Table of Contents Transportation System in London, England 2

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Table of Contents

Transportation System in London, England 2

I.General information 2

II.Types of transports in London, England 5

1.Underground or Tube 5

2.London's buses 9

3.London's rail network & integration with the London Underground 11

Works Cited 13

Transportation System in London, England

  1. General information

Transportation system in London, England London is the largest city in Europe. Millions of people need commuting every day to get to work. Over the city, companies rely on transportation systems to allow employees and customers access to their office stores and factories. Efficient transportation system saves environmental, time and cost. As they trust more systems, this leads to an increase in commuters using the transportation system, resulting in more money coming in from the transportation sector.

England has a large highway system (highway) connecting London to other major industrial centers. Roads and railroads carry passenger transport and cargo transport. There are dozens of commercially meaningful ports in the UK. The most important are London, Tea and Hartlepool, Grimsby and Immingham, Southampton and Liverpool. There are also a wide range of inland waterways in the UK, but these rivers and canals are more important to leisure boats than to transport goods. Ferry service and hovercraft (cars on Air Mat) will take passengers to the British Strait between the UK and France. In 1987, Britain and France began construction of railway tunnels under the English Channel. The tunnel was completed in about 80 daily newspapers in the UK in 1994. About 15 such as "Sun", "Times", "Daily Telegraph" are spreading all over the UK.

London is the capital of Britain 's prosperous capital, the largest metropolitan area in Great Britain. According to Visit England's London Travel Statistics, London has iconic attractions such as the Tower of London, Big Ben and Buckingham Palace, with approximately 15 million foreign tourists visiting each year. London is known for its expensive cities, but careful budget airfare, accommodation, meals, transportation and charm entrance fees will give you peace of mind and you will enjoy your trip better I will help you.

Budget funds for transportation inside and outside London. London has comprehensive public transport facilities such as subway, bus, tram, light rail, which will help you explore the city. The one way fare is about $ 5, or the day's public transport travel pass is about $ 16. Taxis are also available, but the fee will vary depending on the time of day, distance traveled, and travel time. Megan Mattingly-Arthur has been writing as a professional since 1998. She contributes to various publications, including the Voice of Youth and Active Youth magazine, and the book "Publication Guide for young artists". Mattingly-Arthur is studying travel and tourism through the Foster Vocational School in Pennsylvania

A transport system refers to the structure and modes of transport through which animals, goods and people move from one place to another. Some of the modes of transport include roads, waterways, railways, pipelines, cables and space. If well implemented, a transport system seeks to minimize transport costs and ensure effective delivery of goods and services. Transport systems therefore determine the economy of a country. A good transport system improves the economy of a country since it boosts trade (Fengqi and Jun 2010, p. 46). This essay intends to compare and contrast the transport system of London and that of Shanghai. The areas that will be covered include their organization, fares and funding, their quality and safety and finally their environment.

Shanghai has heavily invested in public transport. This is due to the huge public demand for transport. It has an extensive public transport system based on trolley buses, taxis and even buses. The construction of a Transportation Hub named Hongqiao was a great landmark in public transport in Shanghai (Fengqi and Jun 2010, p. 45). The hub is for high-speed rail, metro, air and bus routes. It also has a metro system that is rapidly growing. This rapid-transit metro system has 14 lines. The lines extend to every urban district and suburban districts, such as Minhang and Songjiang. This metro system has a track of 548 kilometers. This makes it the longest system in the world. Shanghai also has about a thousand bus lines. Trolley buses are also operated in Shanghai making them the oldest operating buses in the world. Shanghai has huge railway stations. The three main ones are Hongqiao railway, South and Shanghai railway stations. There are two main international airports in Shanghai. The strategic position of Shanghai has also enabled it to use waterways. The north-south coastline is the largest port in China.

London has also a developed and an extensive transport system just like Shanghai. The transport system in London includes both the private and public services unlike in Shanghai, where public services are more emphasized. About 41 percent of journeys in London are accounted for by the private services while 25 percent by the public services (Computer Weekly, 2015, p. 3). The majority of public transport services in London are dominated by an agency named Transport for London. Just like Shanghai, London has a rapid transit metro system. The system operates on sub-surface lines. London has also an automated light rail. Even though the metro system of Shanghai is the longest in the world, the metro system of London is extensively used. It accounts for 40 percent of all the journeys in London. London has a more extensive railway network than Shanghai. London has 18 major railway stations. It therefore acts as the centre of the British rail network. The railway network serves internationally. The radial commuter railway in London, along with Paris, is the largest in the world (Guo & Wilson 2011, p. 95).

