the Guru as soon as Guru Hargobind divined the approach of the time of his ecclesiastic journey.

Guru Har Rai was born posthumously. Mai Mihal Kaur gave birth to the future Guru on Saturday, January 26, 1630, shortly after the demise of her husband Baba Gurditta. He was married to Krishan Kaur. She was the daughter of Bhai Deya Ram, a resident of the Anoop city in the province of Uttar Pradesh.

Along with the Guruship, an armed cavalry of 2,300 horses was consigned to Guru Har Rai. He was enjoined to maintain the cavalry for the defence and hunting, but not to partake in any armed conflict.

Guru Har Rai was endowed with a very soft and compassionate heart. Once during his childhood, while passing through the garden, the flair of his coat got entangled in a plant and a flower fell down on the ground. His tender heart could not bear the separation of the flower and started to cry. He was, no doubt, very fond of going hunting; the habit he acquired from his grandfather. But he never killed any creature. He always captured the beautiful animals alive and established them in a private zoo; this was an important innovative enterprise of his life.

The country was effected with a famine during his pontification. The arrangements made by the governmental agencies were very scant and tainted with malpractices. Adhering to the benevolent tradition of the Sikh Gurudom, Guru Har Rai opened up all his resources, and directed his Congregationalist to the service of the needy. At the same time, to help the sick and poor, he initiated medical care, and established a number of medical dispensaries. He was foremost to render his assistance whenever there was any epidemic such as cholera, plague or small-pox. Very often he used to distribute food himself in his langar (the free kitchen). And this humane venture enhanced, for a time, the respectability of Guru’s domain in the Mughal Court.

Not only was Dara Shakoh the eldest son of Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan, he was a very favourite among the common folks too. He had greater chances of succeeding to the Kingdom. Aurangzeb, younger in age (and when he was just a prince), wanted to annihilate all his family opposition to acquire the Kingship. Through devious plans, engineered by him, he managed Dara to swallow a few pieces of hair from the moustache of a lion. Dara fell seriously ill. The Royal Hakims (Doctors) pronounced that the sickness could only be cured with the use of cloves. The search for the cloves in all the Royal Hospitals proved futile. The fame of the Guru Har Rai’s dispensary had gone far and wide and on approach by the Royal personnel, Guru’s ever benevolent perspective (in spite of Mughal atrocities in the past) made the cloves available and, consequently, Dara’s health was restored.

Later, when Aurangzeb chased Dara to eliminate him, Dara came to Punjab and he sought the protection of Guru Har Rai. The Guru did not want to defy his grandfather’s tenet, and, therefore, would not enter into an armed confrontation. But his tactical manoeuvres detained the Aurangzeb’s army away from crossing the river at Goindwal, and enabled Dara to escape. The Guru’s strong cavalry of 2,300 riders had taken possession of all the boats which the Mughal army needed to cross the river.

Emperor Shah Jehan had promulgated to demolish all the newly built Hindu temples, and banned the construction of new ones in the future. This order specifically targeted the temples with idols in them. The Sikh faith did not allow the idol-worship and, therefore, Mughal orders did not preclude the flourishing Sikh pursuits and the Gurdwaras. Consequently, for four years, Guru Har Rai travelled across Punjab unhindered, and he visited most of the sacred places. In Amritsar he stayed for about six months. Bhai Kala, a village head and an ardent devotee, presented his half-naked orphan nephews, Phool and Sandly, to the Guru. When the children displayed their deprived state of nourishment, Guru Har Rai bestowed them with a prophecy that their descendants would rule the area between the rivers Satluj and Jamuna. The prophecy came true with the formation of the Phulkian States - Patiala, Nabha, and Jind.

Dara’s escape had already developed bitterness in Aurangzeb’s mind against the Sikhs. Both, the humane treatment of Guru Har Rai, and the Mughal Rulers atrocities, had initiated a lot of Hindus and Brahmins to come under the folds of Sikhism instead of accepting Islam. Guru Har Rai’s endeavours were soaring the Muslim clergy around Aurangzeb. They instigated him against contents of the Holy Granth Sahib and asked him to summon the Guru to Delhi to explain certain references denoted to the Quron and the Muslim doctrine.

Guru Har Rai, disillusioned with the intolerant attitude of the Mughal Ruler, resolved never to see his bigoted face. However, to elucidate the piety of the celestial Gurbani of the Granth Sahib, he sent his elder son Ram Rai to Delhi Darbar. After prolonged discourses Ram Rai did manage to convince the Emperor of the impartiality of the Gurbani. But this could not satisfy the preconceived contemptuous attitude of the Muslim Court Clergy. They incited the King to ask Ram Rai to explain why the earth from the grave of a Muslim was demeaned in such a way, “Miti Musalman ki perre pai ghumiyar...”. Ram Rai, instead of getting involved in further discussions once again, told that there had been an error in writing the hymn, instead of Musalman it should have been “Be-iman, the deceitful”. This no doubt pleased Aurangzeb and he showered Ram Rai with mundane honours.

