The role of science in the development of society, the goals and objectives of science



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LECTURE 1.

THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY, THE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF SCIENCE

PLAN:

1. Science is one of the most important channels of knowledge

2. The aims of the teaching and study of science

3. Communication in science

4. Knowledge and understanding of science

5. Attitudes in science

6. Scientific research
Key words: Scientific investigation, scientific evidence, arguments, creatively to solve problems.
Science is one of the most important channels of knowledge. It has a specific role, as well as a variety of functions for the benefit of our society: creating new knowledge, improving education, and increasing the quality of our lives. Science must respond to societal needs and global challenges.  Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, and environmental protection.   Modern science is divided into three major branches: natural sciences (biology, chemistry, physics), social sciences (economics, psychology, sociology) and formal sciences (logic, math, theoretical computer science).  Natural science is concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. It can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science.

Physical science is subdivided into branches, including  physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science.  Social science is concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It has many branches that include, but are not limited to, anthropology,  archaeology, communication studies, economics, history, human geography,  jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology. Social scientists may adopt various philosophical theories to study individuals and society.Formal science is involved in the study of formal systems. It includes mathematics,[96][97] systems theory, and theoretical computer science. The formal sciences share similarities with the other two branches by relying on objective, careful, and systematic study of an area of knowledge.

The aims of the teaching and study of sciences are to encourage and enable students to:


  • develop inquiring minds and curiosity about science and the natural world

  • acquire knowledge, conceptual understanding and skills to solve problems and make informed decisions in scientific and other contexts

  • develop skills of scientific inquiry to design and carry out scientific investigations and evaluate scientific evidence to draw conclusions

  • communicate scientific ideas, arguments and practical experiences accurately in a variety of ways

  • think analytically, critically and creatively to solve problems, judge arguments and make decisions in scientific and other contexts

  • appreciate the benefits and limitations of science and its application in technological developments

  • understand the international nature of science and the interdependence of science, technology and society, including the benefits, limitations and implications imposed by social, economic, political, environmental, cultural and ethical factors

  • Demonstrate attitudes and develop values of honesty and respect for themselves, others, and their shared environment.

    The objectives of sciences listed below are final objectives and they describe what students should be able to do by the end of the course.


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