Shanghai has The Shanghai Public Transportation Card that is used in payment of fares. This card is a rechargeable cash card (Wang & Zhu 2014, p. 189). The card enables one to access various means of transport including trolleybuses and buses, metros, taxis, car parks, tourist centers, ferries and even fuel stations. The government controls some fare costs, such as in taxis. The transport system in Shanghai is mainly funded by the government and fares paid by commuters. It also get funds from World Bank when need arises.

Commuters in London like those in Shanghai, use electronic credit-card to access almost unlimited transport services. Travel cards are also used (Wang & Zhu 2014, p. 6). Unlike Shanghai, in London, both credit card and travel card fares are calculated using a fare zones system. The system divides the transport system of London into concentric circles. The funding of the transport system in London mainly comes from fares, which contributes 40 percent of the income. Other sources of income, just like in Shanghai, include grant funding from local and central government. London sometimes borrows money from Public Works Loan Board and European Investment Bank.

The transport system of Shanghai is of a high quality. It is affordable and convenient, safe and reliable and also very efficient. The government has introduced speed-limits to public transport system to ensure safety. The government of Shanghai has also put in place some rules and regulations meant to minimize and safeguard transportation (Fengqi, & Jun 2010, p. 190). The transport system of London is very safe, just like that of Shanghai. Some of the steps taken to ensure security are the banning of alcoholic drinks on London Overground trains, buses, Docklands Lights, trams and even on Tube. Metropolitan Police Service, City of London Police and British Transport Police have collaborated to ensure safety of commuters and to eliminate sexual offences.

Both Shanghai and London have taken several steps to ensure sustainable environment. In Shanghai for example, they have embraced low-carbon transportation system. The system is energy-efficient, it therefore consume low energy, reduce pollution and improve transportation energy structure (Fengqi & Jun 2010, p. 50). London has as well introduced cleaner buses meant to reduce carbon emissions. Operators in London are also encouraged to embrace green fleet management to reduce pollution and save money. London has also a wide electric charging network for vehicles. London has also encouraged walking by providing a wide range of walking routes to reduce car use and therefore ease congestion (Guo & Wilson 2011, p. 100).

In conclusion, the transport systems of London and Shanghai are very extensive. The two share many similarities and just a few differences. The differences are mainly in the extent of development but they do share the same modes and structure of transport system. Their transport systems are safe and convenient. The transport system in Shanghai is mainly managed by the public service whereas that of London, a large percentage is under the private services.

  1. Types of transports in London, England

  1. Underground or Tube

For the visitor to London the Underground or Tube will probably be the transport of choice to get around town. The Underground is normally the fastest way to get around town, often much faster than any taxi.

There is invariably an underground station nearby where you want to go and also your hotel (there are currently 12 Underground lines) and finding your way around the system is very easy.

Key points about the London Underground

  • The authorities penalise you heavily for buying single journey tickets. In the centre you can pay more than double the price than if you used an Oyster Card for example.

  • A single journey on the London Underground can involve 1 or 2 changes of train. Your journey starts when you go through the ticket barrier of the station entrance you depart from and finishes when you pass through the ticket barrier at the exit of your destination. You cannot break a journey on a single fare, once you go though an exit barrier of a station that is journey completed.

  • The buses, Underground, DLR and London suburban trains are managed by a central government body called Transport for London (TfL) chaired by the Mayor of London. The transport passes that nearly everyone uses, Oyster and Travelcard, allow you to travel seamlessly across all modes of transport, bus, Underground, train and DLR using the same ticket/pass.

  • Children under 11 travel free on the London Underground and DLR (Docklands Light Railway) at all times. Child fares are available for those under 16 and it is possible to get discounted fares if you are under 18 or studying in London with an ID card.

  • There are no seniors fares for visitors. If you reside in London and are over 60 you can get a pass that makes free bus and Underground travel available. If you have an English National Concessionary bus pass you cannot use it on the London Underground (but you can use it on London's red buses).

  • The London Underground is closed from around midnight until around 5am, getting started a little later on Sundays. However on Friday and Saturday nights, much of the Underground runs through the night. In Central London there is a very good night bus network when the Underground is closed.

  • You will rarely have to wait more than 5 minutes for an Underground train at any time of the day.

London Underground map

(Picture 1)

Docklands Light Railway (DLR), overground and TfL rail trains

To the east of London in the Docklands region you will see a region covered by something called the DLR (Docklands Light Railway). You can treat this network as just another Underground line.