One Guru Har Rai, lying on his bed, heard chanting of the Gurbani by a group of his devotees coming towards his household. He was delayed in getting up in reverence. But when he did stand up, he tripped over and hurt his leg. He construed this as the punishment for still relaxing on the bed while the Gurbani was enunciated. he decided, then on ward, to sit on the floor only during the day times when the followers were coming in or going out reciting the Gurbani. The Guru, who revered the Bani so much, could not acquiesce to the action of Ram Rai. He disowned his son and debarred him from Guruship. (Ram Rai remained in agony throughout his life at Dehradoon. When he met Guru Gobind Singh, the Tenth Master, at a right old age, he begged to be pardoned and he was, then, blessed by the Guru with the deliverance.)

Guru Har Rai, the great apostle of mercy, lived nearly thirty-two years of his life imbued with the Gurbani and its celestial, humane and compassionate teachings. He commenced his journey for his heavenly abode on October 6, 1661, after endowing Guruship to his young son, Guru Harkrishan.

Chapter Nineteen

Guru Amar Das (1479-1574)

Guru Amar Das, the third of the ten Gurus of the Sikh faith, was born into a Bhalla Khartri family on Baisakh sudi 14, 1536 Bk, corresponding to 5 May, 1479, at Basarke, a village in present-day Amritsar district of the Punjab. His father's name was Tej Bhan and mother's Bakht Kaur; the latter has also been called by chroniclers variously as Lachchhami, Bhup Kaur and Rup Kaur. He was married on 11 May 1559 Bk to Mansa Devi, daughter of Devi Chand, a Bahil Khatri, of the village of Sankhatra, in Sialkot district, and had four children - two sons, Mohri and Mohan, and two daughters, Dani and Bhani.

Amar Das had a deeply religious bent of mind. As he grew in years, he was drawn towards the Vaisnava faith and made regular pilgrimages to Haridvar. Chroniclers record twenty such trips. Amar Das might have continued the series, but for certain happenings in the course of the twentieth journey which radically changed the course of his life. On the return journey this time, he fell in with a sadhu who chided him for not owning a guru or spiritual preceptor. Amar Das vowed that he must have one and his pledge was soon redeemed when he was escorted in 1597 Bk/AD 1540 by Bibi Amaro, a daughter-in-law of the family, to the presence of her father Guru Angad, at Khadur, not far from his native place. He immediately became a disciple and spent twelve years serving Guru Angad with single-minded devotion. He rose three hours before daybreak to fetch water from the river for the Guru’s bath.

During the day he worked in the community kitchen, helping with cooking

and serving meals and with cleanings the utensils. When free from these tasks, he went out to collect firewood from the nearby forest for Guru ka Langar. His mornings and evenings were spent in prayer and meditation.

Several anecdotes showing Amar Das’s total dedication to his preceptor have come down the generations. The most crucial one relates how on one stormy night, he, braving fierce wind, rain and lightning, brought water from the River Beas for the Guru. Passing through a weaver’s colony just outside Khadur, he stumbled against a peg and fell down sustaining injuries, but did not let the water-pitcher slip from his head. One of the weaver-women, disturbed in her sleep, disparagingly called him ‘Amaru Nithavan’ (Aamuru the homeless). As the incident was reported to Guru Angad, he praised Amar Das’s devotion and described him as “the home of the homeless”, adding that he was “the honour of the unhonoured, the strength of the weak, the support of the supportless, the shelter of the unsheltered, the protector of the unprotected, the restorer of what is lost, the emancipator of the captive”. This also decided Guru Angad’s mind on the issue of the selection of a successor. The choice inevitably fell on Amar Das. Guru Angad paid obeisance to him by making the customary offerings of a coconut and five pice. He had the revered Bhai Buddha apply the tilak or mark of investiture to his forehead, thus installing him as the future Guru. Soon afterwards, on the fourth day of the light half of the month of Chet in Bikrami year 1609 (29 March, 1552), Guru Angad passed away.