Not in the centre of London, but in the suburbs you will find a train network called the Overground which can also be thought of as being part of the Underground for ticketing purposes.

Commuter trains into the suburbs are very confusing for the visitor. You can still use Oysters and Travelcards on these but those lines run by the national railways only give free travel to children under 5.

In the north and east of London most of these services are now run by TfL Rail or the Overground so free travel is available to children under 11, but to the south and west of London, services are still dominated by national railways companies.

The Tube and rail map usefully shows which railway stations are in which travel zones. Travel zones are the basis for fare charges on London's railways and Underground system.

London Underground Night Service - the Night Tube

(Picture 2)

In 2016 the London Underground began to introduce a full 24/7 service on Friday and Saturday nights only. Introduction has been on a phased basis.

Night Tube services are now running on the Central, Victoria, Jubilee line, Northern line (Charing Cross branch) and Piccadilly line (but not Acton to Uxbridge branch). The Night Tube will offer a 24-hour service on Fridays and Saturdays. Standard off-peak fares are levied for travelling on the Night Tube using Oyster and Contactless cards.

Travelcards are valid from the first day of issue (using the date printed on the card), and for journeys starting before 4.30am the following day. For example, if you buy a 1-day Travelcard at 11am on Friday, you can use it until 4.29 on the following Saturday.

London Underground fares

Fare zones

The London public transport system is divided up into zones that radiate from the centre. Nearly all the hotels and the main sights are in Zone 1. Heathrow Airport is in Zone 6 and the furthest zone out is Zone 9.

The majority of visitors will only travel in the two most central zones 1 and 2. The Underground Map (link above) has the stations and their zones marked.

Some stations, such as Turnham Green, are in two zones. You use whichever zone for these stations is most beneficial in working out your fare.

Underground fares

You can see from the table below there is big financial incentive not to purchase individual tickets and use an Oyster card or Contactless payment card.

The other main way of paying is purchasing a Travelcard, which is a pass giving you unlimited travel for a set time period. The cost goes up with the coverage of zones required. The more zones you require the more expensive the Travelcard.

Fare freeze on London transport in 2020

2020 sees a fare freeze by the mayor on all TfL bus and Tube fares, a freeze in fares on all other rail services in London where Tube fares apply, and the protection of all TfL fare concessions.

Beyond this there are many fares not set by the mayor, but set by the Train Operating Companies (TOCs). These fares will be subject to the usual annual fare increase -2.8% on average.

Oyster cards, Contactless payment cards & Travelcards

As you can see from the above fare structure the authorities do not want you to buy single tickets, they want you to purchase one of the three payment options, Oyster cards, Contactless payment cards or Travelcards.

The Oyster card is a permanent reusable electronic ticket which is topped up from time to time by its owner. Londoners also have their season tickets loaded onto Oyster cards as well and there are passes for one weekly and monthly durations. All can be loaded onto the one electronic Oyster card.

Contactless cards are standard credit or debit cards that support the contactless payment technology, the total cost of all the journeys that you make in one day is calculated at the end of the day and a single charge is made to your Contactless payment card account.

Unlike the Oyster card the contactless facility has a 7-day cap as well as the Oyster daily cap used by Oyster.

You can use Oyster cards on all of London's public transport, not just the Underground, but buses, overground, DLR, suburban rail services and some river services.

Travelcards are another alternatives. Travelcards are valid on the same modes of transport but are unlimited travel passes for a fixed flat fee. Travelcards are available for 1 and 7 days, 1 month and 1 year durations.

  1. London's buses

London's famous red buses form a big part of getting around in London.

Although the London Underground is the fastest and for newcomers the simplest way of getting around London, the buses play their part and are an experience you should try at least once on your visit.

Unlike the London Underground, perched up on the top deck of the bus you get a great sightseeing experience of London as well.

Key points about London's buses

  • Although there are separate bus operating companies, the regulation, fares and ticketing for buses, Underground, DLR and London suburban trains are managed by a central government body called Transport for London (TfL) chaired by the Mayor of London. The transport passes that nearly everyone uses, Oyster and Travelcard, allow you to travel seamlessly across all modes of transport, bus, Underground, train and DLR using the same ticket/pass.

  • You are unable to use cash on London's buses to buy tickets on the bus.

  • Children under 11 travel free on red London buses (and the Underground) at all times. Child fares are available for those under 16 but it is very complex. It is possible to get discounted fares if you are under 18 or studying in London with an Oyster ID card.

  • There are no seniors fares for visitors. If you reside in London and are over 60 you can get a pass that makes free bus travel available and anyone with an English National Concessionary bus pass can use that on London's buses too.

  • Many of London's bus routes run 24/7. When the Underground closes between about midnight and about 5am, extra night buses are put on. In the centre of London you only wait a few minutes for a bus whatever time of day or night. At weekends only the Underground now runs a service through the night on Friday and Saturdays.

  • London's buses are zone-less. If you have a Travelcard it is valid in any zone on the buses, so if you have a Travelcard valid only for zones 1 and 2 you can use it on buses in Zone 6 if you wanted.

London bus fares

On the buses there are flat fares whether you go one stop or to the end of the route. It is not possible to pay for London bus fares in cash. Instead you can pay with a Visitor Oyster card, Oyster card, Travelcard or contactless payment card, or use a bus pass.

Just touch Oyster and Contactless payment cards on the card reader as you enter the bus. The majority of people using buses will be using Oyster cards or Contactless cards at the moment.

Hopper Fares - complete a journey by connecting with another bus & pay for one fare

Make an adult journey using pay as you go (contactless or Oyster card) on a bus or tram, and you can make a second bus or tram journey for free within one hour of touching in on the first bus.

You must touch in using the same card on the second bus. The free fare will then be applied automatically.

The scope of the bus hopper fare has been expanding since 2018 to permit multiple free transfers within an hour.

2020 sees a fare freeze by the mayor on all TfL bus and Tube fares, a freeze in fares on all other rail services in London where Tube fares apply, and the protection of all TfL fare concessions.

Beyond this there are many fares not set by the mayor, but set by the Train Operating Companies (TOCs). These fares will be subject to the usual annual fare increase -2.8% on average.

This applies to Travelcard fares and the associated PAYG caps will increase from January 2020.

  1. London's rail network & integration with the London Underground

London has a dense network of local suburban commuter trains, separate from London's famous Underground system. South of the River Thames the railway network is far more dominant than the London Underground.

In the centre of London where most of the sights and hotel districts are the London Underground rules supreme.

The transport passes that nearly everyone uses, Oyster and Travelcard, allow you to travel seamlessly across all modes of transport, bus, Underground, train and DLR using the same ticket/pass.

Although the railways are run by separate companies to the London Underground the level of integration has stepped up a lot in recent years. The overall regulation, fares and ticketing for buses, Underground, DLR and London suburban trains are managed by a central government body called Transport for London (TfL) chaired by the Mayor of London.

London's river service

Ask most Londoners about the scheduled river boat services on the River Thames and they will probably know little of what you're talking about.

The service is there though and should be hugely attractive to visitors to London. You can even use your Oyster card or Travelcards to enjoy discounts on fares.

For visitors the key stretch of river is between the London Eye and Tower Pier in the shadow of Tower Bridge and the Tower of London.

The popular London hop-on, hop-off open top sightseeing tours also include a river cruise in their tickets on this stretch of water.

London river commuter service

The route of the London Commuter Service is shown on this London River Services map.

Schedules are broadly every 20 minutes Monday to Friday and 20/30 minutes at weekends, but there are different operators with different rules and regulations.

Generally, you need to get your ticket from a pier ticket office before boarding a boat. However, if the ticket office is closed you can buy it on board.

If you use a Travelcard, you can get a third off most River Bus fares. Oyster pay as you go is accepted on Thames Clippers services, and it gives you a 10 per cent discount on most single journeys.

London river leisure service

Specifically aimed at leisure visitors is a service that links Westminster Pier (Big Ben, Westminster Abbey), London Eye, Tower Pier (Tower Bridge, Tower of London) and Greenwich.

The service operates year round with winter and summer schedules.

It is these river services that the popular London hop-on, hop-off open top sightseeing tours use as part of their day tickets. You get a voucher that allows one cruise between Westminster Pier or the London Eye to Tower Pier in front of the Tower of London.

The whole cruise on this sector non-stop takes about 30-40 minutes. It is certainly worthwhile taking advantage of as it gives a totally different perspective of London and many of the top attractions that the boats pass.

You can buy individual tickets or there are day tickets where you can use the boats as a hop-on, hop-off service.

Hop-on, hop-off sightseeing buses (with free river cruise)

London's popular open top hop-on, hop-off tour buses all offer a free cruise as part of their standard tour ticket. This covers a river cruise in the centre of London giving a different and informative perspective to London's delights.

These buses offer comprehensive coverage covering nearly all the main sights in London and operate at very high frequencies. In the peak summer months just stand at any of the key attractions and there will probably be one in sight.

Works Cited

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