Guru Amar Das made Goindval his headquarters. He was one of the builders of the town and had constructed there a house for his family as well. Goindval lay on the main road connecting Delhi and Lahore, at the head of one of the most important ferries on the River Beas. From there Guru Amar Das continued preaching the word of Guru Nanak Dev. In his hands the Sikh faith was further consolidated. He created a well-knit ecclesiastical system and set up twenty-two manjis (dioceses or preaching districts), covering different parts of India. Each was placed under the charge of a pious Sikh, who, besides disseminating the Guru’s message, looked after the sangat within his jurisdiction and transmitted the disciples’ offerings to Goindval. Guru Amar Das appointed the opening days of the months of Baisakh and Magh as well as the Divali for the Sikhs to forgather at Goindval where he also had a baoli, well with steps descending to water level, built and which in due course became a pilgrim centre. A new centre was planned for where Amritsar was later founded by his successor, Guru Ram Das. He laid down the Sikhs simple ceremonies and rites for birth, marriage and death. The Guru’s advice, according to sarup Das Bhalla, Mahima Prakash, to his Sikhs as to how they must conduct themselves in their daily life was: “He who firmly grasps the Guru’s word is my beloved Sikh. He should rise a watch before dawn, make his ablutions and sit in seclusion. The Guru’s image he should implant in his heart, and contemplate on gurbani. He should keep his mind and consciousness firmly in control. He should never utter a falsehood, nor indulge in slander. He should make an honest living and be prepared always to serve holy men. He must not covet another’s woman or wealth. He should not eat unless hungry, nor sleep unless tired. He who breaks this principle falls a victim to sloth. His span is shortened and he lives in suffering. My Sikh should shun those who feign as women to worship the Lord. He should seek instead the company of pious men. Thus will he shed ignorance. Thus will he adhere to holy devotion.”

From Goindval, Guru Amar Das made a few short trips in the area around to propagate Guru Nanak’s teaching. According to the Mahima Prakash, “The Guru went to all the places of pilgrimage and made them holy. He conferred favour on his Sikhs by letting them have a sight of him. He planted the seed of God’s love in their hearts. He spread light in the world and ejected darkness.” Liberation of the people was also cited by Guru Ram Das, Nanak IV, as the purpose of pilgrimage undertaken by his predecessor. According to his hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Amar Das visited Kurukshetra at the time of abhijit naksatra. This, by astronomical calculations made by a modern scholar, fell on 14 January 1553. This is the one date authentically abstracted from the Guru Granth Sahib, which otherwise scarcely contains passages alluding to any historical events and this date is also one of the fewest so precisely known about the life of Guru Amar Das.

Guru ka Langar became still more renowned in Guru Amar Das’s time. The Guru expected every visitor to partake of food in it before seeing him. By this he meant to minimize the distinctions of caste and rank. Emperor Akbar, who once visited him at Goindval, is said to have eaten in the refectory like any other pilgrim. The food in the langar was usually of a rich Punjabi variety. Guru Amar Das himself, however, lived on coarse bread earned by his own labour. Whatever was received in the kitchen during the day was used by night and nothing was saved for the morrow.

Guru Amar Das gave special attention to the amelioration of the position of women. The removal of the disadvantages to which they had been subject became an urgent concern. He assigned women to the responsibility of supervising the communities of disciples in certain sectors. The customs of purdah and sati were discouraged.

The bani, the Guru’s revealed word, continued to be a precious endowment. Guru Amar Das collected the compositions of his predecessors and of some of the bhaktas of that time. When he had recorded these in pothis - two of them preserved in the descendant families to this day - an important step towards the codification of the canon had been taken.

Like his predecessors, Guru Amar Das wrote verse in Punjabi. His compositions which express deep spiritual experience are preserved in the Guru Granth Sahib. They are in number next only to those of Guru Nanak and Guru Arjan, Nanak V. Guru Amar Das composed poetry in seventeen different musical measures or ragas, namely Siri, Majh, Gauri, Asa, Gujari, Vadahans, Sorath, Dhanasari, Basant, Sarang, malar, and Prabhati. In terms of poetic forms, he composed padas (quartets), chhants (lyrics), astpadis (octets), slokas (couplets), and vars (ballads). Best known among his compositions is the Anandu. Guru Amar Das’s poetry is simple in style, free from linguistic or structural intricacies. Metaphors and figures of speech are homely, and images and similes are taken from everyday life or from the popular Pauranic tradition. The general tenor is philosophical and didactic.

Before his death on Bhadon sudi 15, 1631 Bk/1 September, 1574, Guru Amar Das chose Bhai Jeth, his son-in-law, as his spiritual successor. Bhai Jetha became Guru Ram Das, the Fourth Guru of the Sikhs.

Bibliography

1. Bhalla, Sarup Das, Mahima Prakash, Patiala, 1971.

2. Gian Singh, Giani, Panth Prakash (Reprint). Patiala, 1970.

3. Saubir Singh, Parbatu Meran. Jalandhar, 1983.

4. Macauliffe, Max Arthur. The Sikh Religion. Oxford 1909.

5. Jodh Singh, Life of Guru Amar Das. Amritsar, 1949.

6. Ranjit Singh, Guru Amar Das Ji. Amritsar, 1980.

7. Fauja Singh and Rattan Singh Jaggi, eds., Perspectives on Guru Amar Das. Patiala, 1982.



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